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before unattainable, to all whose vocation and duty it is to labor, directly or indirectly, for the good of the next generation; especially for educated parents, school officers, and public and private teachers.
Acquainted by the nature of his studies with the treasures of ancient and mod. ern pedagogical literature, and in possession of a rich treasure of extracts, the editor seized with pleasure the hand which his publisher, so unwearied in his exertions for popular education, held out to him; and he now lays his collection before the public.
On the difficult point of arrangement, the editor concluded it best to proceed partly by chronology and partly according to subjects: which may account for the location of some extracts earlier or later than at first view might seem appropriate.
The editor would gladly have inserted still other extracts from useful teachers and celebrated wise men. But this would have rendered the extent of the work too great. According to the best judgment of the editor, however, at least all the chief subdivisions of his subject have been discussed. He is confident that under the circumstances his apology will be accepted, if any maxims of eminent men shall not be found when looked for.
The author introduces the following parable from Hawke, as symbolic of the work of the parent and teacher.
A gardener planted, by the garden-wall, a little tree of a remarkably fine kind.
They were waste wood, he said, that injured the valuable branches, taking the sap away from them and keeping them in the shade.
The children wondered at his doing so, and could not understand it.
But after a few years the little tree bore its first fruit, which tasted excellently to the children.
But the gardener still continued to prune it.
Therefore must parents and teachers continually direct the child, teach him, blame him, even discipline him.
Thus will grow up at last a lovely youth, and a useful man, or a good daughter.
We publish in this number the first three chapters of Wohlfarth's work very nearly as they stand. In succeeding numbers of this Journal, we shall give the remainder of the book, substantially as it was compiled; and shall also add, under the existing heads, such other selections as we have gathered, and others under additional chapters; with the intention of ultimately completing such a comprehensive and valuable collection of detached thoughts, aphorisms, and suggestions, that every practical teacher and friend of education shall be enabled to find in it something to stimulate reflection, to suggest expedients, or to solve doubts.
I. MAN-AIS DIGNITY AND DESTINY,
AS THE SUBJECT OF EDUCATION.
And God said, let us make man in our image, after our likeness; and let them have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air and over the cattle, and over all the earth, and over every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth.
So God created man in his own image, in the image of God created he him; male and female created he them. BIBLE, Gen. i; 26, 27.
And the Lord God took the man, and put him into the Garden of Eden to dress it and to keep it.
And the Lord God commanded the man, saying, of every tree of the Garden thou mayest freely eat.
But of the tree of knowledge of good and evil, thou shalt not eat of it; for in the day that thou eatest thereof thou shalt surely die.
BIBLE, Gen, ii ; 15-17. When I consider thy heavens, the work of thy fingers, the moon and the stars, which thou hast ordained ;
What is man that thou art mindful of him ? and the son of man, that thou visitest him.
For thou hast made him a little lower than the angels, and hast crowned him with glory and honor.
Thou madest him to have dominion of the works of thy hands; thou hast put all things under him. O Lord our God, how excellent is thy name in all the earth!
BIBLE, Psalms, viii; 3-6, 9. And they knew not the secrets of God, nor hoped for the wages of justice nor esteemed the honor of holy souls.
For God created man incorruptible, and to the image of his own likeness he made him.
BIBLE, Wisdom of Solomon, ii ; 22, 23. Lay not up for yourselves treasures upon earth, where moth and rust doth corrupt, and where thieves break through and steal.
For where your treasure is there will your heart be also.
Behold the fowls of the air ; for they sow not, neither do they reap, nor gather into barns; yet your heavenly father feedeth them. Are ye not much better than they?
And why take ye thought for raiment ? consider the lilies of the field, how they grow; they toil not, neither do they spin ;
Therefore if God so clothe the grass of the field, which to day is, and to-morrow is cast into the oven, shall he not much more clothe you, O ye of little faith?
