Page images

the rains must fall, and the winds must man lies under an obligation to perform: roar around us; but, sheltering ourselves thus we meet with the agenda of a chrisunder him who is the "covert from the tian, or the duties he ought to perform, tempest,” let us wait with patience till in opposition to the credendā, or the the storms of life shall terminate in an things he is to believe. It is also applied everlasting calm. Blair's Ser. vol. v. to the service or office of the church, ser. 5; Vincent, Case, and Addington, and to church books compiled by public on Affliction; Willison's Afflicted Man's authority, prescribing the order to be Companion.

observed ; and amounts to the same as AGAPÆ, or Love FEASTS (from ritual, formulary, directory, missal, &c. begann,“ love,”') feasts of charity among AGENT, that which acts: opposed the ancient christians, when liberal con- to patient, or that which is acted upon. tributions were made by the rich to the AGENTS, moral. See MORAL poor. St. Chrysostom gives the follow- AGENT. ing account of this feast, which he de- AGNOETÆ, (from agroeco "to be igrives from the apostolic practice. He norant of,") a sect which appeared about says, “ The first Christians had all things 370. They called in question the omniin common, as we read in the Acts of science God; alleging that he knew the apostles; but when that equality of things past only by memory, and things possessions ceased, as it did even in the future only by an uncertain prescience. apostles' time, the Agape or love feast There arose another sect of the same was substituted in the room of it. Upon name in the sixth century, who followcertain days, after partaking of the ed Themistius, deacon of Alexandria. Lord's supper, they met at a common They maintained that Christ was ignofeast; the rich bringing provisions, and rant of certain things, and particularly the

poor; who had nothing, being invi- of the time of the day of judgment. It is ted.” It was always attended with re- supposed they built their hypothesis on ceiving the holy sacrament; but there that passage in Mark xiii. 32.—“Of that is some difference between the ancient day and that hour knoweth no man; no, and modern interpreters, as to the cir- not the angels which are in heaven, neicumstance of time; viz. whether this ther the Son, but the Father.” The feast was held before or after the com- meaning of which, most probably, is, munion. St. Chrysostom is of the latter that this was not known to the Messiah opinion; the learned Dr. Cave of the himself in his human nature, or by virformer. These love feasts, during the tue of his unction, as any part of the first three centuries, were held in the mysteries he was to reveal; for, consichurch without scandal or offence ; but dering him as God, he could not be igin after-times the heathens began to tax norant of any thing: them with impurity. This gave occa- AGNUSDEI, in the church of Rome, sion to a reformation of these Agapes. a cake of wax, stamped with the figure The kiss of charity, with which the ce- of a lamb supporting the banner of the remony used to end, was no longer given cross. The name literally signifies between different sexes; and it was ex- "Lamb of God." Those cakes being pressly forbidden to have any beds or consecrated by the pope with great so couches for the conveniency of those lemnity, and distributed among the peowho should be disposed to eat more at ple, are supposed to have great virtues their ease. Notwíthstanding these pre- They Cover them with a piece of stuff cautions, the abuses committed in them cut in the form of a heart, and carry became so notorious, that the holding them very devoutly in their processions. them (in churches at least) was solemn- The Romish priests and religious derive ly condemned at the council of Car- considerable pecuniary advantage from thage, in the year 397. Attempts have selling them to some, and presenting been made of late years, to revive these them to others. feasts; but in a different manner from AGONISTICI, a name given by Dothe primitive custom, and, perhaps, with natus to such of his disciples as he sent little edification. They are, however, to fairs, markets, and other public planot very general.

ces, to propagate his doctrine. They AGAPETÆ, a name given to cer- were called Agonistici from the Greek tain virgins and widows, who in the an- agav, "combat," because they were sent, cient church associated themselve with as it were, to fight and subdue the peoand attended on ecclesiastics, out of a ple to their opinions. See DONATIST: motive of piety and charity. See DEA- AGONYCLITÆ, a sect of ChrisCONESSES.

tians in the seventh century, who prayAGENDA, among divines and phi- ed always standing, as thinking it unlosophers, signifies the duties which a lawful to kneel.

