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cies; among the Anseres, which are characterized as having the bill smooth, covered with epidermis, and enlarged at the tip, are the gannet with a bare pointed bill, the divers, the terns, and the gulls, with bills not at all answering to the description given; among the Gralla with a cylindrical bill, are the ostrich with a short depressed one, the boatbill with one resembling a boat, the spoonbill, the heron, the flamingo, and others, whose bills differ from each other as much as from that of the snipes and curlews; the character given to the bill of the Gallinæ agrees with that of many Passeres; and, lastly, the wagtail, the swallow, the tit, the robin, and a multitude of other small birds, have bills extremely unlike those of the goldfinch, bunting, and crossbill, which are referred to the same order. We mention these circumstances, not for the purpose of detracting from the merit of Linnæus, but simply because we are persuaded that many of his generalizations are extremely incorrect, as are in many respects those of all his predecessors, and even of the ablest philosophers of the present age. It is absurd to attempt to thrust the objects of nature into squares or circles, or enclosures of any other form. Every system that has been invented has failed in presenting even a tolerably accurate view of the discrepancies and accordances of the endlessly-diversified forms that have resulted from the creation of an Infinite Power.
The following table presents the Linnæan arrangement of Birds in outline :
Beak hooked; head bare: 8
42. Falco, eagles and hawks. Beak hooked; head feathered: 32 species.
43. Strix, owl. Beak hooked, feathers at its base directed forwards: 12 species.
44. Lanius, shrike. Beak straightish, notched: 26 species.
Order II. PICÆ.
45. Psittacus, parrots. Beak hooked; upper mandible furnished with a cere: 47 species.
46. Ramphastos, toucan. Beak very large, hollow, convex, serrated; both mandibles incurved at the tip: 8 species.
47. Buceros, hornbill. Beak convex, curved, cultrate, large, serrated; forehead covered with a horny plate: 4 species.
48. Buphaga, beef-eater. Beak straight, somewhat quadrangular; the mandibles bulging: 1 species.
49. Crotophaga, plantain-eater. Beak compressed, half-eggshaped, arched, keeled on the back: 2 species. 50. Corvus, crows. Beak convex, cultrate; nostrils covered by recumbent bristly feathers: 19 species.
51. Coracias, roller. Beak cultrate, the tip incurved, not covered with feathers at the base: 6 species.
52. Oriolus, oriole. Beak conical, convex, straight, very acute; upper mandible slightly longer, and indistinctly notched: 20 species.
53. Gracula, grakle. Beak cultrate, convex, bareish at the base: 8 species.
54. Paradisea, birds of Paradise.
Beak covered with
the downy feathers of the forehead; feathers of the
sides long: 3 species.
55. Trogon, curucui.
Beak shorter than the head,
cultrate, hooked, serrated: 3 species.
56. Bucco, barbet. Beak cultrate, laterally compressed, notched at the tip, incurved, opening to beneath the eyes: 1 species.
57. Cuculus, cuckoo. Beak roundish; nostrils with a prominent margin: 22 species.
58. Yunx, wryneck. Beak roundish, sharp pointed; nostrils concave: 1 species.
59. Picus, woodpecker. Beak angular, straight, the tip wedgeshaped; the nostrils covered with recumbent bristly feathers: 21 species.
60. Sitta, nuthatch. Beak awlshaped, roundish, straight: 3 species.
61. Todus, tody. Beak awlshaped, a little flattened, obtuse, straight, with spreading bristles at the base: 2 species.
62. Alcedo, kingsfisher. Beak three cornered, thick, straight, long: 15 species.
63. Merops, bee-eater. keeled: 7 species.
Beak curved, compressed,
64. Upupa, hoopoe. Beak arcuate, convex, a little compressed, rather obtuse: 3 species.
65. Certhia, creeper. Beak arcuate, slender, acute : 25 species.
66. Trochilus, humming-bird. Beak slender, longer than the head, its tip tubular: 22 species.
Order III. ANSERES.
