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convent, he threw himself into the hands || shops into banishment, and punished of the magistrates, to whom he made a some of them with death. Their cause full discovery of this infernal plot. The was espoused by another Donatus callaffair being brought to Rome, commis- ed the Great, the principal bishop of saries were sent from thence to exa- | that sect, who, with numbers of his folmine the matter; and the whole cheat lowers, was exiled by order of Conbeing fully proved, the four friars were stans. Many of them were punished solemnly degraded from their priest- with great severity.–See CIRCUMCELhood, and were burnt alive on the last, LIONES. However, after the accession day of May, 1509. Jetzer died some of Julian to the throne in 362, they were time after at Constance, having poisoned permitted to return, and restored to himself, as was believed by some. Had their former liberty. Gratian published his life been taken away before he had several edicts against them, and in 377 found an opportunity of making the dis- | deprived them of their churches, and covery already mentioned, this execra- prohibited all their assemblies. But, ble and horrid plot, which in many of notwithstanding the severities they sufits circumstances was conducted with fered, it appears that they had a very art, would have been handed down to considerable number of churches toposterity as a stupendous miracle. wards the close of this century; but at
The Dominicans were perpetually this time they began to decline, on acemployed in stigmatizing with the name count of a schism among themselves of heresy numbers of learned and pious occasioned by the election of two 5imen; in encroaching upon the rights shops, in the room of Parmenian, the and properties of others, to augment successor of Donatus: one party elected their possessions; and in laying the Primian, and were called Primianists ; most iniquitous snares and stratagems and another Maximian, and were called for the destruction of their adversaries. Maximianists. Their decline was also They were the principal counsellors by precipitated by the zealous opposition whose instigation and advice Leo X. of St. Augustine, and by the violent was determined to the public condem-measures which were pursued against nation of Luther. The papal see never them by order of the emperor Honorius, had more active and useful abettors || at the solicitation of two councils held than this order, and that of the Jesuits. at Carthage, the one in 404, and the
DOMINION OF GOD, is his abso- other in 411. Many of them were fined, lute right to, and authority over, all his their bishops were banished, and some creatures, to do with them as he pleases. put to death. This sect revived and It is distinguished from his power thus: multiplied under the protection of the his dominion is a right of making what Vandals, who invaded Africa in 427, and he pleases, and possessing what he took possession of this province: but it makes, and of disposing what he doth sunk again under new severities, when possess; whereas his power is an ability their empire was overturned, in 534. to make what he hath a right to create, Nevertheless, they remained in a sepato hold what he doth possess, and to rate body till the close of this century, execute what he hath purposed or re- when Gregory, the Roman pontiff, used solved.
various methods for suppressing them: DONATISTS, ancient schismatics, his zeal succeeded, and there are few in Africa, so denominated from their traces to be found of the Donatists after leader, Donatus. They had their ori- this period. They were distinguished by gin in the year 311, when, in the room other appellations, as Circumcelliones, of Mensurius, who died in that year, on Montenses or Mountaineers, Campetes, his return to Rome, Cæcilian was elected Rupites, &c. They held three counbishop of Carthage, and consecrated, cils, that of Cita in Numidia, and two at without the concurrence of the Numi- Carthage. dian bishops, by those of Africa alone, The Donatists, it is said, held that whom the people refused to acknow- baptism conferred out of the church, ledge, and to whom they opposed Ma- that is, out of their sect, was null; and jorinus, who accordingly was ordained accordingly they rebaptized those who by Donatus bishop of Casæ Nigræ. joined their party from other churches; They were condemned, in a council they also re-ordained their ministers. held at Rome, two years after their se- Donatus seems likewise to have embraparation; and afterwards in another at ced the doctrine of the Arians; though Arles, the year following; and again at St. Augustine affirms that the Donatists Milan, before Constantine the Great, in this point kept clear of the errors of in 316, who deprived them of their their leader. churches, and sent their seditious bi- | DORT, Synod of; a national synol,
