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ought always to be studied together. This volume is an ample manual for all the purposes of American school and collegiate students. It is also a referencebook of great value to the general reader. Like the author's Classical Dictionary, it contains a convenient list of authorities on the subject.

The Grammar of English Grammars. By GoolD BROWN. Second edition, revised and enlarged. New York: S. S. and W. Wood. 1857. Roy. 8vo., pp. 1070.

This great monument of the author's industry contains his theory of English grammar, worked out into most full and conscientious detail, and with such numerous references to authorities, and to other grammatical writers, as render it, in addition, a remarkably useful storehouse of materials for opinions on the subject. It contains a good list of writers on English Grammar.

Mathematical Dictionary and Cyclopaedia of Mathematical Science. By CHARLES DAVIES and WILLIAM G. PECK. New York: A. S. Barnes and Burr. 1859. 8vo., pp. 592.

A valuable and comprehensive compendium for students. It will be found still more convenient, as a book of reference, by those who may feel an occasional desire to refresh or correct half-forgotten studies. The definitions and descriptions are remarkably clear; and the mathematical processes quite sufficient in extent for the purposes of the work.

The American Farmer's Encyclopædia; being a complete Guide for the Cultiva. tion of every variety of Garden and Field Crops. By GOUVERNEUR EMERSON. New York: A. O. Moore. 1858. Roy. 8vo., pp. 1179.

An extensive collection of information on agricultural topics. It contains very much that ought to interest and aid every farmer.

A Classical Allas, to Ilustrate Ancient Geography. By ALEXANDER G. FINDLAY. New York: Harper & Brothers.

Twenty-five good maps and an extensive index of geographical names. It is as gross an error to study ancient history or the classics without constantly consulting a work of this nature, as it would be to study modern geography without maps.

Other American Reference Books, heretofore noticed in this Journal, are as follows:—the volume and page of the notice being given with it.

Complete Pronouncing Gazetteer. By J. THOMAS, T. BALDWIN, and others. Vol. II., p. 739.

Appleton's Cyclopædia of Biography. Do.
English-Grammar. By W. C. FOWLER. Do.
The Microscope, and its Revelations. By W. B. CARPENTER. Do.
Atlas of Classical Geography. By W. HUGHES. Edited by GEORGE LONG. Do.
Geography of Nature. By VULLIET. Translated from French. Do., p. 740.
Treatise on English Punctuation. By John Wilsox. Do., p. 741.
Historical Atlas. By J. E. WORCESTER. Do., p. 745.
Cyclopædia of American Literature. By E. A. and G. L. DUYCKINCK. Do., p.
746.

Dictionary of Medical Science. By R. DUNGLISON. Do., p. 320.
American Educational Year-Book. Vol. IV., p. 832.
American Eloquence. By FRANK MOORE. Do.
Cleveland's Compendium of American Literature. Vol. V., p. 318.

Of books on educational history, theory, or art, published during 1859, we have the following. It is not improbable that others have failed to reach us.

Pestalozzi and Pestalozzianism. By HENRY BARNARD. New York: F. C. Brownell. 8vo., pp. 238 and 230.

Educational Biography. Part I. Memoirs of Teachers and Educators. Vol. I. United States. By HENRY BARNARD. New York: F. C. Brownell. 8vo., pp. 524.

Higher Christian Education. By BENJAMIN W. Dwight. New York: A. S. Barnes & Burr. 12mo., pp. 347.

Works of Philip Lindsley, D. D. Vol. I. Educational Discourses. Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott & Co. 8vo., pp. 588.

Jubilee at Mount St. Mary's, Emmetsburgh, Md., Oct. 6, 1858. New York: Dunigan & Brother. 12mo., pp. 288.

The Teacher's Assistant; or, Hints and Methods in School Discipline and Instruction. By CHARLES NORTHEND. Boston: Crosby, Nichols & Co. 12mo.,

pp. 358.

Lectures on Mental and Moral Culture. By SAMUEL P. BATES. New York: A. S. Barnes & Burr. 12mo., pp. 319.

History and Progress of Education By PHILOBIBLIUS. With Introduction by HENRY BARNARD. New York: A. S. Barnes & Burr. 12mo., pp. 310.

The Normal; or, Methods of Teaching the Common Branches. By ALFRED HOLBROOK. New York: A. S. Barnes & Burr. 12mo., pp. 456.

Hours with my Pupils. By Mrs. LINCOLN PHELPS. New York: C. Scribner. 12mo., pp. 263.

School Amusements; or, How to make the School Interesting. By N. W. TAYLOR Root. New York: A. S. Barnes & Burr. 12mo., pp. 225.

We do not pretend to make an accurate comparison between the two years thus selected, on account of the labor and detail of estimating the very extensive variety of public and institutional reports and other documents, which should, strictly, be included. But the following summaries are certainly within the truth, viz:

Books, twelve; public documents, say ten volumes; journals, each a volume a year, at least twenty. Total, in 1859, forty-two, against three; a fourteen-fold increase in twenty-five years.

The following works, though not falling within the class of those above mentioned, may be named here, for the sake of information, as useful recent educational publications.

