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or salary, will be despised and disregarded. The husbandman is in honour there, and even the mechanic, because their employments are useful. The people have a saying, that God Almighty is bim. self a mechanic, the greatest in the universe; and he is respected and admired more for the variety, ingenuity, and utility of his handiworks, than for the antiquity of his family. They are pleased with the observation of a negro, and frequently mention it, that Boccarorra (meaning the white man) make de black man workee, make de horse workee, make de ox workee, make ebery ting workee; on. ly de hog, . He de hog, no workee; he eat, he drink, he walk about, he go to sleep when he please, he libb like a gentleman. According to these Qpinions of the Americans, one of them would think himself more rbliged to a genealogist, who could prove for him that his ancestors and relations for ten generations had been ploughmen, smiths, carpenters, turners, weavers, tanners, or even shoemakers, and consequently that they were useful members of fociety; than if he could only prove that they were gentlemen, doing nothing of value, but living idly on the labour of others, mere fruges confumere nati*, and otherwise good for nothing, till by their death their estates, like the carcase of the negro's gentleman hog, come to be cut up.
With regard to encouragements for ftrangers from government, they are really only what are derived from good laws and liberty. Strangers are welcome because there is room enough for them all, and therefore the old inhabitants are not jea. ous of them; the laws protect them fufcently,
4. . - -, born
Merely to eat up the corn.
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for that they have no need of the patronage of great men; and every one will enjoy securely the profits of his industry. But if he does not bring a fortune with him, he mult work and be industrious to live. One or two years refidence give him all the rights of a citizen; but the government does not at prefent, whatever it may bave done in former times, hire people to beconre fetlers, by paying their paffages, giving laud, negrocs, utensils, 'stock, or any other kind of emolument whatsoever. In short, America is the land of labour, and hy no means 'what the English call Lubberland, and the French Pays de Cocagne, where the streets are faid to be payed with half-peck loaves, the houses tiled with pancakes, and where the fowls fly about ready soafted, crying, Come eat ine! • Who then are the kind of persons to whoni an emigration to America would be advantageous ? And what are the advantages they may reasona. ably expect ? .' Land being cheap in that country from the vaft forests still void of inhabitants, and not likely to be occupied in an age to come, infomuch that the property of an hundred acres of fertile foil full of wood may be obtained near the frontiers, in many places, for eight or ten guineas, hearty young labouring men, who understand the husbandry of corn and cattle, which is nearly the same in that country as in Europe, may easily establish themselves there. A little money faved of the good Wages they receive there while they work for o. thers, enables them to buy the land and begin their plantation, in which they are assisted by the goodwill of their neighbours, and some credit. Mulcitudes of poor people from England, Ireland, Scot
land, and Germany, have by this means in a few years become wealthy farmers, who in their own countries, where all the lands are fully occupied and the wages of labour kw, could never have emerged from the mean condition wherein they were born.
From the falubrity of the air, the healthiness of the climate, the plenty of good provisions, and ihe encouravement to early marriages, by the cer: tainty of subsistence in cultivating the earth, the increase of inhabitants by natural generation is very rapid in America, and becomes still more lo by the acceflion of strangers; hence there is a cons tinual demand for more artisans of all the necessary and uleiul kinds, to supply those cultivators of the earth with houses, and with furniture and uten: fils of the groffer forts, which cannot so well be brought from Europe. Tolerably good workmen in any of those mechanic arts, are sure to find em. ploy, and io be well paid for their work there being no restraints preventing strangers from exercising any art they undersiand, nor any permission necessary. If they are poor, they begin first as servanis or journeymen ; and if they are fober, indu
ftrious, and frugal, they soon become masters, e• diablish themselves in business, marry, raise families, and become respectable citizens.
Alio, persons of moderate fortunes and capitals, who having a number of children to provide for, are desirous of bringing them up to industry, and to fecure estates for their pusterity, have opportunities of doing it in America, which Europe does not afford. There they may be taught and practise profitable mechanic arts without incurring disgrace on that account ; but on the contrary acquiring respect by such abilities. There finall capitals laid out in lands, which daily be
come more valuable by the increase of people, af ford a folid prospect of ample fortunes thereafter for those children. The writer of this has known feveral initances of large tracts of land, bought on what was then the frontier of Pennsylvania, for ten pounds per hundred acres, which, after twenty years, when the settlements had been extended far beyond them, sold readily, without any im provement made upon them, for three pounds per acře. The acre in America is the same with the English acre, or the acre of Normandy.' : ** Those who defire to understand the state of government in America, would do well to read the conftitutions of the several states, and the articles of confederation that bind the whole together for general purposes, under the direction of one assembly, called the Congress. These constitutions have been printed, by order of Congress, in America ; two editions of them have also been printed in London; and a good translation of them irito French, haś lately been published at Paris. ' . Several of the princes of Europe having of late, from an opinion of advantage to arise by producing all commodities and manufactures within their own dominions, so as to diminish or render useless their importations, have endeavoured to entice vorknien from other countries, by high salaries, privileges, &c. Many persons pretending to be ikilled in various great manufactures, imagining that America must be in want of them, and that the Congress would probably be disposed to imitate the princes above mentioned, have proposed to go over, on condition of having their paftages paid, lands given, fularios appointed, exclufive privileges for terms of years, &c. Such persons, on readin:
the articles of confederation, will find that the Congress have no power committed to them, or money put into their lands for such purposes; and that if any such encouragement is given, it must be by the government of some particular Itatė. This however, has rarely been done in America, and when it has been done, it has rarely succeeded so as to eâablish a manufacture, which the coun: try was not yet so ripe for as to encourage private persons to set it up, labuur being generally too dead there, and hands difficult to be kept together, ever ry one defiring to be a master, and the cheapness of land inclining many to leave tradęs for agricul ture. Some indeed have met with success, and are carried on to advantage ; but they are generally such as require only a few hands, or wherein great part of the work is performed by machines, Goods that are bulky, ani of so sinall value as not well to bear the expence of freight, may often be made cheaper in that country than they can be importe ed; and the manufacture of such gocds will be profitable wherever there is a fufficient demanda The farmers in Ame ica produce, indeed, a good deal of wool and flax; and none is exported, it is. all worked up; but it is in the way of domeftic manufacture, for the use of the family. The buy. ing up quantities of wool and flax, with the design to employ spinners, weavers, &c. and form. great cftablishments, producing quaatities of linen and woolen goods for sale, has been several times ata; ten pted in different provinces ; but those projects have generally failed, goods of equal value being imported cheaper. (21 And when the governments hare been solicited to support such schemes by in-. muragements, in money, or by inposing duties on
ing up my spinners Jucing queen feveral