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The School is fraught with pious memories. Here “that sweet singer of the Temple, George Herbert,” was reared; and that love of choral music, which

was his heaven upon earth,” was, no doubt, implanted here, while he went up. to pray in the glorious Abbey. And it was here that South, in his loyal childhood, reader of the Latin prayers for the morning, publicly prayed for Charles, I. by name, “but an hour or two at most before his sacred head was struck off." Nor can we forget among the ushers, the melody of whose Latin poems had led him to be called “Sweet Vinny Bourne;" or the mastership of Busby, who boasted his rod to be the sieve to prove good scholars, and walked with covered head before Charles II. ; then humbly at the gate assured his Majesty that it was, necessary for his dignity before his boys to be the greatest man there, even though a king were present. How successfully, too, is Busby commemorated in the whole-length portrait of the great school-master standing beside his favorite pupil, Spratt. Upon the walls are inscribed many great names; and in the library is preserved part of the form on which Dryden once sat, and on which his autograph is cut.

In the Census Alumnorum, or list of foundation scholars, are Bishops Overall and Ravis, translators of the Bible; Hakluyt, collector of Voyages; Gunter, inventor of the Scale; “Master George Herbert;" the poets Cowley and Dryden; South ; Locke; Bishops Atterbury, Spratt, and Pearce; the poet Prior, and Stepney the statesman; Rowe and “Sweet. Vinny Bourne,” the poets; Churchill, the satirist; Warren Hastings; Everard Home, surgeon; Dr. Drury, of Harrow School, &c. Among the other eminent persons educated here are Lord Burleigh ; Ben Jonson; Nat Lee; Sir Christopher Wren; Jasper Mayne, the poet; Barton Booth, the actor; Blackmore, Browne, Dyer, Hammond, Aaron Hill, Cowper, and Southey, the poets; Horne Tooke; Gibbon, the historian; Cumberland, the dramatist; Colman the Younger; Sir Francis Burdett; Harcourt, Archbishop of York; the Marquis of Lansdowne; Lord John Russell; the Marquis of Anglesey; Sir John Cam Hobhouse (Lord Broughton); George Bidder, of calculating fame, now the eminent civil engineer.

Among the eminent Masters are Camden, “the Pausanias of England," who had Ben Jonson for a scholar; and Dr. Busby, who had Dryden, and who, out of the bench of bishops, taught sixteen.

The College Hall, originally the Abbot's refectory, was built by Abbot Litling, ton, temp. Edward III.: the floor is paved with chequered Turkish marble; at the south end is a musician's gallery, now used as a pantry, and behind are bute teries and hatches; at the north side, upon a dais, is the high table; those below, of chestnut-wood, are said to have been formed out of the wreck of the Armada. The roof-timbers spring from carved corbels, with angels bearing shields of the Confessor's and Abbot's arms; and a small louvre rises above the central hearth, upon which in winter a wood and charcoal fire used to burn until the year 1850.* The Library is a modern Italian room, and contains several

worn features of one grey-haired veteran, the well-remembered look of the gallant boy who had once borne punishment for him. By certain answers, which in the examination he elicited, his suspicions were confirmed; and with an immediate resolve, he posted to London, where, by his influence with Oliver Cromwell

, he succeeded in preserving his early friend from the scaffold. - Walcott's Memorinls of Westminslır.

* Fires continued to be made on a hearth in the middle of the hall called the rere. dos, in many college halls in Oxford and Cambridge, until about the year 1820.

memorials of the attachment of “Westminsters." The old dormitory, built in 1980, was the granary of the monastery; and was replaced by the present dormitory in 1722, from the designs of the Earl of Burlington: its walls are thickly inscribed with names. Here Latin plays are represented upon the second Thursday in December, and the Monday before and after that day. These performances superseded the old Mysteries and Moralities in the reign of Queen Mary, when the boy actors were chiefly the acolytes, who served at mass. Warton mentions that this “liberal exercise is yet preserved, and in the spirit of truc classical purity, at the College of Westminster." Garrick designed scenery for these pieces; but the modern dresses formerly used were not exchanged for Greek costume until 1839. The plays acted of late years have been the Andria, Phormio, Eunuchus, and Adelphi, of Terence, with Latin prologue and cpilogue pleasantly reflecting in their humor events of the day. Two new scenes were drawn for the theatre, in 1857, by Professor Cockerell, R. A.