AGYNIANI, a sect which appearer! || of Geneva. The Albigenses have been about 694. They condemned all use of frequently confounded with the Walflesh and marriage as not instituted by denses; from whom it is said they differ God, but introduced at the instigation of in many respects, both as being prior to the devil.

them in point of time, as having their ALASCANI, a sect of Anti-lutherans origin in a different country, and as being in the sixteenth century, whose distin-charged with divers heresies, particuguished tenet, besides their denying bap- larly Manicheism, from which the Waltism, is said to have been this, that the denses were exempt. See WALDENwords, “This is my body,” in the insti- SES. tution of the eucharist, are not to be un- ALEXANDRIAN MANUSCRIPT, derstood of the bread, but of the whole" a famous copy of the Scriptures, in four action or celebration of the supper. volumes quarto. It contains the whole

ALBANENSES, a denomination bible in Greek, including the Old and which commenced about the year 796. New Testament, with the Apocrypha, They held with the Gnostics and Mani- and some smaller pieces, but not quite cheans, two principles, the one of good complete. It is preserved in the Briand the other of evil. They denied the tish Museum: it was sent as a present to divinity, and even the humanity of Jesus king Charles I. from Cyrillus Lucaris, Christ, asserting that he was not truly patriarch of Constantinople, by Sir man, did not suffer on the cross, die, rise Thomas Rowe, ambassador from Engagain, nor really ascend into heaven. land to the grand Seignior, about the They rejected the doctrine of the resur- year 1628. Cyrillus brought it with him rection, affirmed that the general judg- from Alexandria, where probably it was ment was past, and that hell torments written. In a schedule annexed to it, he were no other than the evils we feel and gives this account: That it was writsuffer in this life. They denied free will, ten, as tradition informed them, by did not admit original sin, and never Thecla, a noble Egyptian lady, about administered baptism to infants. They | 1300 years ago, not long after the counheld that a man can give the Holy Spi- cil of Nice. But this high antiquity, and rit of himself, and that it is unlawful for the authority of the tradition to which a Christian to take an oath.

the patriarch refers, have been dispuThis denomination derived their name ted; nor are the most accurate biblical from the place where their spiritual writers agreed about its age. Grabe ruler resided. See MANICHEANS and thinks that it might have been written CATHERIST.

before the end of the fourth century; ALBANOIS, a denomination which others are of opinion that it was not sprung up in the eighth century, and re-written till near the end of the fifth newed the greatest part of the Mani- century, or somewhat later. See Dr. chean principles. They also maintained Woide's edition of it. that the world was from eternity. See ALKORAN. "See KORAN. MANICHEANS.

ALL-SUFFICIENCY OF GOD, is ALBIGENSES, a party of reform- that power or attribute of his nature ers about Toulouse and the Albigeois in i whereby he is able to communicate as Languedoc, who sprung up in the twelfth much blessedness to his creatures as he century, and distinguished themselves is pleased to make them capable of reby their opposition to the church of ceiving. As his self-sufficiency is that Rome. They were charged with many whereby he has enough in himself to errors by the monks of those days; but denominate him completely blessed, as from these charges they are generally a God of infinite perfection; so his allacquitted by the Protestants, who con- sufficiency is that by which he hath sider them only as the inventions of the enough in himself to satisfy the most Romish church to blacken their charac- ! enlarged desires of his creatures, and ter. The Albigenses grew so formida- to make them completely blessed. We ble, that the Catholics agreed upon a practically deny this perfection, when holy league or crusade against them. we are discontented with our present Pope Innocent III. desirous to put a stop condition, and desire more than God has to their progress, stirred up the great allotted for us, Gen. ii. 5. Prov. xix. 3. men of the kingdom to make war upon -2. When we seek blessings of what them. After suffering from their per kind soever in an indirect way, as though secutors, they dwindled by little and lit-God were not able to bestow them upon tle, till the time of the reformation; us in his own way, or in the use of lawful when such of them as were left, fell in means, Gen. xxvii. 35.--3. When we with the Vaudois, and conformed to the use unlawful means to escape imminent doctrine of Zuinglius, and the disciples dangers, 1 Sam. xxi. 13. Gen. xx. and


