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hell-torments, who believe the universal salvation of devils and damned, and in this belief view God as the friend of the whole intelligent system, all made up of love to his creatures, do in this view of his character, love him, and so are all of them, on this scheme, truly reconciled to God. Rather, these men, if they were instructed in these principles from their childhood, and believed them, were never totally depraved. For they always loved God. And accordingly we find they universally deny the doctrine of total depravity; and say, that it is natural for all mankind to love God; and that in fact they all would love him, were his true and real character brought into their view. And so would the devils. too, on this scheme, were the divine character what the Socinians suppose it to be. And while Socinians love God, viewed as they view him; Antinomians, of the grossest sort, whose faith professedly consists in a belief that God loves them, are often full of love to God, in this view of him. And why may not Socinians and Antinomians have charity or each other? For their schemes are not so different in eality as in appearance. For both look upon God as a ovely being; and both love him; and both profess to love him, for the transcendent excellency of his perfections.' The one does this, because God loves all, and so loves him; the other, because, although God does not love all, yet he loves him in particular. And why is not the love of the one of as good a kind as the love of the other? And the Pharisees, concerning whom Christ declared, that the love of God was not in them, John v. 42. and who hated and crucified the Son of God, ought also to be received to charity, on this scheme; for they really believed that God was their father and their friend, and in this belief, they experienced this kind of love, of which we are speaking, Yea, our charity ought to be more extensive still; for,
5. On this scheme they who are totally depraved, have as much of a principle of grace, as they that are regenerate.That is, sinners are at heart as well disposed to love God, before regeneration, as after. For after regeneration they are disposed to love God, only considered as one that loves them; and before regeneration, they are disposed to love God, con
sidered and viewed in this light. For it is written, sinners love those that love them; and they need no new principle of grace to incline them to it. And so the unregenerate only need light to see that God loves them; and could they but have this light they would love God as much as others.
6. On this scheme, satan's charge against Job, that he was at heart no better than other men, was true and just; and the high commendation which God had given of him, that there was none like him in the earth, was without reason. "And the Lord said unto satan, hast thou considered my servant Job, that there is none like him in the earth, a perfect and an upright man, one that feareth God and escheweth evil? Then satan answered the Lord, and said, doth Job fear God for naught? Hast thou not made an hedge about him, and about his house, and about all that he hath on every side? Thou hast blessed the work of his hands, and his substance is increased in the land." As if he had said, no wonder he loves God, while God is so full of love and kindness to him. And who is there under the like circumstances, that would not love God as much as he does?" "But put forth thine hand now, and touch all that he hath, and he will curse thee to thy face;" just as we fallen spirits have done, ever since we were turned out of heaven. And therefore this Job, who is commended as a none such, has in reality no more grace in his heart than we have.' And if the enmity of fallen creatures against God arises only from conceiving him to be their enemy, and their love only from conceiving God to be their friend, satan's reasoning was just. All Job's seeming superior goodness was entirely owing to the more abundant tokens of the divine love; and therefore he would have turned to be like the devil, in an instant, if God had only touched all that he had. He would have cursed God to the face. Indeed,
7. On this scheme, Adam had no more grace before the fall than he had after; but his different affections toward the Deity were entirely owing to the different external circumstances which he was under. For, on this scheme, before the fall God loved him, and so he loved God; and after the
fall, had God continued to love him, he would have continued to love God also. For the true reason, and the only reason, why Adam could not love God after the fall, was because, as he thought, God was become his irreconcileable enemy. As soon as he found out his mistake, and perceived that God was ready to be reconciled, he returned to the love of his Maker, without any new principle of grace.' Before the fall, that principle of self-love, which, according to Mr. M. was essential to him as a moral agent' naturally inclined him to love God with all his heart as his greatest good.' And after the fall, this same principle did as naturally incline him to hate God with all his heart, as his greatest evil. p. 9. His love and his hatred arose from the very same principle. And his different affections were entirely owing to his different external circumstances. As soon, therefore, as his external circumstances were altered, and God became friendly again, he immediately returned to the love of God, without any new principle of grace; there was nothing in his fallen circumstances to prevent it,' (according to Mr. M.) Adam therefore, on this scheme, had no more grace before the fall than after. It is true, the fall made an alteration in his external circumstances, which different external circumstances occasioned different affections; even as it was with the Israelites at the Red sea, when Pharaoh and his hosts were drowned, and their expectations of a prosperous journey to the land of Canaan were raised very high, they were full of love, and joy, and praise: but three days after, when they came to the waters of Marah, they murmured: and that from the same principle from which they before rejoiced. It is true, they had different affections toward God at these different times; but the true and only reason,' was their different external circumstances, for they had no more grace at the one time, than at the other. And thus it was with Adam, on Mr. M.'s scheme.-Yea,
