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lenius, from London by Collinson, Miller, and Catesby, from Leyden by Gronovius, from Amsterdam by Burmann, and from Petersburg by Gmelin and Ammann. He even received seeds from Louis XV.; and the Baron Bjilke brought him from Russia a great number of plants, collected in Siberia by Messerschmidt, Gerber, Heller, Heinzelman, and others, most of them not previously described. From Holland he also obtained the Musa, a tree which hé considered himself extremely fortunate in possessing.
Six years after the restoration of the garden, he published a description of it under the title of the Hortus Upsaliensis. At this time, the number of exotic plants which it contained amounted to 1100. A learned traveller, who visited it in 1771, writes as follows: -“ An iron gate of excellent workmanship leads to it from the road. At the top of the gate are displayed the Swedish arms, and those of Count Gyllenborg, who so zealously promoted its restitution. Within, a large court presents itself to view; on the right stands the house of Linnæus, who is the director of the garden, and on the left are some other buildings. A straight avenue leads by another gate to the garden, which is separated from the court by a neat wooden railing. The garden itself is laid out in a superb style. The greater part consists of two large tracts of ground, one of them containing the perennial, the other the annual plants. Each of these tracts is divided into forty-four beds, surrounded with a low hedge and small doors. The plant-house is divided into the greenhouse, the hothouse, and the thriving-house, which form the northern side; the gardener's cottage, which is on the southern; the
thriving-bank on the west; and the grass-bank on the east. The sun-house faces the ponds, into which fresh water is conveyed by pipes."
The professor took possession of his beautiful residence in 1743, and delivered a course of lectures on dietetics, which was numerously attended. The same year he was elected a corresponding member of the Academy of Montpellier. In 1744, Prince Frederick visited the university for the first time, when the professors were presented to him. Celsius and Linnæus were complimented with the title of lumina academice, on account of their great learning and reputation. Some months after this occurrence, the same prince was received at Upsal by the rector and professors; on which occasion Linnæus alone was invited to follow him to Ekhelsund, where he had a private interview. In October, he was appointed secretary to the university, in the place of Andrew Celsius, professor of astronomy, who had died in the preceding spring, and in November was made medical inspector of Smaland, an office which had also been possessed by the same individual.
In the following year, he founded a museum of natural history at the botanic garden ; the prince-royal and Count Gyllenborg furnishing the first collection of animals. In autumn, he published two important works, the Flora Suecica and the Fauna Suecica, in the composition of which he had laboured occasionally during fifteen years. The former contained descriptions of 1140 species of plants indigenous to Sweden, with their medical and economical uses, their stations, and other useful information; the latter exhibited the characters of 1350 animals occurring in the same country. In a subsequent edi. tion this number was increased to 2266.
In the summer of 1746, he made a journey to West Gothland, accompanied by several of his students, and, on returning, devoted himself to the completion of his work on the species of plants. To favour his views, and contribute to the extension of science, Count Tessin obliged the East India Company, who at this time had their charter renewed, to send out every year to China, at their own expense, a young naturalist, to be selected by Linnæus. The same year he received a very flattering testimony of respect from four patriotic noblemen, the Barons Harlemann, Hopken, Palmstjerna, and Count Ekeblad, who caused a medal to be struck in honour of him as well as of his patron, the Count Tessin. One side represented the bust of Linnæus, with these words:
Carol. Linnæus, M. D., Bot. Prof. Ups. Ætat. XXXIX.
On the other were the following :
Carolo Gustavo Tessin et immortalitati effigiem Caroli Linnæi Cl. Ekeblad, Andr. Hoepken, N. Palmstierna, et Car. Harlemann. Dic. MDCCXLVI.
This mark of respect to the distinguished naturalist and his illustrious friend proved so agreeable to the latter, that it induced him to order a piece to be stamped, representing on the one side a likeness of the professor, and on the other three crowns, indicative of his dominion over the three kingdoms of nature, with the sun casting his beams on them, as emblematic of the genius of the North illuminating the mundane system. Illustrat,—He illumines,was the appropriate motto. It is not in infancy only that men are “ pleased with a rattle, tickled with a straw;" nor are flattery and presumption peculiar to any age.
In January 1747, the King of Sweden conferred on Linnæus and his issue the title of First Physician, or Dean of the College of Physicians; and soon after he was elected a member of the Royal Academy of Berlin.
Professor Hermann of Leyden, who, towards the end of the preceding century, had been sent to Ceylon and other parts of India, for the purpose of examining the spice-plants, died soon after his return, and his collections fell into the hands of Mr Gunther, apothecary at Copenhagen. This person, desirous of knowing what they contained, sent them to Holland; but receiving from thence information that Linnæus was the only person who could satisfy him, he finally addressed them to Upsal. Delighted with this oriental treasure, which had been lost half a century, the botanist examined it with the greatest attention, and, on completing his laborious task, published the result under the name of Flora Zeylanica. At the same time he gave to the world an account of his journey to West Gothland.
It is stated, that about this period he made an important discovery relative to the formation of pearls in the river-mussel (Unio margaritifera), a shell of common occurrence in the northern parts of Eu. rope as well as in our own country, and from which are obtained all our indigenous pearls, which not many years ago were held in considerable estimation. By injuring the shell, probably by means of puncture or perforation, it is supposed that he succeeded in causing a deposition of the pearly matter, so that one might procure a certain quantity at pleasure. The precise method, however, is still uncertain, nor is it believed to have been generally successful; at all events the secret has been entirely lost.
At this period, says Linnæus, botany was cultivated at Upsal with unparalleled ardour. Fre quent excursions were made for the purpose of collecting plants, insects, and birds. Every Wednes. day and Saturday herbarizations took place, which continued from dawn to night. The pupils, having their hats covered with flowers, returned to the town, and preceded by musical instruments accompanied their professor to the garden.
But amid all this success he was harassed by the malice of his enemies. A decree of the senate appeared, which prevented any native of Sweden from publishing a work in a foreign country. This was evidently directed against him alone, for, as he says, it could apply to no other
rson. In a fit of bad humour he flung his pen from him, and swore that he would never write another book. At this period also a person named Fick endeavoured, by disgraceful calumnies, to injure him in the esteem of his fellow-citizens. This conduct he felt so much the more severely, because the slanderer was one of his familiar friends, which was also the case with respect to Halenius, who openly censured one of his dissertations, although he had approved of it