summoned by authority of the states- || rest in the divine favour. The causes of general, the provinces of Holland, our doubts may be such as these : perUtrecht, and Overyssel exceptech, and || sonal declension : not knowing the exheld at Dort, 1618. The most eminent act time, place, or means of our converdivines of the United Provinces, and sion; improper views of the characdeputies from the churches of England, ter and decrees of God; the fluctuation Scotland, Switzerland, Bremen, Hessia, of religious experience as to the enjoyand the Palatinate, assembled on this ment of God in prayer, hearing, &c.; occasion, in order to decide the contro- the depth of our afiliction; relapses into versy between the Calvinists and Ar sin; the fall of professors; and the hiininians. The synod had hardly com- dings of God's face. While some are menced its deliberations before a dis- continually harassed with doubts and pute on the mode of proceeding, drove fears, there are others who tell us they the Arminian party from the assembly. know not what it is to doubt. yea, who The Arminians insisted upon beginning think it a sin to doubt: so prone are men with a refutation of the Calvinistic cioc- to run to extremes, as if there were no trines, especially that of reprobation; medium between constant full assurance whilst the synod determined, that, as and perpetual doubt. The true Chrigthe remonstrants were accused of de- stian, perhaps, steers between the two. parting from the reformed faith, they He is not always doubting, nor is he ought first to justify themselves by always living in the full exercise of faith. scriptural proof of their own opinions. It is not unlawful at certain seasons to All means to persuade the Arminians doubt. “It is a sin,” says one, “ for a to submit to this procedure having fail- | believer to live so as not to have his ed, they were banished the synod, for evidences clear; but it is no sin for him their refusal. The synod, however, to be so honest and impartial as to proceeded in their examination of the doubt, when in fact his evidences are Arminian tenets, condemned their opi- not clear.” Let the humble Christian, nions, and excommunicated their per- however, beware of an extreme. Prayer, sons: whether justly or unjustly, let conversation with experienced Christhe reader determine. Surely no one tiang, reading the promises, and consican be an advocate for the persecution deration of the dívine goodness, will which followed, and which drove these have a tendency to remove unnecessary men from their churches and country doubts. into exile and poverty. The authority DOXOLOGY, a hymn used in praise of this synod was far from being uni- of the Almighty, distinguished by the versally acknowledged, either in Hol- titles of the Greater and the Less. Both land or in England. The provinces of the doxologies are used in the church Friesland, Zealand, Utrecht, Guelder- of England; the former being repeated land, and Groningen, could not be per- after every psalm, and the latter used suaded to adopt their decisions; and in the communion service. Doxology they were opposed by king James I. the Greater, or the angelic hymn, was and archbishop Laud, in England. of great note in the ancient church. It
DOSITHEANS, an ancient sect began with the words the angels suns among the Samaritans, in the first cen- at the birth of Christ, “Glory to God, tury of the Christian ara; so called | &c. Doxology the Less, was anciently from Dositheus, who endeavoured to only a single sentence without a repersuade the Samaritans that he was sponse, running in these words: “Glory the Messiah foretold by Moses. He be to the Father, and to the Son, and to had many followers, and his sect was the Holy Ghost, world without end, still subsisting at Alexandria in the time amen.”. Part of the latter clause, “as of the patriarch Eulogius, as appears | it was in the beginning, is now, and ever from a decree of that patriarch pub- shall be," &c. was inserted some time lished by Photius. In that decree, Eu- after the first composition. logius accuses Dositheus of injuriously DRAGOONING, one of the metreating the ancient patriarchs and pro- thods used by papists after the revocaphets, and attributing to himself the tion of the edict of Nantz, under Lewis spirit of prophecy. He makes him con- XIV., for converting refractory heretics, temporary with Simon Magus; and ac- and bringing them within the pale of cuses him of corrupting the Pentateuch, their church. If the reader's feelings and of composing several books directly will suffer him to peruse the account of contrary to the law of God.
