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Latin and Real schools are in the common classes—the mother-tongue, writing and drawing, singing and gymnastics, arithmetic, religious instruction, geography, history, natural history, German, and French. In the Latin classes of the united schools the branches of instruction are as follows—the mother-tongue, religious instruction, geography, history, German, French, mathematics, Latin, Greek, and Hebrew. In the Real classes the instruction is given in the mother-tongue, religious instruction, geography, history, natural history, German, French, English, mathematics, natural philosophy, writing, and drawing. In some of these schools the highest Real class gives the pupils a special preparation for commer. cial life by instruction in commercial correspondence, book-keeping, the properties of goods, &c.
In Christiania there are some private Latin and Real schools, the organization of which is in all essential points the same as the public schools. It must, however, be remembered, that while all the classes in the private school described have annual courses, the classes in the public Latin and Real schools have generally biennial courses, whence it follows that the number of classes in the latter is reduced to about half the number adopted in the former; and the total course of the learned school is likewise, on account of its less perfect organization with biennial classes, accomplished in six years. Five of these schools have also a less complete arrangement in the higher classes, the highest biennial Latin class being wanting; they can not, therefore, send pupils directly to the University, and are frequently called, to distinguish them from the others, “Middelog Real skoler.” In the eleven public Latin and Real schools the number of pupils is altogether 700. There are also three public learned or Latin schools, which are not connected with the Real schools, viz., in Christiania, Trondhjem, and Bergen. They are destined, as well as the Latin schools which are connected with Real schools, to prepare those who intend to complete their education at the University. Their organization differs from that of the united Latin schools only inasmuch as they have retained the old arrangement in the study of languages, according to which the Latin language is to be learned before the modern languages; this order being reversed in the Latin schools which are connected with Real schools. The number of pupils in the three independent Latin schools is altogether somewhat over 300. These three schools are supported by their own resources, which they have obtained partly by legacies, and partly by endowments from the State in former times. Their yearly income arising from interests and from payments of pupils amounts altogether to about 28,000 specie dollars, which amount is, however, not wholly expended for the necessities of the schools. Adding to this 36,000 sp. drs., which sum represents the income of the combined Latin and Real schools, arising from pupils, payments, and contributions from the public and the State. The result is 64,000 sp. drs. as the total sum annually devoted to the support of the public learned and Real schools, As to the masters in the public Latin and Real schools, it must be
observed that nobody can be appointed as a “Rector" (or manager) of such a school unless he has first passed the first two examinations, common for all students in the university, namely, in the ancient and modern languages, history, geography, mathematics, and natural history, and after that the so-called philological examination. Vide “Academiske Love for Studerende ved det Kongelige Norske Fredriks Universitet," p. 18, sec. 12, and p. 40. Nobody can be appointed an “ Overlærer" unless he has passed the examinations just mentioned, or the examination in divinity, or the examination by law, of 15th September, 1851, required to be passed by all who wish to be Real teachers.
The highest academy for public instruction is the University in Christiania. It has 31 professors, a very considerable library, and several valuable collections. 60,000 specie dollars per annum is the amount devoted to the University,
Besides the schools hitherto enumerated, there should also be mentioned, as belonging to the general system of education, the Asylums, established in many towns, where little children from two to seven years old, stay during the daytime, while their parents are at work; and where they are not only taken care of, but also instructed in the first elements. These Asylums are supported partly by the public funds, but chiefly by voluntary annual contributions. The amount applied to the support of Asylums in the country can not, on the whole, be estimated at more than 6,000 sp. dollars.
An institution for the instruction and education of the deaf and dumb has been established by the State at Trondhjem, and there are also three private institutions for the instruction of deaf and dumb children, which are supported by the State.
Among those schools whose instruction takes a more special direction, must be named agricultural schools, drawing schools, and sailors' schools, which are all calculated for adult pupils, who have passed through the ordinary primary schools. Of agricultural schools there are fourteen. They receive young men at the age of about eighteen to twenty years. A more comprehensive account of the organization of agricultural schools may be found in the detailed description of the agricultural school at Munkvold, near Trondhjem. Of public drawing schools there are eight, which are supported partly by the public, and partly by the State. Their aim is chiefly to impart to mechanics' apprentices the necessary knowledge of drawing; besides which there are usually lectures on the rudiments of practical mathematics and physics. The yearly cost of these drawing schools is about 6,000 sp. dols., whereof one-half is applied to the drawing school at Christiania, which on this account is far more completely endowed than the others. From this school, various means of instruction and several works executed by the pupils, were exhibited at St. Martin's Hall. Of sailors' schools, to which both the state and the respective
communities furnish contributions, there are as yet only few. In many places, especially in the towns, there are Sunday schools, whose object is to impart to adults that elementary instruction, which they had not opportunities of acquiring in their childhood. For this purpose instruction is usually given during a few hours in the morning or evening in reading, writing, and arithmetic, sometimes also in the orthography, and
grammar of the mother-tongue, and likewise in history and geography. Besides this, instruction is generally given in religion, or portions of Scripture are read. The cost of the Sunday schools is very inconsiderable, and is defrayed either from gifts or by public subscription.
