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ing in the fame degree the great blessing of politia cal liberty.

+ Some indeed among ixs are not so much grieved for the present state of our affairs, as apprehenfive for the future. The growth of luxury alarms them, and they think we are from that alone in the high road to ruin. They observe, that no revenue is fufficient without æconomy, and that the most plertiful income of a whole people from the natural productions of their country may be diffipated in in vain and needless expences, and poverty be introdaced in the place of affluence.--This may be poffible. It however rarely happens: for there feems to be in every nation a greater proportion of industry and frugality, which tend to enrich, than of idleness and prodigality, which occasion poverty; fo that upon the whole there is a continual accumulation, Reffect what Spain, Gaul, Germany, and Britain were in the time of the Romans, in habited by people little richer than our avages, and consider the wealth they at present poffefs; in numerous well-built cities, improved farms, rich moveables, magazines stocked with valuable manufactures, to say nothing of plate, jewels, and coined money; and all this, notwithstanding their bad, wasteful, plundering governments, and their nad destructive wars; and yet luxury and extravagant living has never suffered much restraint in those countries. Then consider the great proportion of industrious frugal farmers inhabiting the.. interior parts of these Amercan states, and of whom the body of our nation consists, and judge whether it is possible that the luxury of our sea-ports can be suficient to ruin such a country.--If the importation of foreiga luxuries could ruin a people, we should !!

probably have been ruined long ago; for the British nation claimed a right, and praEtised it, of in. porting among us not only the superfluities of their own production, but those of every nation under heaven; we bought and consumed them, and yet we flourished and grew rich. At present our independent governments may do what we could not then do, discourage by heavy duties, or prevent by heavy probibitions, such importations, and thereby grow richer ;--If, indeed, which may admit of dispute, the desire of adorning ourselves with fine cloathes, pofleffing fine furniture, with e. legant houses, &c, is not, by strongly inciting to labour and industry, the occasion of producing & greater value than is contumed in the gratification of that dofire.

The agriculture and fisheries of the United States are the great sources of our increasing wealth. He that puts a feed into the earth is recompensed, perhaps by receiving forty out of it; and he who draws a fish out of our water, draws up a piece of filver,

Let us (and there is no doubt but we shall) be attentive to these, and then the power of rivals, with all their restraining and prohibiting acts, cannot much hurt us. We are fons of the carth and seas, and, like Antæus in the fable, if in wrestling with a Hercules we now and then receive a fall, the touch of our parents will communicate to us fresh strength and vigour to renew the conteft.




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ANY persons in Europe having, directly or

by letters, expressed to the writer of this, who is well acquainted with North Anierica, their defire of transporting and establishing themselves

in that country; but who appear to him to have 4 formed, through ignorance, mistaken ideas and ex

pectations of what is to be obtained there ; he thinks it may be useful, and prevent inconvenient expenfive, and fruitless removals and voyages of improper persons, if he gives some clearer and truer notions of that part of the world, tlian have hitherto prevailed.

He finds it imagined by numbers, that the inhabitants of North America are rich, capable of rewarding, and disposed to reward, all forts of ingenuity ; that they are at the same time ignorant of all the sciences, and consequently that strangers poffefling talents in the belles-lettres, fine arts, &c. muit be highly esteemed, and so well paid as to become ealily rich themselves ; that there are also abundance of profitable offices to be disposed of, which the natives are not qualified to fill; and that having few persons of family among them, strangers of birth must be greatly respected, and of course easily obtain the best of those offices, which will make all their fortunes ; that the

governments, to encourage emigration from Europe, not only pay the expence of their personal transportation, but give lands gratis to strangers,

with negroes to work for them, utensils of hul, bandry, and stocks of cattle. These are all wild imaginations; and those who go to America with expectations founded upon them, will surely find themselves disappointed.

The truth is, that though there are in that coun. try few people so miserable as the poor of Europe, there are also few that in Europe would be called rich: it is rather a general happy mediocrity that prevails. There are few great proprietors of the soil, and few tenants; most people cultivate their own lands, or follow fome hindicraft or merchandise; very few rich enough to live idly upon their rents or incomes, or to pay the high prices given in Europe, for painting, statues, architecture and the other works of art that are mor: curious, than useful. Hence the natural geniuses that have ari. fen in America, with such talents, have uniformly quitted that country for Europe, where they can be more suitably rewarded. It is true that letters and mathematical knowledge are in esteem there, but they are at the same time more coméon than is apprehended; there being already existing nine colleges, or universities, viz. four in New England, and one in each of the provinces of New York, New-Jersey, Pennsylvania, Maryland, and Virginia, all furnished with learned professors;. besides a number of smaller academies : thefe educate ma. ny of their youth in the languages, and those sci"ences that qualify rnen for the profellions of divinity, law, or phyfic. Strangers indeed are by no means excluded from exerciiing these profeflions; and the quick increase of inhabitants ešery where gives them a chance of employ, which they have in common with the natives. Of civil offices, or

employments, there are few; no superfluous ones às in Europe; and it is a rule established in some of the states, that no office fhould be so profitable as to make it desirable. The 36th article of the constitution of Pennsylvania runs expressly in these words : " As every freeman, to preserve his independence, {if he has not a sufficient estate) ought to have some profession, calling, trade, or farm, whereby he may honestly subfift, there can be no neceflity for, nor use in, establishing offices of profit; the usual defects of which are dependence and servility, unbecoming freemen, in the poffeffors and expectants; faction, contention, corruption, and disorder among the people. Wherefore, wherever an office, through increase of fees or otherwise, becomes so profitable as to occasion many to apply for it, the profits ought to be lefsered by the legiflature."

These ideas prevailing more or less in all the United States, it cannot be worth any man's while, who has a means of living at home, to expatriate himself in hopes of obtaining a profitable civil office in America; and as to military offices, they are at an end with the war, the armies being dilbanded. Much less is it adviseable for a person to go thither, who has no other quality to recommend him but his birth. In Europe, it has indeed its value; but it is a commodity that cannot be carried to a worse market than to that of America, where people do not enquire concerning a strangr, Wbat is ? but What can be do? If he has any useful art, he is welcome; and if he exercises it, and be. haves vell, he will be respected by all that know him; but a mere mau of quality, wito on that account wants to live upon the public by some office VOL. II.


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