Art of Ectempore Speaking. By M. BAUTAIN. Translated from French, and with additions by a member of the New York Bar. New York: Scribner. 1859. 12mo., 364 pages.

The Microscopist's Companion ; with a Glossary of Microscopic Terms. By John KING, M. D. Cincinnati: Rickey, Mallory & Co. 1859. 8vo., 308 pages.

Biography of Samuel Lewis. By Wm. G. W. LEWIS. Cincinnati: Methodist Book Concern. 1857. 12mno., 429 pages.

Memoir of the Life of Daniel Drake, M. D. By E. D. MANSFIELD. Cincinnati: Applegate & Co. 1855. 12mo., 408 pages.

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XX. EDUCATIONAL LITERATURE.

The progress of education in this country, and the increase of popular interest in it, are strikingly and unerringly shown by the remarkable and rapid increase in the number of publications (not including text-books) on the subject. This appears from the contrast between the educational publications of a year, a quarter of a century ago, and those of the year 1859, just closed.

In the former year was published one single educational journal, the " An. nals of Education ;" a valuable work, but maintained not by its subscribers, but by the pecuniary and personal sacrifices of a few disinterested friends of education.

No volume on education was published, except the annual volume of collected lectures issued by the American Institute of Instruction.

At that time, instead of a State Department, with a superintendent of schools at its head, such as now exists in almost every state in the Union, there was no such department or office, except in a few states a nominal one, annexed to some other department of the government.

There were but a few states where any annual public document of any kind referred to the schools; and, in most of these, some financial officers merely registered and reported the yearly appropriations and necessary statistics. In Massachusetts, for instance, the secretary of state reported school statistics. In Connecticut, the commissioner of the school fund did the same, in reporting on the state and use of the fund; and similar ex-officio statements were given in Virginia. The first report on Pennsylvania schools, in that year, was two pages of mere announcements. In New York alone the secretary of state published yearly an ablo and valuable report upon the condition and needs of the schools.

Except in New York, these were not educational documents in any proper sense of the word; and we may thus state the total number of educational publications, except occasional addresses, &c., in 1834, as one periodical, one volume of lectures, and one public document; total, three.

Now observe the change. During 1859, educational monthlies, of octavo size, and each forming an annual volume of considerable thickness, have been published in eighteen of the states, nearly all of them being on a permanent basis; and in several of the states one, two, or more additional ones are also published.

The public documents of the various states for that year would, all together, constitute ten or twelve large 8vo. volumes. The annual report on schools of Pennsylvania, for instance, is of more than 300 pages; that of Illinois, (a biennial report, however,) of 423 pages; and with these should be, at least, mentioned the numerous and valuable reports published by the school authorities of Boston, New York, and many other cities.

But the extent of the matter thus published is not its greatest merit. These different series of publications contain very much valuable discussion of educational principles and practice, by the best and most competent minds of the different states; and great masses of various and carefully-prepared statistics, bearing upon the subject.

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I commenced the publication of the "American Journal of Education," in 1855, from the belief that such a Periodical, national and catholic in aim and spirit, of sufficient extent to admit, in each issue, of full discussions of the History, Biography, Art, and Science of Education, and of the organization, administration, and statistics of its Institutions and Systems, was desirable and even necessary as a means of establishing the foundation and shaping the superstructure of our American civilization.

It was noi commenced as an individual enterprise until efforts had been made, during several years, first to induce state and national educational bodies to undertake it, and then to enlist the co-operation of individual educators and publicspirited citizens. It was never supposed that the work would be a source of profit; but the first number was not issued without counting the cost, nor without fixing a period during which the undertaking would be carried on singlehanded, if necessary. This period was five of the best years of my life; which I was from the first prepared to give to the work, without the slightest expectation of receiving any compensation for time or editorial services.

The first year's experience convinced me that but a very small proportion of those engaged in teaching either high or elementary schools, or in administering state or city systems, or of professed friends of popular cducation, would labor, spend, or even subscribe for a work of this character; and indeed that the regular subscription list would not meet the expenso of printing and paper. But, in the hope that the completed series of volumes would be regarded as a valuable contribution to the permanent educational literature of the country, I have still gone forward, notwithstanding a formidable and increasing deficit.

I am still so reluctant to relinquish an enterprise carried so far, and for which I have sacrificed so much, that I have concluded to make one more appeal, to personal friends, professional teachers, and educational laborers, for their new or renewed subscriptions to the Journal, to enable me to add at least three more volumes to the series.

I wish particularly to embrace in these three volumes a large amount of material illustrative of

I. The history and present condition of Normal Schools and other Special Institutions and Agencies for the Professional Training and Improvement of Teachers.

II. The organization and characteristic features of Polytechnic Schools, and other institutions for the education of persons destined for other pursuits than those of Law, Medicine, and Theology.

III. The history and courses of instrnction of the oldest and most flourishing Colleges and Universities in Europe and America.

IV. The most recent as well as the oldest successful Methods of Teaching the elementary and the higher branches of learning.

V. The life and services of many Teachers and Promoters of Education, whose labors or benefactions are associated with the foundation and development of institutions, systems, and methods of instruction.

HENRY BARNARD, Editor and Proprietor of the American Journal of Education. HARTFORD, Conn.,

January 18th, 1860.

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