xxvi.-4. When we distrust his provi- || love to all mankind, &c. 4. That giving dence, though we had large experience to the poor is not mentioned in St. Paul's of his appearing for us in various instan- | description of charity, 1 Cor. xiii. 5. ces, 1 Sam. xxvii. 1. Ps. Ixxviii. 19. 2 | That they pay the poor rates; 6. That Chron. xvi. 8. 2 Chron. xiv. 9. 13. Josh. they employ many poor persons; 7. vii. 7.9.-5. When we doubt of the truth That the poor do not suffer so much as or certain accomplishment of the pro- we imagine; 8. That these people, give mises, Gen. xvii. 12. Ps. lxxvii. 74. Isa. them what you will, will never be thankxiix. 14.-6. When we decline great ful; 9. That we are liable to be imposed services, though called to them by God, upon; 10. That they should apply to under a pretence of our unfitness for their parishes; 11. That giving money them, Jer. i. 6, 8.

encourages idleness; 12. That we have The consideration of this doctrine too many objects of charity at home. O should lead us, 1. To seek happiness in the love of money, how fruitful is it in God alone, and not in human things, apologies for a contracted mercenary Jer. ii. 13.–2. To commit all our wants spirit! In giving of alms, however, the and trials to him, 1 Sam. XXX. 6. Heb. following rules should be observed: first, xi. 19. 2 Cor. xii. 8, 9.-3. To be coura- They should be given with justice ; geous in the midst of danger and oppo- only our own, to which we have a just sition, Ps. xxvii. 1.-4. To be satisfied right, should be given. 2. With cheerwith his dispensations, Rom. viii. 28.-fulness, Deut. xv. 10. 2 Cor. ix. 7. 3. 5. To persevere in the path of duty, With simplicity and sincerity, Rom. xii. however difficult, Gen. xvii

. 1. Ridg- Matt. vi. 3. 4. With compassion and afley's Body of Div. qucs. 17. Saurin's fection, Isa. lviii

. 10. 1 John iii. 17. 5. Ser. ser. 5. vol. i.; Barrow's Works, vol. Seasonably, Gal, vi. 10. Prov. iv. 27. 6.

ALMARICIANS, a denomination 13.417. Prudently, according to every that arose in the thirteenth century. one's need, 1 Tim. v. 8. Acts iv. 35. See They derived their origin from Alma- Dr. Barrow's admirable Sermon on ric, professor of logic and theology at Bounty to the Poor, which took him up Paris. His adversaries charged him with three hours and a half in preaching : having taught that every Christian was Saurin's Ser. vol. iv. Eng. Trans. ser. obliged to believe himself a member of 9. Paley's Mor. Phil. ch. 5. vol. i. Jesus Christ, and that without this be- ALOGIANS, a sect of ancient herelief none could be saved. His followers tics who denied that Jesus Christ was asserted that the power of the Father the Logos, and consequently rejected had continued only during the Mosaic the Gospel of St. John. The word is dispensation, that of the Son twelve compounded of the primitive & and aczos; hundred years after his entrance upon q. d. without Logos, or word. They earth; and that in the thirteenth cen- made their appearance toward the close tury the age of the Holy Spirit com- of the second century. menced, in which the sacraments and ALTAR, a kind of table or raised all external worship were to be abo- place whereon the ancient sacrifices lished; and that every one was to be were offered. 2. The table, in Christian saved by the internal operations of the churches, where the Lord's supper is Holy Spirit alone, without any external administered. Altars are, doubtless, of act of religion.

great antiquity; some suppose they ALMONER, a person employed by were as early as Adam; but there is no another, in the distribution of charity. mention made of them till after the In its primitive sense it denoted an offi- fivod, when Noah built one, and offered cer in religious houses, to whom be- burnt offerings on it. The Jews had longed the management and distribu- two altars in and about their temple; tion of the alms of the house.

