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filled with painted glass, as are also the side windows. Next are the cloisters,
surrouuding an area, in the centre of which is the former chapel, now the libra-
ry. Beyond is the Public School; it was built in 1687 chiefly by subscription
among Wykehamists, and is the noblest structure of the kind in the kingdom.
Upon the walls are inscribed in Latin the admonitions and rules for the govern-
ment of the scholars; on the west wall are painted upon a large tablet, a mitre
and crozier, the rewards of clerical learning; a pen and inkhorn and a sword,
the ensigns of the civil and military professions; and a Winton rod, the dullard's
quickener: beneath each symbol is its apt legend: “Aut disce," " Aut discede,"
“Manet sors tertia cædi."-"Either learn;" "or depart;” “or in the third place
be flogged;” underneath is the flogging-place. On the east wall is a corres-
ponding tablet, bearing the School laws, in Latin. The Chamber walls are
carved with the names of many an illustrious Wykehamist; but, the viost inter-
esting memorial is the Seventh Chamber and the adjoining passage. This “
the ancient school wherein Waynflete taught, and was called by the founder,
'Magna illa domus :' the stone ‘books' in the embayed windows still remain ; it
could accommodate scarcely more than ninety boys.” At present, the founda-
tion scholars at Winchester are limited to 70; and the commoners are in gen-
eral about 130. The College and its Grammar School differ little in management
from Eton. Among its characteristic customs is the chanting of the Latin song
"Dulce Domum,” to which justice can not be done in any English translation.
It is sung in College Hall on the six last Saturdays of the “long half” before
"evening bells;" and at the July festival:

Nations, and thrones, and reverend laws, have melted like a dream,
Yet Wykeham's works are green and fresh beside the crystal stream;
Four hundred years and fifty their rolling course have sped,
Since the first serge-clad scholar to Wykeham's feet was led:
And still his seventy faithful boys, in these presumptuous days,
Learn the old truth; speak the old words, tread in the ancient ways:
Still for their daily orisons resounds the matin chime -
Still linked in bands of brotherhood, St. Catherine's steep they climb;
Still to their Sabbath worship they troop by Wykeham's tomb -
Still in the summer twilight sing their sweet song of home.

Roundell Palmer's Anniversary Ballad. Another eminent Wykehamist, the Rev. Mackenzie Walcott, M. A., has commemorated in his William of Wykeham and his Colleges the glories of Winchester, with an earnest eloquence, and affection for this school of near five cen. turies, which accompanies the reader through every page of Mr. Walcott's vol

It is delightful to see with what pride the author contemplates “the suc. cess of a school, which in its earliest days produced Chicheley and Waynflete, the founders of the two grandest colleges in our ancient universities; t'ie gentle Warham; Grocyn, the reviver of the Greek language; the philosophic Shaftes. bury and profound Harris; the moralist, Browne; among poets

— some of them distinguished ornaments of the Augustan age — Otway, Young, Collins, Somerville, Phillips, Crowe; the learned Bilson, Burgess, Lowth, and meck Ken; the graceful Wotton; among judges, Erle and Cranworth; among speakers, Onslow, Cornwall, Sidmouth, and Lefevre; among seamen, Keats and Warren; among soldiers, Lord Guildford, Seaton, Dalbiac, Myers, and their gallant companions in the hard-fought fields of the last war.

It has never failed in contributing its share of faithful men to serve the country in Church and State; it



has well sustained the reputation which should attach to the only ancient institution not founded by a sovereign which boasts itself to be a royal college."