On establishing a calculation of what the country devotes on the whole to the support of the lower and higher schools, both public and private, before mentioned, the amount must be supposed to be about 350,000 dols., not including the land possessed by the masters of the permanent schools in the country.
XVII. MODES OF IMPROVING A FACTORY POPULATION.
The following Paper was read by Edward Akroyd, M. P., before the “ National Association for the Promotion of Social Science,” in 1857.
In detailing my own exertions to improve the intellectual, moral, and physical condition of my work-people, numbering nearly 5000, I must premise that I am not singular in these efforts, nor do I take credit to myself for all that has been done in my establishment. My late father, who founded the business, took an active part in improving the condition and promoting the education of his work-people. Ile built a large school, attached to the works at Halifax, in the year 1839, and personally instructed a Sunday-school class. My brother co-operated with me in every beneficent provision for those in our employ, until he withdrew from business, a few years ago. Other manufacturers also have done, and are doing, their parts most cheerfully and energetically in the same direction.
My works are situated at Copley and at Halifax, in the West Riding of Yorkshire. Copley lies in a valley, on the banks of the river Calder, and the situation is one of great natural beauty. The trunk-line of the Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway passes within a few yards of the works, and parallel thereto runs the Calder and Hebble Canal.
At Copley mill, the manufactory is exclusively worsted, and the process that of spinning. The works may be called self-contained; that is, they are shut in, and forin a small hamlet of themselves, in which there are no residents except those in my employ. The cottages of the work-people are intended to be model cottages; fitted up with every convenience required in such habitations, each having its garden-plot, and the whole well supplied with water, conveyed to each house in pipes. The village is also lighted with gas. About 1000 persons are employed in the mill, and every effort is made to secure their comfort, and the education of their families.
Many of the work-people are not residents in the village, and a large dining-room, capable of accommodating 700 persons, has been provided. The room is fitted up with every necessary and convenjent apparatus, and the culinary department is presided over by a cook and assistants. As it has ever been an object with me rather to develop the power, and to encourage the self-reliance, of the people
than to supersede them, this establishment is managed by a committee of the work-people, appointed by and from amongst themselves. It is the duty of this committee to see that breakfast, dinner, or tea may be procured at the lowest possible cost, and that the quality and cookery of the food be good and wholesome.
A library is attached to the works, to which any of my work-people have access, free of charge.
A news-room is provided, supplied with the newspapers of the metropolis and of the locality, and also with the current periodical literature.
A band is established at the works, and its performances are very creditable. It plays out of doors occasionally, when the weather is favorable; at other times in a room provided for that purpose.
Allotment-gardens are provided for the workmen; and, in connection therewith, an horticultural and floral society has been established, to promote the knowledge and cultivation of fruits, flowers, plants, and vegetables. An exhibition is held annually, at which prizes are given for the best productions of the respective gardens.
To strengthen the habit of observation, and to cherish a taste for the beauties of nature, I give prizes for the best collection of wild plants and ferns growing in the neighborhood.
Recreation-grounds are provided for the juvenile and adult members of the establishment, and every encouragement is given to the practice of healthy out-door sports and athletic games.
A sick and funeral club is also established, and means are taken to secure regular medical attendance and medicines, for those who desire it, at a small rate of subscription. This is easily accomplished, by the numbers who avail themselves of the opportunity so offered.
Such are the arrangements which have been made at the Copley works for the material comfort of the work-people. For their spiritual welfare I have made special provision. Divine service is celebrated every Sunday in the school-room, by a chaplain attached to the works, and who resides in the midst of his flock.
What has been done at Copley has been repeated at my establishments at Halifax, on a scale enlarged in proportion to the greater number there employed; with this difference, that as the works at Copley are in the country, self-contained, isolated, and at a distance from any village, the provision alluded to is necessarily confined to my own work-people, while at Halifax my work-people, forming part of the population of that town, which numbers about 33,600 inhabitants, these institutions, instead of being confined to my own works, are in some measure thrown open to all those who choose to avail themselves of them, whether they may be in my employ or not. I