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immediate utility is not obvious, is common to nearly all men. The social importance for good or for evil of this instinct needs no emphasis.

To complete this enumeration, two more primary instincts must be mentioned. These are the parental instinct and the instinct of sex. The parental instinct, displayed among the animals chiefly by the mother, is on the human level characteristic of both sexes. The human species, like all other species, is dependent upon this instinct for its continued survival. In some ways the instinct is stronger than any other, and-in contradistinction to most other instincts which serve primarily the interests of the individual-this works primarily in the service of the species.

Intimately connected with the parental instinct is the sex instinct. This instinct also functions largely in the interest of the species, and it is obvious that if it did not exist, the species would rapidly die out. The social importance of this instinct depends not only on its direct forms of expression, but also on the influences which result from the immense energy which it lends to the impulses connected with the complex emotions and sentiments into which it enters.

From the point of view of social progress, the most important feature of instincts is their essentially modifiable character. As they appear in the lower animals, they are much more fixed and determinate than in human beings: the element of experience does not bulk largely in them. Man's instincts, on the other hand, are essentially amenable to training, and thus contribute to all social development. Another characteristic of instinct, on the developed level at which it appears among human beings, is its variability. As the acquired element in human instinct plays a part of vital importance, instincts vary in their strength and in the manner of their appearance. To use Prof. Stout's illustration, falling in love is instinctive, but we do not all fall in love with the same readiness or the same intensity-or with the same kind of person."

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The instincts which have just been enumerated form the foundation on which all social life is based.* Though some are

*In this analysis of the instinctive basis of human behaviour, I have closely followed Dr. McDougall's exposition in his "Introduction to Social Psychology," which I applied to ethics eleven years ago in my

more social in their reference than others, all are of essential importance in any consideration of the place of citizenship in social life. By each of them an indispensable rôle has been played in the constitution of the great human institutions. A careful examination of these instincts would appear to show that in each case a pair of instincts may be regarded as contributing, in a special degree, to the formation of each institution. It is clear that the family is based on the parental and the reproductive instincts. It is hardly less clear that the State depends for its existence on the gregarious and the pugnacious instincts. That the foundation of industry rests upon the instincts of acquisition and curiosity is not self-evident, but appears none the less true. (2). INSTINCTS OF THE FAMILY.

The importance for society of the reproductive and parental instincts, constitutive of the family, needs no emphasis. It is obvious that if the sex instinct could be abolished, society would soon disappear altogether. In human beings the parental instinct is conjoined with the reproductive, and closely correlated with it. The combination of these instincts results in the institution of the family, and there can be no doubt that the stability and integrity of the family is the sine qua non of the health of society.

All peoples, except those which on the application of any criterion must be accounted the most degraded, have found it necessary to fortify the institution of the family by the most solemn sanctions. Such sanctions have been devised to safeguard "Introduction to Ethics." In spite of the criticisms of Mr. Shand, Prof. Graham Wallas, Prof. MacIver, Mr. Ginsberg and others, Dr. McDougall's view seems to me essentially sound. I have omitted all reference to certain instincts, such as flight, repulsion, self-assertion, and self-abasement, not because I do not consider that they are genuine instincts, but because I think that their operation, from the standpoint of citizenship, is closely connected in one way or another with pugnacity. The social effects of self-assertion are very similar to those of pugnacity in its derivative form of emulation, and the effects of the other three instincts-flight, repulsion and self-abasement-are from the social standpoint negative aspects of the operation of pugnacity. To prevent misunderstanding, I wish to make it clear that I believe that all these instincts are separate, and that their social repercussions can be distinguished. Such meticulous analysis would, however, be out of place in this article, which is only concerned with driving main lines through psychological theory, so far as it concerns the problem of citizenship.

the operation of the primitive instincts in communities in which growing sophistication militated against them. The fact that the untrammelled working of these instincts, and especially the parental instinct, involves self-sacrifice and the suppression of narrowly self-regarding tendencies, suggested to nascent foresight and prudence the desirability of interfering with their free operation. In certain communities, motives of near-sighted expediency did, in fact, intervene to prevent the free working of these instincts. It was found, however, both in primitive communities and in such developed societies as those of ancient Greece and Rome that counsels prompted by individual selfishness in the repression of the normal functioning of the sex and parental instincts provoked such decay and deterioration of the bodypolitic as ultimately, in some cases, to lead to its complete dissolution. Societies in which the normal operation of these two instincts was not defended by social sanctions simply ceased to exist.

