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who remain in unbelief are in a state of on all days commonly called fish days. condemnation. Any idea of authority The like injunctions were renewed ungiven to fallible, uninspired men to ab- der queen Elizabeth; but at the same solve sinners, different from this, is un-| time it was declared that this was done scriptural; nor can I see much utility | not out of motives of religion, as if there in the terms ministerial or declarative were any difference in meats, but in faabsolution, as adopted by some divines,vour of the consumption of fish, and to since absolution is wholly the. preroga- multiply the number of fishermen and tive of God; and the terms above-men-mariners, as well as to spare the stock tioned, may, to say the least, have no of shčer. See Fasting. good influence on the minds of the igno- ABSTINENTS, a set of heretics that rant and superstitious.
appeared in France and Spain about the ABSTEMII, a name given to such | end of the third century. They are suppersons as could not partake of the cupposed to have borrowed part of their of the eucharist, on account of their opinions from the Gnostics and Maninatural aversion to wine.
chæans, because they opposed marriage, ABSTINENCE, in a general sense, condemned the use of Hesh meat, and is the act of refraining from something placed the Holy Ghost in the class of which we have a propension to or find created beings. pleasure in. It is more particularly ABYSS, in a general sense, denotes used for fasting or forbearing of neces- something profound; in its literal sense sary food. Among the Jews, various it signifies without a bottom; in a more kinds of abstinence were ordained by particular sense it denotes a deep mass their law. Among the primitive Chris- || or fund of waters. In this last sense the tians, some denied themselves the use word is used in the Septuagint for the of such meats as were prohibited by that water which God created at the beginlaw; others looked upon this abstinence ning with the earth, which our translawith contempt; as to which Paul givestors render by deep. Thus it that his opinion, Rom. xiv. 1. 3. The coun- darkness is said to have been on the face cil of Jerusalem, which was held by the of the abyss, Gen. i. 2. Abyss is also apostles, enjoined the Christian converts used for an immense cavern in the earth, to abstain from meats strangled, from wherein God is supposed to have colblood, from fornication, and from idola- lected all those waters on the third day, try, Acts xv. Upon this passage, Dr. which in our version is rendered the Doddridge observes, “that though nei- seas, and elsewhere the great decp ther things sacrificed to idols, nor the Abyss is likewise used to denote the flesh of strangled animals, nor blood, || grave or common receptacle of the dead, have or can have any moral evil in Rom. x. 7: also hell, or the bottomless them, which should make the eating of pit, Luke viii. 31. Rev. ix, 1. Rev. xi. 7. them absolutely and universally unlaw-See DELUGE. ful; yet they were forbidden to the Gen- ABYSSINIAN CHURCH, that tile converts, because the Jews had such which is established in the empire of an aversion to them, that they could not Abyssinia. They are a branch of the converse freely with any who used them. Copts, with whom they agree in adThis is plainly the reason which James mitting only one nature in Jesus Christ, assigns in the very next words, the 21st and rejecting the council of Chalcedon; verse, and it is abundantly sufficient. whence they are also called Monophy
This reason is now ceased, and the ob- sites and Eutychians, which see. The ligation to abstain from eating these | Abyssinian church is governed by a things ceases with it. But were we in bishop styled abuna. They have calike circumstances again, Christian cha-nons also, and monks. The emperor rity would surely require us to lay our has a kind of supremacy in ecclesiastical selves under the same restraint.”—The matters. The Abyssinians have at dispiritual monarchy of the western worldvers times expressed an inclination to introduced another sort of abstinence, be reconciled to the see of Rome; but which may be called ritual, and consists rather from interested views than any in abstaining from particular meats at other motive. They practise circumcicertain times and seasons, the rules of sion on females as well as males. They which are called rogations. If I mis- eat no meats prohibited by the law of take not, the impropriety of this kind Moses. They observe both Saturday of abstinence is clearly pointed out in 1 and Sunday sabbaths. Women are obliTim.iv.3.-In England, abstinence from ged to the legal purifications. Brothers flesh has been enjoined by statute, even marry brothers' wives, &c. On the other since the reformation; particularly on hand, they celebrate the Epiphany with Fridays and Saturdays, on vigils, and peculiar festivity; have four Lents; pray
