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Hence it follows not, that God never designed any salvation for the greatest part of men, to whom the gospel was or is revealed; since he has designed salvation for all, and every one of those to whom the gospel was, or is thus internally revealed, and they shall all of them enjoy it. It is true that the gospel is externally revealed, or the outward ministry of it is vouchsafed to more than to the elect; but then the outward ministration of it, in an indefinite manner, is only designed and blessed for the effectual vocation of the elect; but what means this restraining clause, to whom the gospel was, or is revealed? For if God intended the death of Christ for the saving of any besides the elect, he intended it either for the saving of all and every one besides them, or only for the saving of some; if he intended it for the saving of all besides them, why is not the gospel revealed unto all men? Strange! that God should intend the death of Christ for the saving of all men, and yet not afford the knowledge, no, nor the means of the knowledge of salvation by his death, or of the saving benefits of it to all men! If he intended it only for the saving of some besides the elect, even of those to whom the gospel was, or is revealed, the weakness and inconclusiveness of this argument, for the universality of redemption, are easily discerned; who does not see, that it must be exceeding weak to argue from God's intention to save some by the death of Christ, for an universal redemption by it? nothing is more certain than that salvation could not be intended for any, to whom the benefit of Christ's death was not intended; since salvation is the benefit of Christ's death, and which is not intended for any persons conditionally, it being absolutely designed for the elect, absolutely wrought out for them, and absolutely applied unto them; nor is such a special intention of Christ's death, for the saving of the elect only, contrary to the love of God to the world, or to his mercy and goodness to the sons of men; the passages referred to being either impertinent, or misunderstood and misapplied, as has been shown in the first part of this performance, to which I refer the reader.

II. It is further urged, that "hence it must follow, that Christ never died with an intention to save them whom he doth not actually save and deliver from the wrath to come." I answer, it is very true; for if he had died with an intention to save them whom he doth not actually save, not only his designs must be defeated, and his intentions frustrated, but his death be so far in vain. Moreover, their being not actually saved, must arise either from an incapacity in him to save them, and a superior power in other men, or devils, or both, to obstruct his methods and designs; which can never be thought of him, who is the Almighty; or from a change of his intentions and purposes, which can by no means agree with him who is Jesus, the same to-day, yesterday, and for ever. The passages opposed to this either regard the elect of God only, whether among Jews or Gentiles, or else have no concern with redemption, either general or particular, the thing in controversy between us, as has been made to appear in that part of this work just now referred to.

*Whitby, p. 161; ed. 2. 157.

III. It is said*, "Hence it must follow, that none of those, to whom God never intended salvation by Christ, or who shall not be actually saved by him, are bound to believe in him." I reply: the consequence is very just; none are bound to believe in Christ, but such to whom a revelation of him is made: and according to the revelation is the faith they are obliged to. Such who have no revelation of him, as the heathens, are not bound to believe in him in any sense; and, indeed, how shall they believe in him, of whom they have not heard? and how shall they hear without a preacher? Such who have only an external revelation of him by the ministry of the word, are obliged to believe no more than is included in that revelation, as that Jesus is the Son of God, the Messiah, who died and rose again, and is the Saviour of sinners, &c., but not that he died for them, or that he is their Saviour. It is true, the ministers of the gospel, though they ought not to offer and tender salvation to any, for which they have no commission, yet they may preach the gospel of salvation to all men, and declare, that whosoever believes shall be saved; for this they are commissioned to do: Go ye into all the world, and preach the gospel to every creature: he that believeth and is baptised, shall be saved. But then this preaching of the gospel to all indefinitely, no ways contradicts the particular redemption and special salvation of the elect only; it being designed, and is blessed, for the effectual gathering of them to Christ; and does become the power of God to their salvation, and to theirs only.

IV. It is also said§, "Hence it clearly follows, that no man can be condemned hereafter for final impenitency and unbelief, seeing he transgresseth no law of God by his unbelief; for, surely God commandeth no man to believe in Christ for salvation, for whom he never intended salvation by Christ; or to repent for salvation, whom he intended not to save by Christ." I answer; why repentance unto salvation, or final impenitency, should be brought into this argument, I see not; since God might have required repentance of men, and have justly condemned them for final impenitence, supposing Christ had never died at all, or for any at all; and as for final unbelief, none, who have not enjoyed a revelation of Christ, as the Pagans, will be condemned for not believing in him, but for their sins against the law and light of nature; and as for such who have enjoyed the external revelation of the gospel, and yet have remained finally unbelievers, as the Jews and others, they will be condemned, not for not believing that Christ died for them, or that he was their Saviour; but they will be condemned, and die in their sins, for their not believing that he was God, the Son of God, the Messiah and Saviour of the world, and for the contempt of his gospel, and for their transgressions of the law of God.

