I of the Vortex: From Neurons to Self

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MIT Press, Feb 22, 2002 - Medical - 320 pages
A highly original theory of how the mind-brain works, based on the author's study of single neuronal cells.

In I of the Vortex, Rodolfo Llinas, a founding father of modern brain science, presents an original view of the evolution and nature of mind. According to Llinas, the "mindness state" evolved to allow predictive interactions between mobile creatures and their environment. He illustrates the early evolution of mind through a primitive animal called the "sea squirt." The mobile larval form has a brainlike ganglion that receives sensory information about the surrounding environment. As an adult, the sea squirt attaches itself to a stationary object and then digests most of its own brain. This suggests that the nervous system evolved to allow active movement in animals. To move through the environment safely, a creature must anticipate the outcome of each movement on the basis of incoming sensory data. Thus the capacity to predict is most likely the ultimate brain function. One could even say that Self is the centralization of prediction.

At the heart of Llinas's theory is the concept of oscillation. Many neurons possess electrical activity, manifested as oscillating variations in the minute voltages across the cell membrane. On the crests of these oscillations occur larger electrical events that are the basis for neuron-to-neuron communication. Like cicadas chirping in unison, a group of neurons oscillating in phase can resonate with a distant group of neurons. This simultaneity of neuronal activity is the neurobiological root of cognition. Although the internal state that we call the mind is guided by the senses, it is also generated by the oscillations within the brain. Thus, in a certain sense, one could say that reality is not all "out there," but is a kind of virtual reality.

 

Contents

Setting Mind to Mind
1
Prediction Is the Ultimate Function of the Brain
21
The Embedding of Universals through the Embedding of Motricity
53
Nerve Cells and Their Personalities
69
Lessons from the Evolution of the Eye
93
The I of the Vortex
111
Fixed Action Patterns Automatic Brain Modules that Make Complex Movements
133
Emotions as FAPs
155
Of Learning and Memory
173
Qualia from a Neuronal Point of View
201
Language as the Child of Abstract Thought
225
The Collective Mind?
247
References
267
Index
295
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About the author (2002)

Rodolfo R. Llinás is the Thomas and Susanne Murphy Professor of Neuroscience and Chairman of the Department of Physiology and Neuroscience at the New York University School of Medicine.

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