for the dead; and invoke angels. Ima- || principles of religion and wisdom. Je-
lents by clapping of hands, and loud acACACIANS, a sect of heretics in the clamations of praise. The usual words 4th century; so named from Acacius, they made use of were, “Orthodox,” bishop of Cæsarea, who denied the Son “Third apostle" &c. These acclamato be of the same substance with the tions being carried to excess, and often Father, though some of them allowed misplaced, were frequently prohibited that he was of a similar substance. Also by the ancient doctors, and at length abthe name of another sect, named after rogated. Even as late, however, as the Acacius, patriarch of Constantinople, in seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, the fifth century, who favoured the opi- we find practices that were not very denions of Eutychus. See EUTYCHIANS. corous; such as loud humming, frequent
ACADEMICS, a denomination given groaning, strange gestures of the body, to the cultivators of a species of philo- | &c. See articles DANCERS, SHAKERS. sophy originally derived from Socrates, ACCOMMODATION OF SCRIPand afterwards illustrated and enforced TURE is the application of it, not to its by Plato. The contradictory systems literal meaning, but to something anawhich had been successively urged upon logous to it. Thus a prophecy is said to the world were become so numerous,|| be fulfilled properly when a thing forethat, from a view of the variety and un- | told comes to pass; and, by way of accertainty of human opinions, many were commodation, when an event happens led to conclude that truth lay beyond to any place or people similar to what the reach of our comprehension. The fell out some time before to another. consequence of this conclusion was ab- Thus the words of Isaiah, spoken to solute scepticism: hence the existence those of his own time, are said to be fulof God, the immortality of the soul, the filled-in those who lived in our Saviour's, preferableness of virtue to vice, were | -"Ye hypocrites, well did Esaias proall held as uncertain. This sect, with phesy," &c.: which same words St. Paul that of the Epicureans, were the two afterwards accommodates to the Jews chief that were in vogue at the time of of his time, Is. xxxix. 14. Matt. xv. 8. Christ's appearance, and were embra- Acts xiii. 41. Great care, however, ced and supported by persons of high || should be taken by preachers who are rank and wealth. A consideration of the fond of accommodating texts, that they principles of these two sects (see Epi- first clearly state the literal sense of the CUREANS] will lead us to form an idea passage. of the deplorable state of the world at ACEURSED, something that lies unthe time of Christ's birth; and the ne-der a curse or sentence of excommunicessity there was of some divine teacher cation. In the Jewish idiom, accursed to convey to the mind true and certain and crucified were synonymous among
them, every one was accounted accursed || of gaol-delivery, appointed as often as a who died on a tree. This serves to ex- competent number of prisoners in the plain the difficult passage in Rom. ix. 2, Inquisition are convicted of heresy, eiwhere the apostle wishes himself ac- ther by their own voluntary or extorted cursed after the manner of Christ; i. e. confession, or on the evidence of certain crucified, if happily he might by such a witnesses. The process is this:
In the death save his countrymen. The prepo- morning they are brought into a great sition 470 here made use of is used in the hall, where they have certain habits same sense, 2 Tim. i. 3. where it obvi- put on, which they are to wear in the ously signifies after the manner of. procession, and by which they know
ACEPHALI, such bishops as were their doom. The procession is led up exempt from the discipline and jurisdic- by Dominican friars, after which come tion of their ordinary bishop or patri- the penitents, being all in black coats arch. It was also the denomination of i without sleeves, and barefooted, with a certain sects; 1. of those who, in the af- wax candle in their hands. These are fair of the council of Ephesus, refused followed by the penitents who have narto follow either St. Cyril or John of An-i rowly escaped being burnt, who over tioch; 2. of certain heretics in the fifth their black coats have flames painted, century, who, at first, followed Peter with their points turned downwards. Mongus, but afterwards abandoned him, Next come the negative and relapsed, upon his subscribing to the council of who are to be burnt, having flames on Chalcedon, they themselves adhering to their habits pointing upwards. After the Eutychian heresy; and, 3. of the fol these come such as profess doctrines lowers of Severus of Antioch, and of all, contrary to the faith of Rome, who, in general, who held out against the besides flames pointing upwards, have council of Chalcedon.