BIBLE, Matt. vi; 19, 21, 26, 28, 30. For in the resurrection they neither marry nor are given in marriage, but are the angels of God in heaven.
I am the God of Abraham, and the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob? God is not the God of the dead, but of the living.
BIBLE, Matt. xxii; 30, 32.
For ye have not received the spirit of bondage again to fear; but ye have received the spirit of adoption; whereby we cry, Abba, Father.
The spirit itself beareth witness with our spirit, that we are the children of God:
BIBLE, Paul's Ep. Rom. viii; 15-16. Marvel not at this : for the hour is coming, in which all that are in the graves shall hear his voice,
And shall come forth; they that have done good, unto the resurrection of life; and they that have done evil, unto the resurrection of damnation.
BIBLE, John, v; 28, 29. The destiny of man is, to perfect himself,
The wise man, whose virtue is actively efficient, endeavors everywhere, always and in all circumstances, not to undertake anything which violates the laws of his reason.
Riches and honor are two things which mortals desire ; but is the reason does not approve of the possession of them, the truly wise man will not seek to attain them.
Men hate and flee from poverty and abasement.
But the truly wise man, although unjustly thrown into such circumstances, will never try to escape from them by unjust means. CONFUCIUS.
According to our relationship to the gods, is virtue—moral excellencethe proper aim of our life.
Above all, our happiness should depend upon our immortal part; which the will of the gods, our creators, has made the noblest. ZOROASTER.
How brief is this life ; and how unhappy is he who does not apply him. self to the practice of virtue! virtue, which produces the only true good which we can enjoy with real profit.
That death is certain, no one doubts.
But if it is true that it is to come upon us, whether we are good or bad, then turn your attention to it, and determine on which of those two sides you will be ranked.
THE HINDOO Book, Czour-Vedam. He who always draws in his senses, as the tortoise does his limbs, from contact with sensual allurements, his soul is firmly fixed in wisdom.
BHAGAVAD-GITA. Men should pray, not to the visible material sun, but to the divine; to that incomparably higher light which illuminates all, rejoices all, from which all proceeds, to which all must return.
Laus of Menu. The wise man seeks to acquire knowledge and wealth, as if he were not subject to death or sickness; and fulfills his religious duties, as if he were upon the verge of death.
Knowledge produces humility, humility worth, worth wealth. But from religion comes happiness.
Knowledge is the most valuable treasure, for it can not be stolen nor consumed.
As the figures on an earthen vessel can not be easily effaced, so is wisdom impressed upon the young.
Author of Hitopadesa. The end of all instruction is virtue; and after this must the scholar strive, even as he who draws a bow, must fear nothing so much as to miss.
The teacher must set before the young a high object, by the examples of the wise men of old; he must proceed as does the sculptor in forming the rough stone.
Instructions and admonitions must be as the spring rain to the needs of the husbandınan.
Strive to make your exterior brilliant and your interior pure; let every look and gesture, every word, be a precious stone; that you may become lord of the earth, of your wife, of your substance, of health and splendor.
Whether you wake or sleep, consider always what is a proper regard for yourself; whatever you do or omit, never forget that you are setting an example.
Never must you cherish the smallest fault; a rule that will save you much damage ; nor can you cultivate the smallest virtue without receiving, a double reward.
He who plants no corn will gather no ears; and he who does not gather his crop, on what will he live?
Book of Chinese Poems, collected by CONFUCIUS. After RUECKERT: A just man obeys strictly the voice of his inner self, that in all his actions he may conform his will to it.
He who is deaf to this heavenly voice, will give free course to his pas: sions, and will call every vice to arms.
Oh, how is it possible for one to become a good and wise man, who despises this ray which shines to each man from heaven? How can such a man escape from evil and arrive at perfect goodness ?
No: He will do what is inconsistent with the dignity of man, and willi thus fall into the very evils which he would avoid.
CONFUCIUS. For a guide, choose Reason.