HENRY THE SIXTH AND ETON COLLEGE. Henry VI. was born at Windsor, in 1821, and educated by his uncle, Cardinal Beaufort, in all the learning of the age. Hall, the chronicler, when speaking of the causes which led him to found Eton College, and King's College, Cambridge, says of him: "he was of a most liberal mind, and especially to such as loved good learning; and those whom he saw profiting in any virtuous science, he heartily forwarded and embraced.” An ingenious writer of our own time has, however, more correctly characterized the young King's motive: "still stronger in Henry's mind was the desire of marking his gratitude to God by founding and endowing some place of pious instruction and Christian worship." Henry seems principally to have followed the magnificent foundations of William of Wykeham at Winchester and Oxford; resolving that the school which he founded should be connected with a college in one of the Universities, whither the best of the foundation scholars of his school should proceed to complete their education, and where a permanent provision should be made for them. Standing upon the north terrace of Windsor Castle, near Wykeham's tower, and looking towards the village of Eton, upon the opposite bank of the silver-winding Thames, we can imagine the association to have first prompted the devout King's design - in the words of the Charter, “to found, erect, and establish, to endure in all future time, a College consisting of and of the number of one provost and ten priests, four clerks and six chorister boys, who are to serve daily there in the celebration of divine worship, and of twenty-five poor and indigent scholars who are to learn grammar; and also of twenty-five poor and infirm men, whose duty it shall be to pray there continually for our health and welfare so long as we live, and for our soul when we shall have departed this life, and for the souls of the illustrious Prince, Henry our father, late King of England and France; also of the Lady Katherine of most noble memory, late his wife, our mother; and for the souls of all our ancestors and of all the faithful who arc dead: (consisting) also of one master or teacher in grammar, whose duty it shall be to instruct in the rudiments of grammar the said indigent scholars and all others whatsoever who may come together from any part of our Kingdom of England to the said College, gratuitously and without the exaction of money or any other thing.”

The works were commenced in 1441, with the chapel of the College; and to expedite the building, workmen were “pressed" from every part of the realm: The freemasons received 38. a week each, the stonemasons and carpenters 8s.; plumbers, sawyers, tilers, &c., 6d. a day, and common laborers 4d. The grant of arms expresses this right royal sentiment: “If men are ennobled on account: of ancient hereditary wealth, much more is he to be preferred and styled truly noble, who is rich in the treasures of the sciences and wisdom, and is also found diligent in his duty towards God." Henry appointed Waynflete first provost, who, with five fellows of Winchester, and thirty-five of the scholars of that College, became the primitive body of Etonians, in 1443. The works of the chapel were not completed for many years; and the other parts of the College were unfinished until the commencement of Henry the Eighth's reign.

Eton, in its founder's time, was resorted to as a place of education by the

youth of the higher orders, as well as by the class for whose immediate advantage the benefits of the foundation were primarily designed. Those students not on the foundation were lodged at their relations' expense in the town (oppidum) of Eton, and thence called Oppidans. The scholars on the foundation (since called Collegers) were lodged and boarded in the College-buildings, and at the College expense. There are two quadrangles, built chiefly of red brick : in one are the school and the chapel, with the lodgings for the scholars; the other contains the library, the provost's house, and apartments for the Fellows. The chapel is a stately stone structure, and externally very handsome. The architecture is Late Perpendicular, and a good specimen of the style of Henry the Seventh's reign. In the centre of the first quadrangle is a bronze statue of Henry VI. ; and in the chapel another statue, of marble, by John Bacon. The foundation scholars seem to have been first placed in two large chambers on the ground-foor, three of the upper boys in each; they had authority over the others, and were responsible for good conduct beingomaintained in the dormitory. Subsequently was added "the Long Chamber” as the common dormitory of all the scholars. Dinner and supper were provided daily for all the members of the College; and every scholar received yearly a stated quantity of coarse cloth, probably first made up into clothing, but it has long ceased to be so used.

The King's Scholars or Collegers are distinguished from oppidans by a black cloth gown. The boys dined at eleven, and supped at seven; there being only two usual meals.

King Henry is recorded to have expressed much anxiety for his young incipient Alumni. One of his chaplains relates that “when King Henry met some of the students in Windsor Castle, whither they sometimes used to go to visit the King's servants, whom they knew, ou ascertaining who they were, he admonished them to follow the path of virtue, and besides his words would give them money to win over their good-will, saying, “Be good boys; be gentle and docile, and servants of the Lord.' (Sitis boni pueri, mites et docibiles, et servi Domini.)"

The progress of the buildings was greatly checked by the troubles towards the close of the reign of Henry VI. ; and his successor, Edward IV., not only deprived Eton of large portions of its endowments, but obtained a bull from Pope Pius II. for disposing of the College, and merging it in the College of St. George at Windsor; but Provost Westbury publicly and solemnly protested against this injustice, the bull was revoked, and many of the endowments were restored, though the College suffered severely. The number on the foundation consisted of a provost and a vice-provost, 6 fellows, 2 chaplains, 10 choristers, the upper and lower master, and the 70 scholars. The buildings were continued during the reign of Henı y VII., and the early years of Henry the Eighth, whose death saved Parliament from extinguishing Eton, which was then confirmed to Edward VI.