1. The altar of burnt offerings; 2. The ALMS, what is given gratuitously for altar of incense; some also call the tathe relief of the poor, and in repairing ble for shew bread an altar, but improthe churches. That alms-giving is a duty perly, Exod. xx. 24, 25. 1 Kings xviii. is every way evident from the variety of 30. Exod. xxv. xxvii

. and xxx. Heb. ix. passages which enjoin it in the sacred AMAURITES, the followers of scriptures. It is observable, however, Amauri, a clergyman of Bonne, in the what a number of excuses are made by thirteenth century. He acknowledged those who are not found in the exercise the divine Three, to whom he attributed of the duty: 1. That they have nothing the empire of the world. But according to spare; 2. That charity begins at to him, religion had three epochas, home; 3. That charity does not consist which bore a similitude to the reign of in giving money, but in benevolence, the three persons in the Trinity. "The

[merged small][ocr errors]

reign of God had existed as long as the like the fall of water, or the noise of law of Moses. The reign of the Son thunder. Nor is the practice of some would not always last. A time would professors in our own time to be comcome when the sacraments should cease, mended, who, with a low though audiand then the religion of the Holy Ghost ble voice, add their amen to almost evewould begin, when men would render a ry sentence, as it proceeds from the lips spiritual worship to the Supreme Being. of him who is praying. As this has a This reign Amauri thought would suc- tendency to interrupt the devotion of ceed to the Christian religion, as the those that are near them, and may disChristian had succeeded to that of Mo- concert the thoughts of him who leads ses.

the worship, it would be better omitted, AMAZEMENT, a term sometimes and a mental amen is sufficient. The employed to express our wonder; but term, as used at the end of our prayers, it is rather to be considered as a medium suggests that we should pray with unbetween wonder and astonishment. It derstanding, faith, fervour, and expecis manifestly borrowed from the exten- tation. See Mr. Booth's Amen to social sive and complicated intricacies of a prayer. labyrinth, in which there are endless "AMMONIANS. See New Platomazes, without the discovery of a clue. NICS. Hence an idea is conveyed of more than AMSDORFIANS, a sect, in the sixsimple wonder; the mind is lost in won- teenth century, who took their name der. See WONDER.

from Amsdorf, their leader. They AMBITION, a desire of excelling, maintained that good works were not or at least of being thought to excel, only unprofitable, but were obstacles to our neighbours in any thing. It is gene-salvation. rally used in a bad sense for an immo- AMYRALDISM, a name given by derate or illegal pursuit of power or some writers to the doctrine of univerhonour. See PRAISE.

sal grace, as explained and asserted by AMEDIANS, a congregation of re- | Amyraldus or Moses Amyrault, and ligious in Italy; so called from their others, his followers, among the reformprofessing themselves amantes Deum, ed in France, towards the middle of lovers of God;" or rather amata Deo, the seventeenth century. This doctrine “beloved of God." They wore a grey principally consisted of the following habit and wooden shoes, had no breech- particulars, viz. that God desires the es, and girt themselves with a cord. happiness of all men, and none are exThey had twenty-eight convents, and cluded by a divine decree; that none were united by Pope Pius V. partiy can obtain salvation without faith in with the Bistercian order, and partly Christ; that God refuses to none the with that of the Socolanti, or wooden power of believing, though he does not shoe wearers

grant to all his assistance that they may AMEN, a Hebrew word, which, improve this power to saving purposes ; when prefixed to an assertion, signifies and that they may perish through their assuredly, certainly, or emphatically, so own fault. Those who embraced this it is; but when it concludes a prayer, 80 doctrine were called Universalists; be it, or 80 let it be, is its manifest im- though it is evident they rendered grace port. In the former case, it is assertive,|| universal in words, but partial in reality. or assures of a truth or a fact; and is an See CAMERONITES. asseveration, and is properly translated ANABAPTISTS, those who mainverily, John iii. 3. In the latter case ittain that baptism ought always to be is petitionary, and, as it were, epitomises performed by immersion. The word is all the requests with which it stands compounded of arc,“ new,” and BATTISTAS, connected, Numb. v. 25. Rev. xxii. 20. “a Baptist,” signifying that those who This emphatical term was not used have been baptized in their infancy, among the Hebrews by detached indi- ought to be baptized anew. It is a word viduals only, but on certain occasions, by which has been indiscriminately applied an assembly at large, Deut. xxvii. 14. 20. to Christians of very different principles It was adopted also, in the public wor- and practices. The English and Dutch ship of the primitive churches, as ap-Baptists do not consider the word as at pears by that passage, 1 Cor. xiv. 16. all applicable to their sect; because and was continued among the Chris- those persons whom they baptize they tians in following times; yea, such was consider as never having been baptized the extreme into which many run, that before, although they have undergone Jerome informs us, that, in his time, at what they term the ceremony of sprinkthe conclusion of every public prayer, ling in their infancy. the united amen of the people sounded The Anabaptists of Germany, besides