67. Anas, swans, geese, and ducks. Beak lamellated at the margin, convex, obtuse: 45 species.
68. Mergus, merganser. Beak denticulate, cylindrical, the tip hooked: 6 species.
69. Alca, auk. Beak short, compressed, convex, furrowed; the lower mandible with a prominent angle: 5 species.
70. Procellaria, petrel. Beak a little compressed; the upper mandible hooked, the lower channelled and compressed at the tip: 6 species.
71. Diomedea, albatross. Beak straight; upper mandible hooked at the tip, lower abrupt: 2 species.
72. Pelecanus, pelican, gannet, shag. Beak straight, the tip hooked, unguiculate: 8 species.
73. Plotus, darter. Beak straight, sharp pointed, denticulate: 1 species.
74. Phaeton. Beak cultrate, straight, acuminate: 2 species.
75. Colymbus, diver. Beak slender, straight, sharp pointed: 11 species.
76. Larus, gull. Beak straight, cultrate, the tip a little hooked; the lower mandible with an angular prominence: 11 species.
77. Sterna, tern. Beak slender, nearly straight, acute, compressed 7 species.
78. Rynchops, skimmer. Beak straight; upper mandible much shorter, lower abruptly terminated: 2 species.
Order IV. GRALLE, Waders.
79. Phoenicopterus, flamingo. Beak incurvated as if broken, denticulate; feet webbed: 1 species.
80. Platalea, spoonbill. Beak flattish, the tip dilated, rounded, and flat: 3 species.
81. Palamedea, screamer.
mandible hooked: 2 species.
Beak conical; the upper
82. Mycteria, jabiru. Beak acute; lower mandible trigonal, ascending; upper three cornered, straight: 1 species.
83. Cancroma, boatbill. Beak bulging; the upper mandible resembling a boat with the keel uppermost: 2 spe
84. Ardea, cranes and herons. Beak straight, acute, long, a little compressed, with a furrow from the nostrils to the tip: 26 species.
85. Tantalus, ibis. Beak long, slender, arcuate; face bare: 7 species.
86. Scolopax, snipes, curlews. obtuse; face feathered: 18 species.
Beak long, slender,
87. Tringa, sandpiper. Beak roundish, as long as the head; nostrils linear; feet with four toes: 23 species. 88. Charadrius, plover. Beak roundish, obtuse; feet with three toes: 12 species.
89. Recurvirostra, avoset. Beak slender, recurved, pointed, the tip flexible: 1 species.
90. Hæmatopus, oystercatcher. Beak compressed, the tip wedgeshaped: 1 species.
91. Fulica, coot. Beak convex; upper mandible arched over the lower, which has a prominent angle: 7 species.
92. Parra, jacana. Beak roundish, bluntish; forehead wattled; wings spurred: 5 species.
93. Rallus, rail. Beak thicker at the base, compressed, acute 10 species.
94. Psophia, trumpeter. Beak conical, convex, rather sharp; the upper mandible longer: 1 species.
95. Otis, bustard.
arched: 4 species.
Beak with the upper mandible
96. Struthio, ostrich and cassowary. Beak somewhat conical; wings unfit for flying: 3 species.
Order V. GALLINA, Gallinaceous Birds.
97. Didus, dodo. Beak contracted in the middle, with two transverse ruge; the tip of both mandibles bent inwards: 1 species, now extinct.
98. Pavo, pea-fowl. Head covered with feathers; fea-~ thers of the rump elongated, with eyelike spots: 3 species. 99. Meleagris, turkey-fowl. Head covered with spongy caruncles; the throat with a longitudinal membranous wattle: 3 species.
100. Crax, curassow-bird. Beak with a cere at the base; head covered with recurved feathers: 5 species. 101. Phasianus, pheasant. Sides of the head bare: 6 species.
102. Numida, Guinea-fowl. Carunculated wattles on each side of the face; head with a horny crest: 1 species.