these barbarities, he will find it under DOUBTS and Fears, are terms fre- the article PERSECUTion in this work. quently used to denote the uncertainty DREAD, is a degree of permanent of mind we are in respecting our inte-fear, an habitual and painful apprehension of some tremendous event. It || preme Being, who made his abode in keeps the mind in a perpetual alarm, these sacred groves, governed the uniin an eager watchfulness of every cir- verse; and, that every creature ought cumstance that bears any relation to the to obey his laws, and pay him divine evil apprehended.
homage. They considered the oak as. DRUIDS, the priests or ministers of the emblem, or rather the peculiar rereligion among the ancient Gauls, Bri- sidence of the Almighty; and accordtons, and Germans. They were chosen ingly chaplets of it were worn, both by out of the best families; and the honours the druids and people, in their religious of their birth, joined with those of their ceremonies: the altars were strewed function, procured them the highest with its leaves, and encircled with its veneration among the people. They branches. The fruit of it, especially were versed in astrology, geometry, the misletoe, was thought to contain a natural philosophy, politics, and geo- divine virtue, and to be the peculiar graphy; they were the interpreters of gift of Heaven. It was, therefore, religion, and the judges of all affairs sought for on the sixth day of the moon indifferently. Whoever refused obedi- with the greatest earnestness and anxieence to them was declared impious and ty; and when found, was hailed with accursed. We know but little as to sure rapture of joy, as almost exceeds their peculiar doctrines, only that they imagination to conceive. As soon as the believed the immortality of the soul, druids were informed of the fortunate and, as is generally also supposed, the discovery, they prepared every thing transmigration of it to other bodies ; ready for the sacrifice under the oak, though a late author makes it appear to which they fastened two white bulls highly probable they did not believe by the horns; then the arch-druid, atthis last, at least not in the sense of the itended by a prodigious number of peoPythagoreans. The chief settlement of ple, ascended the tree, dressed in white; the Druids in Britain was in the isle of and, with a consecrated golden knife, or Anglesey, the ancient Mona, which pruning hook, cropped the misletoe, they might choose for this purpose, as which he received in his robe, amidst it is well stored with precious groves of the rapturous exclamations of the peo their favourite oak. They were divided ple. Having secured this sacred plant, into several classes or branches, such as he descended the tree; the bulls were the priests, the poets, the augurs, the sacrificed; and the Deity invoked to civil judges, and instructors of youth. | bless his own gift, and render it efficaStrabo, however, does not comprehend cious in those distempers in which it all these different orders under the deno- should be administered. mination of druids; he only distinguishes DRUNKENNESS, intoxication with three kinds; bardi, poets; the vates, strong liquor. It is either actual or hapriests and naturalists; and the druids, bitual; just as it is one thing to be drunk, who, besides the study of nature, appli- and another to be a drunkard. The evil ed themselves likewise to morality. of drunkenness appears in the following
Their garments were remarkably bad effects: 1. It betrays most constitulong; and when employed in religious tions either to extravagance of anger, ceremonies, they likewise wore a white or sins of lewdness.-2. It disqualifies surplice. They generally carried a men for the duties of their station, both wand in their hands, and wore a kind of by the temporary disorder of their faornament, enchased with gold, about culties, and at length by a constant intheir necks, called the druid's egg. capacity and stupefaction.—3. It is atThey had one chief, or arch-druid, in tended with expense, which can often every nation, who acted as high priest, be ill spared.-4. It is sure to occasion or pontifex maximus. He had absolute uneasiness to the family of the drunkauthority over the rest, and command-ard.-5. It shortens life.-6. It is a most ed, decreed, and punished at pleasure. || pernicious awful example to others.--7. They worshipped the Supreme BeingIt is hardly ever cured.--8. It is a viounder the name of Esus or Hesus, and lation of God's word, Prov. xx. 1. Eph. the symbol of the oak; and had no v. 18. Is. v. 11. Rom. xiii. 13.