“Among the Paston Letters is one written in 1467, by "Master William Paston at Eton, to his Worshipful Brother, John Paston, acknowledging the receipt of 8d. in a letter, to buy a pair of slippers; 138. 4d. to pay for his board, and thanking him for 12lb. of Figgs and 8lb. of Raisins, which he was expecting by the first barge: he then narrates how he had fallen in love with a young gentlewoman to whom he had been introduced by his hostess, or dame; and he concludes with a specimen of his skill in Latin versification."


dows east and west, a gothic oak canopy, and a carved oak gallery over the
space dividing the hall from the buttery. The oak panelling around the room
is cut all over with the names of Etonians of several generations.

Among the Eton festivals was, the Montem, formerly celebrated every third
year on Whit-Tuesday, and believed to have been a corruption of the Popishi
ceremony of the Boy Bishop. It consisted of a theatrical procession of pupils
wearing costumes of various periods, for the purpose of collecting money, or
"salt,” for the captain of Eton, about to retire to King's College, Cambridge.
To each contributor was given a small portion of salt, at an eminence named
therefrom Salt-Hill; the ceremony concluding with the waving of a flag upon
this hill or Montem. * Boating and cricket are the leading recreations at Eton:
the College walks, or playing-fields, extended to the banks of the Thames, and
the whole scene is celebrated by Gray, the accomplished Etonian, in his well-
known Ode on a Distant Prospect of Eton College, commencing -

"Ye distant spires, ye antique towers

That crown the watery glade."
“Waynflete was the first Provost of Eton. Among the eminent scholars are
Archbishop Rotherham, and Bishop West; Croke, the celebrated Hellenist, one
of the first who taught the Greek language publicly in any university north of
the Alps ; Bishop Aldrich, the friend of Erasmus; Hall, the chronicler; Bishop
Foxe; Thomas Sutton, founder of the Charterhouse ; Sir Thomas Smith, and
Sir Henry Savile, provosts; Admiral Sir Humphrey Gilbert; Oughtred, the
mathematician; Tusser, the useful old rhymer; Phineas and Giles Fletcher, the
poets; the martyrs, Fuller, Glover, Saunders, and Hullier; Sir Henry Wotton,
provost; Robert Devereux, third Earl of Essex; Waller, the poet ; Robert
Boyle; Henry More, the Platonist; Bishops Pearson and Sherlock; the ever-
memorable John Hales, “the Walking Library ;' Bishops Barrow and Fleet-
wood; Lord Camden; the poets Gray, Broome, and West; Fielding, the novel-
ist; Dr. Arne, the musical composer; Horace Walpole; the Marquis of Granby;
Sir William Draper; Sir Joseph Banks; Marquis Cornwallis; Lord Howe; Rich-
ard Porson, the Greek Emperor; the poets Shelley, Praed and Milman; Hallam,
the historian; and W. E. Gladstone, the statesman.

The Premiers of England, during the last century and a half, were mostly
educated at Eton. Thus, Lord Bolingbroke, Sir William Wyndham, Sir Robert
Walpole, Lord Townshend, Lord Lyttleton, Lord Chatham, the elder Fox, Lord
North, Charles James Fox, Mr. Wyndham, the Marquis Wellesley, Lord Gren-
ville, Canning, the Duke of Wellington, Lord Grey, and the Earl of Derby —
were all Etopians.

Among the celebrities of the College should not be forgotten the periodical work entitled The Etonian, the contributors to which were Eton scholars, and the author-publisher was the Etonian Charles Knight - a name long to be remembered in the commonwealth of English literature."

King's College, which Henry founded in 1441, at Cambridge, to be recruited from Eton, is the richest endowed collegiate foundation in that University.

* The last Montem was celebrated at Whitsuntide, 1844. The abolition of the custom had long been pressed upon the College authorities, and they at length yielded to the growing condemnation of the ceremony as an exhibition unworthy of the present enlightened age. A memorial of the last celebration is preserved in that picturesque chronicle of events, the Illustrated London News, June 1, 1844.

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