their picture painted on their breasts, ACOEMETÆ, or ACOMETI, an or- with dogs, serpents, and devils, all opender of monks at Constantinople in the mouthed, about it. Each prisoner is atfifth century, whom the writers of that || tended with a familiar of the Inquisition; and the following ages called Axoluetas; and those to be burnt have also a Jesuit that is, Watchers, because they per- on each hand, who are continually formed divine service day and night preaching to them to abjure. After the without intermission. They divided | prisoners, comes a troop of familiars on themselves into three classes, who al horseback; and after them the Inquisiternately succeeded one another, so that tors, and other officers of the court, on they kept up a perpetual course of wor-mules: last of all, the Inquisitor-general ship. This practice they founded upon on a white horse, led by two men with that passage—“pray without ceasing,” | black hats and green' hat-bands. A 1 Thess. v. 17.
scaffold is erected big enough for two or ACOLYTHI, or ACOLUTHı, young three thousand people; at one end of people who, in the primitive times, as which are the prisoners, at the other the pired to the ministry, and for that pur- | Inquisitors. After a sermon made up of pose continually attended the bishop: encomiums of the Inquisition, and inIn the Romish church, Acolythi were of vectives against heretics, a priest aslonger continuance; but their functions cends a desk near the scaffold, and, havwere different from those of their first ing taken the abjuration of the penitents, institution. Their business was to light recites the final sentence of those who the tapers, carry the candlesticks and are to be put to death, and delivers them the incense pot, and prepare the wine to the secular arm, earnestly beseechand water. At Rome there were three ing at the same time the secular power kinds; 1. those who waited on the pope; not to touch their blood, or put their 2. those who served in the churches; || lives in danger!!! The prisoners, be3. and others, who, together with the ing thus in the hands of the civil magisdeacons, officiated in other parts of the trate, are presently loaded with chains, city.
and carried first to the secular gaol, and ACT OF FAITH (Auto da Fe,) in from thence, in an hour or two, brought the Romish church, is a solemn day held before the civil judge; who, after askby the Inquisition for the punishment of ing in what religion they intend to die, heretics, and the absolution of the inno- pronounces sentence on such as decent accused. They usually contrivethe clare they die in the communion of the Auto to fall on some great festival, that church of Rome, that they shall be first the execution may pass with the more strangled, and then burnt to ashes: awe; and it is always on a Sunday. The or such as die in any other faith, that Auto da Fe may be called the last act they be burnt alive. Both are inomeof the Inquisitorial tragedy: it is a kind diately carried to the Ribera, the place
of execution, where there are as many | apostles, such as the acts of Abdias, of stakes set up as there are prisoners to Peter, of Paul, St. John the Evangelist, be burnt, with a quantity of dry furze St. Andrew, St. Thomas, St. Philip, and about them. The stakes of the profess- St. Matthias; but they have been all ed, that is, such as persist in the heresy, proved to be spurious. are about four yards high, having a ACTS OF PILATE, a relation sent small board towards the top for the by Pilate to the Emperor Tiberius, conprisoner to be seated on. The negative cerning Jesus Christ, his death, resurand relapsed being first strangled and rection, ascension, and the crimes of burnt, the professed mount their stakes which he was convicted before him. It by a ladder, and the Jesuits, after seve- was a custom among the Romans, that ral repeated exhortations to be recon- the pro-consuls and governors of prociled to the church, part with them; || vinces should draw up acts or memoirs telling them that they leave them to of what happened in the course of their the devil