“ The other temple than a wood or a grore, appetite for intoxicating liquor appears where all their religious rites were per- to me,” says Paley, “ to be almost alforined. Nor was any person permitted ways acquired. One proof of which is, to enter that sacredi recess unless he that it is apt to return only at particular carried with him a chain in token of his times and places; as after dinner, in absolute dependence on the Deity. In the evening, on the market-day, in such deed, their whole religion originally a company, at such a tavern." How consisted in acknowledging that the Su- | careful, then, should we be, lest we
form habits of this kind, or choose com- || the rules of their society not allowing pany who are addicted to it; how cau-them flesh, except on particular occatious and circumspect should we act, sions, when they hold what they call that we be not found guilty of a sin a love-feast: at which time the brewhich degrades human nature, ban- | thren and sisters dine together in a ishes reason, insults God, and exposes large apartment, and eat mutton; but us to the greatest evils! Palcy's Mor. I no other meat. In each of their little Phil. vol. ii. ch. 2. Flavel's Works, vol. cells they have a bench fixed, to serve ii. p. 349; Buck's Anecdotes, vol. i. p. the purpose of a bed, and a small block 82, 5th edition; Lamont's Ser., vol. i. of wood for a pillow. The Dunkers ser. 15, 16.
allow of no intercourse between the DULCINISTS, the followers of Dul- brethren and sisters, not even by marcinus, a layman of Novara in Lombardy, riage. The principal tenets of the about the beginning of the fourteenth Dunkers appear to be these: that fucentury. He taught that the law of the ture happiness is only to be attained by Father, which had continued till Moses, | penance and outward mortification in was a law of grace and wisdom; but this life; and that, as Jesus Christ by his that the law of the Holy Ghost, which meritorious sufferings, became the Rebegan with himself in 1307, was a law deemer of mankind in general, so each entirely of love, which would last to the individual of the human race, by a life end of the world.
of abstinence and restraint, may work DUNKERS, a denomination which out his own salvation. Nay, they go so took its rise in the year 1724. It was far as to admit of works of supererogafounded by a German, who, weary of tion, and declare-that a man may do the world, retired to an agreeable soli- | much more than he is in justice or tude within fifty miles of Philadelphia, equity obliged to do, and that his superfor the more free exercise of religious | abundant works may therefore be apcontemplation. Curiosity attracted fol- plied to the salvation of others. This lowers, and his simple and engaging denomination deny the eternity of fumanners made them proselytes. They ture punishments, and believe that the soon settled a little colony, called Eu- dead have the Gospel preached to them phrate, in allusion to the Hebrews, who by our Saviour, and that the souls of the used to sing psalms on the borders of just are employed to preach the Gospel the river Euphrates. This denomina- || to those who have had no revelation in tion seem to have obtained their name this life. They suppose the Jewish sab from their baptizing their new converts bath, sabbatical year, and year of jubiby plunging. They are also called | lee, are typical of certain periods, after Tumblers, from the manner in which the general judgment, in which the they, performed baptism, which is by souls of those who are not then admitputting the person, while kneeling, ted into happiness arc purified from head first under water, so as to resem- their corruption. If any within those ble the motion of the body in the action smaller periods are so far humbled as of tumbling. They use the triune im- to acknowledge the perfections of God, mersion, with laying on the hands and and to own Christ as their only Saviour, prayer, even when the person baptized | they are received to felicity; while is in the water.
those who continue obstinate are reTheir habit seems to be peculiar to served in torments until the grand pethemselves, consisting of a long tunic, | riod typified by the jubilee arrives, in or coat, reaching down to their heels, which all shall be made happy in the with a sash or girdle round the waist, endless fruition of the Deity: They also and a cap, or hood, hanging from the deny the imputation of Adam's sin to shoulders, like the dress of the Domi- | his posterity. They disclaim violence nican friars. The men do not shave | even in cases of self-defence, and suffer the head or beard. The men and wo-|| themselves to be defrauded or wronged men have separate habitations and dis- || rather than go to law. tinct governments. For these purposes Their church government and discithey have erected two large wooden pline are the same with the English buildings, one of which is occupied by Baptists, except that every brother is the brethren, the other by the sisters allowed to speak in the congregation ; of the society; and in each of them and their best speaker is usually orthere is a banqueting room, and an dained to be the minister. They have apartment for public worship; for the deacons and deaconesses from among brethren and sisters do not meet toge their ancient widows and exhorters, ther, even at their devotions. They live who are all licensed to use their gifts chiefly upon roots and other vegetables, || statedly.