[ocr errors]

their notions concerning baptism, de- 1 sovernments, and magistrates of every
pended much upon certain ideas which kind, under the chimerical pretext, that
they entertained concerning a perfect Christ himself was now to take the
church establishment, pure in its mem-reins of all government into his hands:
bers, and free from the institutions of but this seditious crowd was routed and
human policy: The most prudent part dispersed by the elector of Saxony and
of them considered it possible, by hu- other princes, and Munzer, their leader,
man industry and vigilance, to purify put to death.
the church; and seeing the attempts of Many of his followers, however, sur-
Luther to be successful, they hoped that vived, and propagated their opinions
the period was arrived in which the through Germany, Switzerland, and
church was to !:c restored to this purity. Holland. In 1533, a party of them set-
Others, not satisfied with Luther's plan tled at Munster, under two leaders of,
of reformation, undertook a more per- the names of Matthias and Bockholdt.
fect plan, or more properly, a visionary Having made themselves masters of the
enterprise, to found a new church en-city, they deposed the magistrates, con-
tirely spiritual and divine.

fiscated the estates of such as had esca-
This sect was soon joined by great ped, and deposited the wealth in a pub-
numbers, whose characters and capaci- lic treasury for common use. They
ties were very different. Their progress made preparations for the defence of
was rapid; for in a very short space of the city; invited the Anabaptists in the
time, their discourses, visions, and pre- low countries to assemble at Munster,
dictions, excited great commotions in a which they called Mount Sion, that from
great part of Europe. The most per- thence they might reduce all the nations
nicious faction of all those which com- ll of the earth under their dominion. Mat-
posed this motley multitude, was that thias was soon cut off by the bishop of
which pretended that the founders of Munster's army, and was succeeded by
this new and perfect church were un-i Bockholdt, who was proclaimed by a
der a divine impulse, and were armed special designation of heaven, as the
against all opposition by the power of pretended king of Sion, and invested
working miracles. It was this faction, with legislative powers like those of
that, in the year 1521, began their fana-Moses. The city of Munster, however,
tical work under the guidance of Mun- was taken, after a long siege, and Bock-
zer, Stubner, Storick, &c.. These men holdt was punished with death.
taught that, among Christians, who had It must be acknowledged that the true
the precepts of the gospel to direct, and rise of the insurrections of this period
the Spirit of God to guide them, the of-, ought not to be attributed to religious
fice of magistracy was not only unneces- opinions. The first insurgents groaned
sary, but an unlawful encroachment on under severe oppressions, and took up
their spiritual liberty; that the distinc-i arms in defence of their civil liberties;
tions occasioned by birth, rank, or and of these commotions the Anabap-
wealth should be abolished; that all tists seem rather to liaye availed them-
Christians, throwing their possessions selves, than to have been the prime
into one stock, should live together in movers. That a great part were Ana-
that state of equality which becomes baptists, seems indisputable; at the same
members of the same family; that, as time it appears from history, that a great
neither the laws of nature, nor the pre- part also were Roman catholics, and a
cepts of the New Testament, had pro- still greater part of those who had
hibited polygamy, they should use the scarcely any religious principles at all.
same liberty as the patriarchs did in Indeed, when we read of the vast num-
this respect.

bers that were concerned in these inThey employed, at first, the various surrections, of whom it is reported that arts of persuasion, in order to propa- | 100,000 fell by the sword, it appears gate their doctrines, and related a num- || reasonable to conclude that they were ber of visions and revelations, with which not all Anabaptists. they pretended to have been favoured It is but justice to observe also, that from above: but when they found that the Baptist's in England and Holland this would not avail, and that the minis- are to be considered in a different light try of Luther and other reformers was from those above-mentioned: they prodetrimental to their cause, they then fess an equal aversion to all principles madly attempted to propagate their of rebellion on the one hand, and to ensentiments by force of arms. Munzerthusiasm on the other. See Robertson's and his associates, in the year 1525 put Hist.of Charles V.; Enc. Brit. vol. 1. p. themselves at the head of a numerous 644; and articles BAPTISTS and Menarmy, and declared war against all laws, | NONITES.

[ocr errors][merged small]
« PreviousContinue »