, who is standing at their elbow, government, and send them to the emto receive their souls, and carry them peror and senate. The genuine acts with him to the flames of hell. On this of Pilate were sent by him to Tiberius, a great shout is raised; and the cry is, who reported them to the senate; but « Let the dogs' beards be made!” which they were rejected by that assembly, is done by thrusting flaming furzes fast- because not immediately addressed to ened to long poles against their faces, them; as is testified by Tertullian, in till their faces are burnt to a coal, which his Apol. cap. 5, and 20, 21. The hereis accompanied with the loudest accla- tics forged acts in imitation of them; mations of joy; At last, fire is set to but both the genuine and the spurious the furze at the bottom of the stake, | are now lost. over which the professed are chained so ADAMITES, a sect that sprang up high, that the top of the fame seldom in the second century. Epiphanius tells reaches higher than the seat they sit on; us, that they were called Adamites, from so that they rather seem roasted than their pretending to be re-established in burnt. There cannot be a more lament- the state of innocence, such as Adam able spectacle: the sufferers continually was at the moment of his creation, cry out, while they are able, “Pity, for whence they'ought to imitate him in the love of God!" Yet it is beheld, by going naked. They detested marriage; all sexes and ages, with transports of maintaining that the conjugal union joy and satisfaction—0 merciful God! would never have taken place upon is this the benign, humane religion thou earth, had sin been unknown. This obhast given to men? Surely not. If such | scure and ridiculous sect did not last were the genius of Christianity, then it long. It was, however, revived with adwould be no honour to be a Christian. ditional absurdities in the twelfth cenLet us however, rejoice that the time tury. About the beginning of the fifis coming when the demon of Persecu- teenth century, these errors spread in tion shall be banished out of this our Germany and Bohemia: it found also world, and the true spirit of benevolence some partisans in Poland, Holland, and and candour pervade the universe; England. They assembled in the night; when none shall hurt or destroy, but and it is said, one of the fundamental the earth be filled with the knowledge maxims of their society was contained of the Lord, as the waters cover the in the following verse: sea! See INQUISITION.
Jura, perjura, secretum prodere noli. ACTION FOR THE PULPIT - Swear, forswear, and reveal not the secret. See DECLAMATION.
ADESSENARIANS, a branch of the ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, one Sacramentarians; so called from the of the sacred books of the New Testa- || Latin Adesse, to be present, because ment containing the history of the infant they believed the presence of Christ's church during the space of twenty-nine body in the eucharist, though in a manor thirty years from the ascension of ner different from the Romanists. our Lord to the year of Christ 63. It ADIAPHORISTS, a name given in was written by Luke, and addressed to the sixteenth century to the moderate Theophilus, the person to whom the Lutherans who adhered to the sentievangelist had before dedicated his gos- | ments of Melancthon; and afterwards pel. The style of this work, which was to those who subscribed the interim of originally composed in Greek, is much Charles V. (See INTERIM.] The word purer than that of the other canonical is of Greek origin (adisoogos) and signiwriters. For the contents of this book fies indifference or lukewarmness. we refer the reader to the book itself. ADMIRATION is that passion of
There have been several acts of the the mind which is excited by the disdistinguishable from passion, which, de- || and we have a perception of the moral pending on the real or ideal presence excellency of divine things; and lastly, of its object, vanishes with its object; whether our affections have a holy tenwhereas affection is a lasting connexion, dency and produce the happy effects of and, like other connexions, subsists, obedience to God, humility in ourselves, even when we do not think of the ob-i and justice to our fellow creatures. As jects. (See DISPOSITION and Passion.] this is a subject worthy of close atten
The affections, as they respect religion, tion, the reader may consult Lord deserve in this place a little attention. Kaim's Flements of Criticism, vol. ii.