Then, when you leave the body, you become immortal, like one of the: eternal gods; no longer subject to death. Accustom yourself, therefore, to do all things according to Reason.
PYTHAGORAS. Let man strive to be worthy of Heaven; let him, in this world, do good out of a pure heart; let him be pure in thought, word and deed; let him seek only what is good, and be holy and speak the truth.
ZOROASTER. Reason is the noblest and best thing; and this the gods have freely given to us.
EPICTETUS. Man consists of an elementary nature, and a rational or divine principle; a part of the universal soul, an influx of the central fire, and an irrational. part, namely, the passions.
At death, therefore, it is only the first of these that perishes. The reasoning part, in virtue of which man is man—the spirit itself, is immortal:
When death loosens his chains, he goes, with an ætherial body, to the abodes of the dead, until the time when he returns again to the earth, in order to dwell there again in another body, human or animal, until at last, after having become fully purified, he is raised up to God, the eternal source of all good.
Harinony in all things is the end after which man should strive. As in the universe, it should exist in man, as if in a miniature world.
Therefore man should endeavor to understand himself; that he may attain to perception of abstract relations, of harmony, of heavenly beauty, and thus may enter into fit intercourse with the divine, and find therein. his highest good.
PYTHAGORAS. It is by virtue that man makes himself like God, so far as it is possible. for him.
Virtue consists in justice, in moderating the desires, and in holiness.
Religion secures to the just man two inestimable advantages; unbroken. peace during life, and blissful hope in the hour of death.
It wonld be frightful to believe that the Gods were mindful of our giits and sacrifices, but hecded not whether the soul is holy and just.
Plato. When in the morning you wake from refreshing slecp, reflect at once and seriously, what you must do during the day. Before sleep closes your eyes, think three times over all that you have done during the day ; and ask yourself, whither you are going, what you are doing, and what you yet lack of the divine; what you have overlooked, what done, and what neglected.
PYTHAGORAS. What is the noblest thing in human life?
Not to fill the sea with fleets, to hoist your flag on every coast, or if there is no more land, to search the ocean and discover unknown countries; but it is to attain to intellectual insight; and to win the greatest victorythat over vice.
Those are innumerable who have conquered cities and nations; but those who have conquered themselves are but few.
What is noblest ?
To elevate the mind above the threats and promises of fate; to endure al fortune with cheerful courage; to receive whatever comes as if it had been so willed. For weeping, complaining, sighing, are to resign our faith.
What is noblest ?
To let no low thoughts come into the mind; to lift up towards heaven pure hands and an upright heart; and if an accident shall put you in possession of what others value highly, to preserve the same denieanor when it comes and when it goes.
Wbat is noblest ?
To be every moment prepared to die. This makes free; not according to the provisions of the Roman law, but according to the law of nature. He is five who is not a slave to himself
. Such slavery is eternal. To be one's own slave is the severest servitude. And yet it is easy to free one's self from it.
Oh, it is delightful to wander beneath the stars, to laugh at the magnificent halls of the rich, and at all the treasures which the earth has already yielded to them, and which she still conceals in her bosom for the satisfaction of their avarice.
And the wise man says, This is the speck for which so many nations ravage each other with fire and sword !
If the ants were endowed with human reason, would they not divide their little realm into many provinces ?
There is something lofty and noble in the human soul, that gift of the gods--yes, something divine.
When the day arrives which shall separate the union of human and divine things, I will leave my body behind, where I found it, and give myself back to the Divine.
There is but one heavy earthly burden which withholds me from my flight beyond the stars.
But our abode during this mortal period is only a type of a longer and better life.
As we are preserved for months in the mother's womb, and prepared for the place for which we are designed, so in like manner, during the whole period from youth to age, are we in preparation for another birth.
The hour of death is the last hour, only of the body.
All which you here see around you, consider only as the baggage at an inn.
The transition must be ventured; nature compels you; both at your