Boating is a favorite recreation of the Westminsters, who have often contested the championship of the Thames with Eton. On May 4, 1837, the Westminsters won a match at Eton; when, by desire of William IV., the victors visited Windsor Castle, and were there received by the good-natured king.


Rugby Grammar School was founded by Lawrence Sheriff, a native of Rugby, who had accumulated a large fortune in dealing with the fruits and spices of the West Indies. He was warden of the Grocers' Company in 1566; and in Fox's Book of Martyrs he is spoken of as "servant to the Lady Elizabeth, and sworn unto her Grace," which seems to imply that he was “grocer to the Queen:" he kept shop “near to Newgate Market.” Sheriff died in 1567, and by his last will, made seven weeks previously, bequeathed a third of his Middlesex estate to the foundation of “a fair and convenient schoolhouse, and to the maintaining of an honest, discreet, and learned man to teach grammar;" the rents of that third, which then amounted to 8l. annually, had swelled in 1825 to above 55001.

Immediately upon the founder's death, the school was commenced in a build. ing in the rear of the house assigned for the master; it consisted of one large room, having no playground attached. The first page of the school register, commencing in 1675, shows that of the 26 entrances in that year, 12 were boys not upon the foundation, and one of them came cven from Cumberland. The school now took a higher stamp; and early in the list we find the Earls of Stamford and Peterborough, the Lords Craven, Griffin, Stawell, and Ward, the younger sons of the houses of Cecil and Greville, and many of the baronets of the adjacent counties.

The school buildings were from time to time enlarged; until the improved Falue of the endowment enabled the trustees to commence, in 1809, the present structure, designed by Hakewill, in the Elizabethan style, and built nearly upon the same spot as the first humble dwelling. The buildings consist of cloisters on three sides of a court; the Great School, and the French and Writing Schools; the dining halls, and the chapel; and the master's house, where and in the town the boys are lodged. The group of buildings cost 35,0001., but are of “poor Rham Gothic.” A library has since been added. The only former playground was the churchyard; but Rugby has now its bowling-green close, with its tall

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spiral elms; and its playground, where cricket and foot-ball are followed out-ofdoors with no less zest and delight than literature is pursued within.*

The instruction at Rugby retains the leading characteristics of the old school, being based on a thoroughly grounded study of Greek and Latin. But the treatment has been much improved: formerly the boys were ill-used, half imprisoned, and put on the smallest rations, a plentiful allowance of rod excepted; and a grim tower is pointed out in which a late pedagogue, Dr. Wooll, was accustomed to inflict the birch unsparingly. Nevertheless, in Wooll's time were added six exhibitions to the eight already instituted; books were first given as prizes for composition; and the successful candidates recited their poems before the trustees, thus establishing the Speeches.

To Dr. Woollt succeeded Dr. Thomas Arnold, the second and moral founder of Rugby. Of the great change which he introduced in the face of education bere, we can speak but in brief. Soon after he had entered upon his office, he made this memorable declaration upon the expulsion of some incorrigible pupils : "It is not necessary that this should be a school of three hundred, or one hundred, or of fifty boys; but it is necessary that it should be a school of Christian gentlemen.”

The three ends at which Arnold aimed were — first, to inculcate religious and moral principle, then gentlemanly conduct, and lastly, intellectual ability. One of his principal holds was in his boy sermons, that is, in sermons to which the young congregation could and did listen, and of which he was the absolute inventor. The feelings of love, reverence, and confidence which he inspired, led his pupils to place implicit trust on his decision, and to esteem his approbation as their highest reward. His government of the school was no reign of terror: he resorted to reasoning and talking as his first step, which failing, he applied the rod as his ultima ratio, and this for misdemeanors inevitable to youth — lying, for instance,- and best cured by birch. He was not opposed to fagging, which boys accept as part and parcel of the institution of schools, and as the servitude of their feudal system; all he aimed to do was to regulate, and, as it were, to legalize the exercise of it. The keystone of his government was in the Sixth Form, which he held to be an intermediate power between the master and masses of the school; the value of which internal police he had learned froin the Prefects at Winchester. But he carefully watched over this delegated authority, and put down any abuse of its power. The Præpositors themselves were no less benefited. “By appealing to their honor, by fostering their selfrespect, and calling out their powers of governing their inferiors, he ripened their manhood, and they carly learnt habits of command; and this system, found to work so well, is continued, and with many of its excellent principles, is

