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goodness may be shown, and righteousness perfected, and the church be conformed to the image of his Son, and at length become a perfect man, and by such things be made ripe to see God, and enjoy him.”

2. He asserts a preparation of happiness for some, and of punishment for others, upon the prescience or foreknowledge of God; his words are these *: Deus autem omnia præsciens utrisque aptas præparavit habitationes, &c. "God foreknowing all things, has prepared for both suitable habitations;" for them who seek after the light of incorruptibility, and run unto it, he bountifully gives that light which they desire; but for others that despise it, and turn themselves from it, and avoid it, and as it were blinding their own selves, he hath prepared darkness fitting for such who are against the light, and for those who shun being subject to it, he has "provided proper punishment." It is true, he puts this upon the prescience of God foreknowing the different characters and actions of men; and therefore Vossius †, and Dr. Whitby, from him, have produced this passage, with others, to prove, that the fathers before Austin held, that God predestinated men to live from a prescience that they would live piously; but I think it may very well be understood, in a sense entirely consistent with the doctrine of predestination, as maintained by us; for we readily own, that God foreknew who would live piously, and seek after the light of life, because he determined to give them that grace which should enable them so to do, and therefore prepared mansions of light and glory for them; and, to use Irenæus's own phrase, benigne donans, of his own grace and goodness liberally and bountifully gives that light unto them which they desire, and he has prepared for them. On the other hand, he foreknew who would despise, and shun the light, and blind themselves yet more and more; because he determined to leave them to themselves, to their native blindness, darkness, and ignorance, which they love; and accordingly prepared regions of darkness, as a proper punishment for them. For,

3. He speaks of a certain number of persons chosen to eternal life, and of God's giving up others to, and leaving them in their unbelief, in much such language as we usually do. Treating of the doctrine of the resurrection he has these words §, "God is not so poor and indigent as not to give to every body its own soul as its proper form. Hence Anρwθεντος του αριθμου ου αυτος παρ' αυτω προωρισε, παντες οι εγγραφεητες εις Čwny avaσrηoovτai, having completed the number which he before determined with himself, all those who are written, or ordained unto life, shall rise again, having their own bodies, souls and spirits, in which they pleased God; but those who are deserving of punishment shall go into it, having also their own souls and bodies in which they departed from the grace of God." And in another place ||, having cited several passages of Scripture which respect the blinding and hardening of the heart of Pharaoh, and others, such as Isa. vi. 9, 10. 2 Cor. iv. 4. Rom. i. 28.

*Irenæus adv. Hæres. 1. 4, c. 76, p. 423.

+ Hist. Pelag. 1. 6; Thess. 8, p. 542. Discourse on the Five Points, p. 101; ed. 2. 100. § L. 2, c. 62, inter Fragment. Græc. ad, calcem. L. 4, c. 48, p. 389.


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2 Thess. ii. 11, 12, which are commonly made use of in handling the doctrine of reprobation, he thus descants upon them, "If therefore now, as many as God knows, will not believe, since he foreknows all things, tradidit eos infidelitati eorum, he hath given them up to their infidelity," and turns his face from them," relinquens eos in tenebris, "leaving them in the darkness which they have chosen for themselves; is it to be wondered at, that he then " gave up Pharaoh, who would never believe, with them that were with him, to their own infidelity?" And elsewhere* having mentioned the words in Romans ix. 10-12. so frequently urged in this controversy, he has this observation upon them, "from hence it is manifest, that not only the prophecies of the patriarchs, but the birth of Rebecca, was a prophecy of two people, one greater, the other less; one in bondage, the other free; of one and the same father; one and the same God is ours and theirs, who understands things hidden; qui scit omnia antequam fiant, who knows all things before they come to pass,' and therefore hath said, Jacob have I loved, and Esau have I hated."

4. Eternal predestination, or predestination before time, before men have a being, was not unknown to this ancient writer; for in one place he says, "being predestinated indeed according to the foreknowledge of the Father; ut essemus qui nondum eramus, that we might be, who as yet were not, made, or were the beginning of his creation." And not to take any further notice than barely to mention his reading the text in Romans i. 1. Predestinated to the gospel of God; and which after him is so rendered by Origen, Chrysostom, and Theophylact, who understand it not of the vocation of Paul to the apostleship, but of his eternal election, and the pre-ordination of him of old, before he was born.