DUTY, any action, or course of ac- || or legal obligation. The various moral, tions, which flow from the relations we relative, and spiritual duties, are consistand in to God or man; that which a dered in their places in this work. man is bound to perform by any natural
EASTER, the day on which the || from the Nazarenes, however, in seveChristian church commemorates our ral things, chiefly as to what regards the Saviour's resurrection. It is called by authority of the sacred writings; for the the Greeks Pasga; and by the Latins Nazarenes received all for Scripture Pascha, a Hebrew word signifying pas-contained in the Jewish canon; whereas sage, applied to the Jewish feast at the the Ebionites rejected all the prophets, passover. It is called Easter in English, and held the very names of David, Solofrom the Saxon goddess Eostre, whose mon, Isaiah, Jeremiah, and Ezekiel, in festival was held in April. The Asiatic abhorrence. They also rejected all St. churches kept their Easter upon the Paul's epistles, whom they treated with very same day that the Jews observed the utmost disrespect. They received their passover, and others on the first nothing of the Old Testament but the Sunday after the first full moon in the Pentateuch. They agreed with the new year. This controversy was de- | Nazarenes, in using the Hebrew Gostermined in the council of Nice, when pel of St. Matthew, otherwise called it was ordained that Easter should be the Gospel of the twelve apostles; but kept upon one and the same day, which they corrupted their copy in abundance should always be Sunday, in all Chris- of places; and particularly had left out tian churches in the world.
the genealogy of our Saviour, which EBIONITES, ancient heretics, who was preserved entire in that of the Narose in the church in the very first age zarenes, and even in those used by the thereof, and formed themselves into a Cerinthians. Besides the Hebrew Gossect in the second century, denying the pel of St. Matthew, the Ebionites had divinity of Jesus Christ. Origen takes adopted several other books under the them to have been so called from the titles of St. James, John, and the other Hebrew word ebion, which in that lan- apostles; they also made use of the traguage signifies poor; because, says he, |vels of St. Peter, which are supposed to they were poor in sense, and wanting have been written by St. Clement; but understanding. Eusebius, with a view had altered them so, that there was to the same etymology, is of opinion scarce any thing of truth left in them. they were thus calied, as having poor| They even made that saint tell a numthoughts of Jesus Christ, taking him for ber of falsehoods, the better to authono more than a mere man. It is more rize their own practices. probable the Jews gave this appellation ECCLESIASTICAL, an appellation to the Christians in general out of con- given to whatever belongs to the church; tempt; because, in the first times, there thus we say ecclesiastical polity, juriswere few but poor people that embra- diction, history, &c. ced the Christian religion. The Ebion- ECCLESIASTICAL HISTORY, a ites were little else than a branch of the narration of the transactions, revoluNazarenes; only that they altered and I tions, and events, that relate to the corrupted, in many things, the purity church. As to the utility of church of the faith held among the first adhe- || history, Dr. Jortin, who was an acute rents to Christianity. For this reason, writer on this subject, shall here speak Origen distinguishes two kinds of Ebion-for us: he observes, 1. That it will ites in his answer to Celsus; the one show us the amazing progress of Chrisbelieved that Jesus Christ was born of tianity through the Roman empire, a virgin; and the other, that he was through the East and West, although born after the manner of other men. the powers of the world cruelly opThe first were orthodox in every thing, posed it. 2. Connected with Jewish and except that to the Christian doctrine | Pagan history, it will show us the total they joined the ceremonies of the Jewish destruction of Jerusalem, the overthrow law, with the Jews, Samaritans, and of the Jewish church and state; and the Nazarenes; together with the tradi- continuance of that unhappy nation for tions of the Pharisees. They differed, 1700 years, though dispersed over the