P. They may be defined to be the "vigo 517; Edwards on the Affections ; Pike rous and sensible exercises of the incli- and Hayward's Cases of Conscience; nation and will of the soul towards reli- || Watts' Use and Abuse of the Passions ; gious objects.” Whatever extremes M’Laurin's Essays, sect. 5 and 6, where stoics or enthusiasts have run into, it is this subject is masterly handled. evident that the exercise of the affec- AFFLICTION, that which causes a tions is essential to the existence of true sensation of pain. Calamity or distress religion. It is true, indeed," that all af- of any kind. The afflictions of the saints fectionate devotion is not wise and ra- are represented in the scripture, as aptional; but it is no less true, that all wise pointed, 1 Thes. ii. 3. Job v. 6, 7; nuand rational devotion must be affection- merous, Ps. xxxiv. 19; transient, 2 Cor. ate.” The affections are the springs of iv, 17. Heb. x. 37; and, when sanctified, action; they belong to our nature, so that beneficial, 1 Pet. i. 6. Ps. cxix. 67, 71. with the highest perceptions of truth They wean from the world; work suband religion, we should be inactive with- mission; produce humility; excite to out them. They have considerable in- diligence; stir up to prayer; and conform fluence on men in the common concerns us to the divine image. To bear them of life; how much more, then, should with patience, we should consider our they operate in those important objects own unworthiness; the design of God that relate to the Divine Being, the im- in sending them; the promises of support mortality of the soul, and the happiness under them; and the real good they are or misery of a future state! The reli- | productive of. The afflictions of a good gion of the most eminent saints has al- man, says an elegant writer, never befal ways consisted in the exercise of holy without a cause, nor are sent but upon a affections. Jesus Christ himself affords proper errand. These storms are never us an example of the most lively and allowed to rise but in order to dispel vigorous affections, and we have every some noxious vapours, and restore salureason to believe that the employment brity to the moral atmosphere. Who of heaven consists in the exercise of that for the first time beheld the earth them. In addition to all which the scrip- in the midst of winter, bound up with tures of truth teach us, that religion is frost, or drenched in floods of rain, or nothing, if it occupy not the affections. covered with snow, would have imaginDeut. vi. 4, 5. Deut, xxx. 6. Rom. xii. ed that Nature, in this dreary and torpid 11. 1 Cor. xiii. 13. Ps. xxvij. 14. state, was working towards its own re
A distinction however, must be made novation in the spring? Yet we by expebetween what may be merely natural, rience know that those vicissitudes of and what is truly spiritual. The affec- winter are necessary for fertilizing the tions may be excited in a natural way earth; and that under wintry rains and under ordinances by a natural impres- snows lie concealed the seeds of those sion, Ezek.xxxiii. 32; by a natural sym- roses that are to blossom in the spring; pathy, or by the natural temperament of of those fruits that are to ripen in the our constitution. It is no sign that our summer; and of the com and wine affections are spiritual because they are which are in harvest to make glad the raised very high; produce great effects heart of man. It would be more agreeon the body; excite us to be very zeal able to us to be always entertained with ous in externals; to be always convers- a fair and clear atmosphere, with clouding about ourselves,&c. These things are less skies, and perpetual sunshine ; yet often found in those who are only mere in such climates as we have most knowprofessors of religion, Matt. vii. 21, 22. ledge of, the earth, were it always to
Now, in order to ascertain whether remain in such a state, would refuse to our affections are excited in a spiritual yield its fruits; and, in the midst of our manner, we must enquire whether that imagined scenes of beauty, the starved which moves our affections be truly inhabitants would perish for want of spiritual, whether our consciences be food. Let us, therefore, quietly submit alarmed, and our hearts impressed; to Providence. Let us conceive this life whether the judgment be enlightened to be the winter of our existence. Now