5. He plainly hints at the stability and immoveableness of the decree of election, when he calls it, turris electionis, "the tower of election;" for why should he call it a tower, but because it is impregnable and immoveable, because "the purpose of God, according to election, is that foundation which stands sure, not of works, but of him that calleth?" For having taken notice of some passages of the prophets, he thus says§, "These things the prophets declaring required the fruit of righteousness, but the people not believing, at last he sent his own Son, our Lord Jesus Christ whom, when the wicked husbandmen had killed, they cast out of the vineyard; wherefore the Lord God hath delivered it to other husbandmen, who render him the fruits in their seasons; not now walled about, but spread throughout the whole world; turre electionis exaltata ubique et speciosa, "the tower of election being every where exalted and glorious." That is, if I understand him right, the election obtained every where, or electing grace took place, not in Judea only, as heretofore, but in all the nations of the world; for it follows, "every where the church is famous, every where a winepress is dug, and every where there are some that receive the Spirit."

There are two passages cited from Irenæus by Dr. Whitby ||, as

* L. 4, c. 38, p. 376.

§ L. 4, c. 70, p. 412.

L. 5, c. 1, p. 432.
L. 3, c. 18, p. 276.
Discourse on the Five Points, p. 96; ed. 2. 95.

militating against the doctrines of absolute election and reprobation, but both of them respect the doctrine of free will; and it must be owned, that there are some things dropped by this writer, which, upon first reading them, seem to favour that doctrine, and will be considered in their proper place.

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CLEMENT of Alexandria, of an heathen philosopher became a Christian, was a presbyter of the church at Alexandria, and, after Pantænus, was master of the school in that place*. Several of his works are still extant, some of which were written a little after the death of Commodus the emperor, which, according to Clement † himself, was a. D. 194, but according to the vulgar æra, A. D. 192‡, in which,



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1. He clearly asserts the doctrine of election in many places, for he not only speaks of the people of God, under the character of elect ; as when from a book called Pastor, the author of which was Hermas, and thought to be the same the apostle Paul makes mention of Romans xvi. 14, he says §, "that virtue which holds the church together is faith, by which of EKAEKTOL TOV OEOV, "the elect of God are saved." And in another place ||," the generation of them that seek him is, to yevos TO EKλEKTOV, "the elect nation." And elsewhere T, "not the place, but το αθροισμα των εκλεκτων, “ the congregation of the elect, I call the church." I say, he not only speaks often after this manner, but of them as a special, distinct number, predestinated and chosen of God, whom it is his will to save; accordingly he says ** 66 as his will is his work, and this is called the world, so his will is the salvation of men, KAL TOUTO EKKÀŋσia KEKλETαι, "and this is called the church." And again++, "If they also had known the truth, they would have all leaped into the way, ekdoyn de ovk av ny," and there would have been no election." And in another place‡‡, "It is not convenient that all should understand, that is, the meaning of the scriptures, lest taking the things which are wholesomely said by the Holy Spirit, otherwise, they should prove hurtful; wherefore τοις εκλεκτοις των ανθρωπων, to those that are chosen from among men,' and to them that are through faith admitted to knowledge, the holy mysteries of the prophecies which are preserved are hid in parables." And elsewhere §§," according to the fitness which every one has, He, that is, God, distributes his benefits both to the Greeks and to the Barbarians; Kaι TOLS εκ τούτων προωρισμένοις, "and to them who are predestinated from among them, and are in his own time called, faithful, and elect."

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2. It is evident that Clement held, that the predestination of men Stromat. 1. 1, p. 340.

Hieron. Catal. Script. Eccl. s. 48.


Vide Dallai Apolog. part 4, p. 760. § Stromat. 1. 2. p. 384.
Ibid. p. 715. Pædagog. 1. 1, c. 6, p. 93.
+Ibid. 1. 6, p. 677.

Ibid. 1. 7, p. 733. Stromat. 1. 4, p. 505. §§ Ibid. 1. 7, p. 702, 703.