V. This author goes on to observell, that "hence it will follow, that neither the elect, nor non-elect, can rationally be exhorted to believe; nor they who are not elected, because Christ died not for them; nor the elect, for he that knows himself to be one of that number, hath Whitby, p. 152; ed. 2. 138; Remonstr. Act. Synod. circ. art. ii. p. 337; Curcellæus, p. 360; Limborch, p. 322. Rom. x. 14. Mark xvi. 15, 16.

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§ Whitby, p. 163; ed. 2. 159; Remonstr. Act. Synod. circ. art. ii. p. 369; Curcellæus, p. 361; Limborch, p. 324. Whitby, p. 164; ed. 2. 160.

believed and repented already; if he do not know this, he cannot know that Christ died for him, and so he cannot know it is his duty to believe in him for salvation." I reply, that ministers, in exhorting men to believe in Christ, do not, and cannot consider them as elect or nonelect, but as sinners, standing in need of Christ, and salvation by him; and that either as sensible, or as insensible of their state and condition; not as insensible of it; for I do not find that any such are exhorted to believe in Christ for salvation; but as sensible of it, as the jailor was, who trembling said, Sirs, what must I do to be saved? When the apostle exhorted him, saying, Believe in the Lord Jesus Christ, and thou shalt be saved. Besides, such who have believed already, and do know that Christ has died for them, and that they are of the number of God's elect, may be rationally exhorted to walk on in Christ, as they have received him, and to go on believing to the saving of their souls. VI. It is further observed +, "that hence it must follow, that God hath not vouchsafed sufficient means of salvation to all to whom the gospel is revealed, which is said to be contrary to the whole tenor of the gospel and it is argued, that if men have not sufficient means to be saved by the covenant of grace, then have they only means given them to increase their condemnation, which is contrary to the mercy of God; and that if all men, under the gospel, have not means sufficient to repent and believe, so as they may be saved, vouchsafed by God, then he must still withhold something from them, without which they cannot repent and believe to salvation; upon which these absurdities will follow, that God condemns them to destruction for that which is no sin; and then must every impenitent and unbelieving person have a just excuse, and a sufficient plea, why he should not be punished and condemned for his infidelity and unbelief." To all which I reply, that there is no pardon, justification, peace with God, deliverance from wrath to come; in short, no salvation but by Christ; that no means of salvation are sufficient without the grace of God; that all men are so far from having an interest in the death of Christ, and salvation by him, that there have been, and are, multitudes that know nothing of either, and are so far from having sufficient means of salvation, that they have none at all; and could it be allowed, that sufficient means of salvation are vouchsafed to all to whom the gospel is revealed, who are but a few, comparatively speaking, this would not prove universal redemption, or that Christ died for all men; since, in all ages, God has given his word and ordinances but to a few, and has suffered whole nations to walk in their own ways. And, indeed, all to whom the gospel is only externally revealed, have not sufficient means of salvation; for, besides an interest in Christ and his death, the sanctification of the Spirit, and belief of the truth, or regenerating grace, and faith in Christ, are requisite means of salvation, which all who enjoy the outward ministry of the gospel are not possessed of: nor is this contrary, but perfectly agreeable, to the whole tenor of the gospel; for, though the gospel is the power of God to salvation, it is only to them that believe, which all men do not who are under the external ministry of the word.

* Acts xvi. 30, 31.

† Whitby, p. 164; ed. 2. 160.

Rom. i. 16.

The word of grace, which is able to build us up, and give us an inheritance among them that are sanctified*, is not the written but the essential word, Christ Jesus, who is full of grace and truth. The grace of God which bringeth salvation, that is, the doctrine of the grace of God, the gospel, which brings the good tidings of salvation, hath, indeed, appeared to all ment; but then it does not teach all men to whom it appears, only us that believe, that, denying ungodliness and worldly lusts, we should live soberly, righteously, and godly. The Scriptures are also able to make men wise unto salvation‡; but then it is through faith which is in Christ Jesus, and when they are accompanied with the Spirit of God, which first inspired them. Many of the signs and miracles which Christ did, are written §, that men might believe that Jesus is the Christ, the Son of God, and that, believing, they might have life through his name; but then these signs, when either seen, or heard, or read of, were not, nor are they sufficient to bring persons to believe in him, and so to have life through him, without the powerful grace of God; for no man can come to Christ, or believe in him, unless the Father draw him, notwithstanding all his doctrines and miracles. But it is further urged, that "if men have not sufficient means to be saved by the covenant of grace, then have they only means given them to increase their condemnation."