8. On this scheme, there is no essential difference between the nature of satan, and the nature of Gabriel; but their different affections, and different conduct, arise merely from the different external circumstances which they are in. For there is no higher principle than self-love in either. The one
looks on God as an enemy, and so hates him merely in that view. And the other looks upon God as a friend, and so loves him merely in that view. And thus their natures are exactly alike, and their different affections and conduct arise merely from the different external circumstances which they are under. And thus satan stands justified in his enmity against God; and thus the holy angels are degraded to a level with devils. For satan might say, 'to love God in my circumstances would be to love my own misery: but to take delight in misery, to take pleasure in pain, is a contradiction; and is in its own nature impossible. Therefore, I am not to blame. And as to the angels, who dwell in heaven, do they fear God for naught, in the paradise above, surrounded with every blessing? Far from it. But let God put forth his hand now, and touch all that they have, and they will curse him to his face, just as we do.'
Thus much in answer to the first question: and to prepare the way for the second, we may observe, that Mr. M. says, speaking of Adam after the fall, (p. 9.) In every view, it must appear to him that God could deal no otherwise with him, but to execute the curse, unless he should act contrary to his divine and glorious perfections.' And, p. 10. 'To delight in God, in this case, was the same thing as to delight in his own misery.' And, p. 12. This was the true reason, and the only reason, why Adam could not love God after the fall.' But Adam soon found he was mistaken; for it soon appeared that God knew how to open a way to pardon sinners, 'consistent with his divine and glorious perfections.'Therefore,
Question II. Are we, as fallen creatures, enemies only to false and mistaken ideas of the Deity?
Answer. If we are enemies only to false and mistaken ideas of the Deity, then it will follow, that we have no enmity against God's true and real character, even none at all; but rather are in a disposition to love it as soon as known. Nor shall we need any inward influence of the Holy Spirit at all, to dispose us to the knowledge of it; for we shall not be averse to the knowledge of it, as not being at all prejudiced against it. In this case we shall not hate the light, but love
and receive it with all our hearts, of our own accord. And therefore, if the external manifestations of God's true character are sufficiently clear, we shall know it, and we shall love it. And, on this hypothesis, had God given mankind, from the beginning of the world, an external exhibition of his true character, sufficiently full and plain, all mankind would have known and loved him from the beginning of the world. So that the great and general depravity of mankind, and the wickedness which hath overspread the earth, in all ages, have been entirely owing to God's not giving a sufficient external revelation of his true and real character to the children of men. But they are not to blame for this. If there be any blame at all, it lies at his door, who hath neglected to let his true and real character be known. For had he but revealed it to mankind, they having no prejudice against it, but being naturally disposed to love it, would of course have attended to the revelation with good and honest hearts, and would have understood it, and have brought forth fruit accordingly.How to justify the divine conduct, in this view of things, I do not know. Nor can I tell how to justify the conduct of Moses and the prophets, of Christ Jesus and his apostles, who were commissioned to reveal God's true character to men, in suffering both God, and themselves for his sake, to be hated, when things, if this scheme is true, were so circumstanced, that if they had but plainly told the truth, all would have understood it, believed it, loved and obeyed it; and they would have been the most universally beloved of any persons in the world. If mankind, with respect to God's true and real character, stand affected as Mr. Sandeman represents, even as the inhabitants of an island perishing with hunger do, with respect to a large importation of corn, the news of which would spread like lightning from end to end of the island, and give hope and joy to all the inhabitants at once, then had Jesus of Nazareth and his apostles plainly revealed the Father's character to mankind, the news would have spread over the earth, and would have filled the world with joy; and these bringers of good tidings had been the delight of all nations. Why then did they suffer themselves to be hated, persecuted, murdered, for nothing! Yea, for worse