to everlasting life was from eternity, or before the world began, as appears from the following passages; having cited Jeremiah i. 5, 7, Do not say, I am a child; before I formed thee in the belly I knew thee, &c. his note upon it is *, "this prophecy intimates unto us, Tovs πро καταβολης κοσμου εις πιστιν εγνωσμένους Θεω, " that those who before the foundation of the world are known by God unto faith; that is, are appointed by him to faith, are now babes, because of the will of God lately fulfilled, as we are new-born unto vocation and salvation." Yea, says, that the Christians were before the world was; for speaking of several nations who boasted of antiquity, he observes †, that “ none of them was before this world ; but προ δε της του κοσμου καταβολης εμείς, verily we were before the foundation of the world, who, that we ought to be, were first born in God;" we are the rational formations of God the Word, di ov apxaCoμev, "by whom we have antiquity; for the Word was in the beginning;" which must be meant of their being chosen in Christ from everlasting. And in another place ‡, 6 It is not becoming, that a friend of God, ον προωρισεν ο Θεος προ καταβολης κοσμου εις την ακραν εγκαταλεγηναι υιοθεσίαν, “ whom God has predestinated before the foundation of the world, to be put into the high adoption of children, should fall into pleasures or fears, and be unemployed in repressing the passions." And elsewhere §, "what voice should he expect, who according to his purpose knows, Tov EKλEKTOV KAL рo ηs yeveσews, the elect even before his birth, and that which shall be, as though it was?" To which I shall add one passage more, where he says, that "such are gathered together by one Lord Tous nồn κατατεταγμένους, ους προωρισεν ο Θεος δικαιους εσομένου προ καταβολης Kopov Erwкws, who are already ordained, whom God hath predestinated, knowing before the foundation of the world that they would be righteous." This passage is indeed referred to by Dr. Whitby ¶, in favour of a conditional, and against absolute predestination; but Clement might very well say, agreeable to the absolute scheme, that God predestinated men to glory, knowing they would be righteous; because he ordained them to be righteous, and determined to make them so. He does not say, that he foreknew that they would be righteous of themselves, and therefore predestinated them to happiness, which only would serve the conditional scheme. Besides, neither he, nor any of the ancients, ever said, that God foreknowing men would be righteous, predestinated them to be so; but foreknowing they would be righteous, because he determined they should be, he predestinated them to happiness.

There are two or three more passages of this writer referred to by Dr. Whitby**, as opposing the doctrine of absolute election and reprobation, which, as has been before observed concerning some others, from Justin and Irenæus, more properly belong to the doctrine of free will; and if Clement has said some things which look that way, it need not be much wondered at, since both he and his master Pan

Pædagog. 1. 1, c. 7, p. 111. Ibid. 1. 7, p. 721.

Admon. ad Gentes. p. 5.

Stromat. 1. 6, p. 652.
Ibid. p. 765.
Discourse on the Five Points, p. 98; ed. 2. 97.
** Ibid. p. 96; ed. 2. 95.

tænus had been addicted to the stoic philosophy; which they might find some difficulty to get clear of, and so might be mixed by them with the Christian scheme, as it is plain it too much was in the school of Alexandria.



TERTULLIAN was by birth an African, of the city of Carthage, his father was a Proconsular Centurion; he flourished in the times of Severus, and Antoninus Caracalla, about the beginning of the third century. He was a presbyter of the church, and one of the first of the Latin writers among the Christians. He wrote much, and many of his works remain to this day *, in which we have at least some hints of his being acquainted with the doctrines of election and reprobation. In one of his books †, speaking of the different crowns which men of different orders were honoured with, he addresses the Christian after this manner," But thine order and thy magistracy, and the name of thy court is the church of Christ : thou art his, conscriptus in libris vitæ, written in the books of life." And in another place ‡, treating of hereties, he says, "They were wits of spiritual wickedness, with whom we and the brethren wrestle; the necessary articles of faith merit our contemplation, ut electi manifestentur, ut reprobi detegantur; that the elect may be manifested, that the reprobate may be detected." And elsewhere §, having cited Isa. xl. 5, 6, he makes this remark, "he distinguishes the issues of things, not substances; for who does not place the judgment of God in a twofold sentence of salvation and punishment? Wherefore all flesh is grass, quæ igni destinatur, which is appointed to the fire, and all flesh shall see the salvation of God; quæ saluti ordinatur, which is ordained to salvation." And as he says upon another account, "there can be no election without reprobation." He has indeed a passage which seems to make election dependent upon the works of men; his words are these ¶, "What man is there without sin that God should always choose him whom he never could refuse? Or who likewise without any good work, that God should always refuse him, whom he never could choose? Show a man that is always good, and he will not be refused; show one that is always evil, and he will never be chose." Hence the learned Scultetus** charges him with being erroneous in the doctrine of predestination. But this is but a single passage, and seems only to regard the different dispensations of divine providence towards good and bad men, on account of which God was censured by the Marcionites, and charged with levity and inconstancy, and not an election to grace and glory.

Dr. Whitby+ has a single reference to this writer, which, as the rest. that have been before observed, falls under the head of free will, and will be there considered with them.

* Vide Hieron. Catalog. Script. Eccles. s. 63.
De Præscript. Hæret. c. 38, p. 246.
Ad Nationcs, l. 1, c. 10, p. 55.

** Medull. Patrum, part 1, 1. 7, c. 42, p. 243.

† De Corona, c. 13, p. 129; ed. Paris, 1634.
§ De Resurrect. Carnis, c. 59, p. 427.
Adv. Marcion. 1. 2, c. 23, p. 471.

+ Discourse, &c. p. 96; ed. 2. 95.

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