* Foot-ball is the game, par excellence, of Rugby, as cricket is of Eton. The fascination of this gentle pastime is its mimic war, and it is waged with the individual prowess of the Homeric conflicts, and with the personal valor of the Orlandos of mediæval chivalry, before villanous saltpetre had reduced the Knight-errant to the ranks. The play is played out by boys with that dogged determination to win, that endurance of pain, that bravery of combative spirit, by which the adult is trained to face the cannon-ball with equal alacrity.- Quarterly Review, No. 204.

† Dr. Wooll was small in stature, but powerful in stripes; and under his headmastership Lord Lyttleton suggested for the grim closet in which the rods are kept, the witty motto:-"Great Cry and Little Wool.”- See the Book of Rugby School. its History and Daily Life. 1856.


now acted on in most of the chief public schools of England.” Dr. Arnold died in 1841, on the day preceding his forty-seventh birthday, having presided over the school for fourteen years: in the chapel at Rugby he rests from his labors, surrounded by those of his pupils who have been prematurely cut off. “Yet,” touchingly says the Rugbeian writer in the Quarterly Review, "if they have known few of the pleasures of this world, they at least have not, like him, felt many of its sorrows, and death has not separated those who in life were united."

Dr. Arnold procured from the Crown a high mark of royal favor - her Majes, ty having founded an annual prize of a Gold Medal, to which several other prizes have been added. Dr. Arnold was succeeded in the head-mastership by the Rev. Dr. Tait, who retired on his appointment to the Deanery of Carlisle, in 1849; and who, in 1856, was preferred to the bishopric of London.

“ In the list of eminent Rugbeians are the Rev. John Parkhurst, the Greek and Hebrew lexicographer; Sir Ralph Abercrombie, the hero of Alexandria; Wil, liam Bray, F. S. A., the historian of Surrey; Dr. Legge, Bishop of Oxford; Sir Henry Halford, Bart., President of the College of Physicians; Dr. Butler, editor of Æschylus, &c.”


At the village of Harrow-on-the-Hill, ten miles north-west of London,- where Lanfranc built a church, Thomas à Becket resided, and Wolsey was rector - in the reign of Elizabeth there lived a substantial yeoman named John Lyon. For many years previous to his death he had appropriated 20 marks annually to the instruction of poor children; and in 1571, he procured letters patent and a roy. al charter from the Queen, recognizing the foundation of a Free Grammar School, for the government of which, in 1592, he drew up the orders, statutes, and rules. The head-master is directed to be "on no account, below the degrec of Master of Arts;" or the Usher "under that of a Bachelor of Arts." They are always to be "single men, unmarried.” The stipends of the masters are settled; the forms specified; the books and exercises for each form marked out; the mode of correction described; the hours of attending school, the vacations and play-days appointed; and the scholars' amusements directed to be confined to “driving a top, tossing a hand-ball, running and shooting;" and for the last mentioned diversion all parents were required to furnish their children with “bow-strings, shafts, and bracers to exercise shooting.” In addition to scholars to be educated freely, the schoolmaster is to receive the children of parishioners, as well as “foreigners;" from the latter “he may take such stipends and wages as he can get, except that they be of the kindred of John Lyon the founder.” The sum of 201. was allotted for four exhibitions — two in Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge; the others in any college at Oxford -- which scholarships have been increased. The revenues of the School estates which Lyon left, are now very considerable; so that one portion of the property, which 70 years ago produced only 1001. a year, now returns 40001.

The school was built about three years after Lyon's decease:* the school room,

* John Lvon is buried in Harrow Church: the brass of his tomb states, “who hath founded a free grammar-school in this parish to have continuance for ever; and for maintenance thereof, and for releyffe or 'the poore, and of some poore schollars in the universityes, repairing of highwaves and other good and charitable uses, hath made convevance of lands of good value to a corporation granted for that purpose. Prayse be to the Author of all goodness, who makes us myndful to follow his good example."

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