I reply that by the covenant of grace, not only provision is made of sufficient means of salvation, but of salvation itself, even of all grace and glory; but then this provision is made only for those who are interested in it, and they are only the elect of God. Though, I suppose, this author, by the covenant of grace, means no other than the gospel, or gospel dispensation. Now this, though it is not a sufficient means of salvation, without the grace of God; and though the rejection and contempt of it is an aggravation of men's condemnation, yet is far from being given on purpose to increase their condemnation: which is wholly owing to their own wickedness; and therefore the giving of it can be no ways contrary to the mercy and goodness of God, or any unnatural action in him. It is added ¶, that if all men, under the gospel, have not means sufficient to repent and believe, so as they may be saved, vouchsafed by God, then must he withhold something from them, without which they cannot repent and believe to salvation; namely, special grace, an irresistible impulse, a divine energy, or an almighty power." But what has this kind of reasoning to do with the doctrine of general or particular redemption, the controversy before us, when it rather belongs to the doctrine of sufficient and efficacious grace; and besides, is wholly confined to persons living under the gospel? whereas it should be proved, that God has vouchsafed to all men, whether under, or not under the gospel, sufficient means to repent and believe, so as they may be saved: to make things comport, in any tolerable manner, with the notion of universal redemption. And supposing that sufficient means are not given to all men in either situation, as it is certain they are not given to all men even under the gospel, what follows upon it? Why, that "God with

* Acts xx. 32.

+ Tit. ii. 11.
2 Tim. iii. 15.
Whitby, p. 166; ed. 2. 162.

X

John xx. 30, 31.
Ibid.

holds from them special grace, an irresistible impulse, and a divine energy." And is he obliged to give special grace to all under the gospel ministry? or throw in an irresistible impulse upon them? or put forth a divine energy, or an almighty power, to enable them to repent and believe? These things depend upon his sovereign will and pleasure. But then we are told*, "that if the want of all, or any of these things, be the reason why so many, who live under the gospel dispensation, do not believe and repent to salvation, and, upon this account, continue in their impenitence and unbelief, great absurdities will follow." But who says that the want of these things is the reason or cause of men's unbelief and impenitence, and of their continuance in them? The want of special, powerful, and efficacious grace, is no more the cause or reason of men's unbelief and impenitence, and continuance in them, than the sun, and the withdrawing of its light, is the cause and reason of darkness. It is true, that it is only the grace of God that can cure men of their impenitence and unbelief; but then it is not the want of it that is the cause or reason of either, but the vitiosity and corruption of their hearts; wherefore no great absurdities can follow. But what are these supposed ones? One is, "that God condemns them to destruction for that which is no sin ;" as if unbelief and impenitence were not sins, because they can only be cured by the grace of God, without which no man can truly repent and believe; and because God is pleased to withhold this grace from, and not bestow it upon some men, therefore he cannot condemn for these things as sins; whereas, it should be observed, that God does not condemn men for the want of that grace which he does not think fit to bestow upon them, without which they cannot repent and believe, so as to be saved; but for the impenitence and unbelief he finds in them, and which he is not obliged to cure them of. According to this author's reasoning, because man cannot be subject to the law, without the power and grace of God, it can be no sin in him to remain unsubjected to it for then it must be the sin of man, not to be God: and if he punish him for not being subject to the law, he must punish him for not being equal in power with God himself. Such reasonings need no confutation, they carry their own in them. The other absurdity ist, that "then must every impenitent and unbelieving person, have a just excuse, and a sufficient plea, why he should not be punished or condemned for his infidelity and unbelief. And such another plea is put into the mouths of these persons as was used by the officers of the Jews, to Pharaoh; There is no straw given to us, and thou sayest to us, make bricks; no special grace, no divine energy afforded us, and thou sayest to us, Do that which can no more be done without it, than men can make bricks without straw; and thy servants are beaten, but the fault is in him who denies us straw, and yet requires bricks; yea, who requires that faith, and that repentance, which he never would afford us sufficient means to perform." This is a bold charge, an insolent way of treating the Almighty, to compare him with Pharaoh's officers, and say the fault is in him who requires faith and repentance, *Whitby, p. 166; ed. 2. 162. † Ibid. p. 167; ed. 2. 163.

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