This historical fact lends gravity to the discussions of the situation as it exists in many of the most civilized countries of the modern world. For it is clearly established, not only that the free operation of these instincts is being interfered with by prudent control in the population as a whole of certain countries in which the standard of living is high and prudential considerations are strongly entertained, such as France and Australia, but also that this phenomenon is being produced in other countries -not equally in all strata of the population, but especially among the cultured and leisured classes of the community. In most of the countries of Europe and America, a falling birth-rate has first manifested itself among the professional classes. If the effectiveness of the old sanctions is to be maintained, it cannot be done by restoring the sanctions as they were. The only way in which the social value of the operation of these two instincts can be conserved is by a wise insistence on their fundamental importance from the point of view of the development of citizenship.


After the Family the State. This is true whatever view of the origin of the State we maintain. Whether it began as a rude undifferentiated horde, as a roughly organized clan, or as a patriarchal community, some crude recognition of the family as a

unit undoubtedly preceded the recognition of the State as a unit. And the State was considered, on any primitive system, to be some sort of aggregation of families, only the heads of which had any real rights. Under different guises the institution of patria potestas is universal in all early forms of the State.

The two instincts of primary importance for bringing and keeping families together in States are those of gregariousness and pugnacity. Different as at first sight they seem, they contribute in almost equal measure to the foundation and maintenance of communities. To the gregarious instinct is due the fact that primitive men originally drew together into hordes, which gradually became more and more systematically organized. The gregarious instinct not only brings men into communities, but by its persistence it keeps them welded in these communities. To this result the instinct of pugnacity has also contributed. It would seem at first sight that if gregariousness is the instinct of unity, pugnacity is the instinct of diversity. It would seem that this instinct would keep men from mixing with their fellows. But the pugnacious instinct, which does originally raise every man's hand against his neighbour, is trained to hold itself in reserve to be used not against fellow-citizens, but against the public enemies of the State to which they belong. For the sake of protection, and in order to get the better of their enemies, men unite in communities, and direct their pugnacious instincts into wars on behalf of the community to which they belong.

This brief analysis of the operation of the gregarious and pugnacious instincts in the foundation of the State must now be elaborated.

The influence of the instinct of gregariousness in the State, from the standpoint of citizenship, displays itself in three ways. In the first place, as we have already seen, the origin of the State may be said to depend on the operation of the instinct. It was this instinct which brought persons together into herds and kept them together in primitive communities. Without this instinct, citizenship would therefore be impossible. For a single isolated individual would not be a citizen. Citizenship involves a system of reciprocal rights and duties; reciprocal rights and duties involve relations between persons; and relations between persons are possible only in communities. As citizenship is possible only in a community, it is clear that the very possibility of citizenship depends on the functioning of the gregarious instinct.

The gregarious instinct, which brings people together in communities, keeps them together in communities. The latter aspect of the operation of the instinct is at least as important as the former. For there is in human nature a curious centrifugal tendency which is constantly apt to disrupt and disintegrate any form of union. It is as a very valuable social counterpoise to this tendency that gregariousness secures the cleaving together of persons within the community. This instinct is also responsible, at least in part, for the herding together of people in cities. There are, of course, political and economic reasons for the growth of great cities, but when all allowance has been made for these motives, there still remains an urge to the city which can be accounted for only by the operation of the gregarious instinct.

Owing to the fact that this instinct prompts the herding of people, not only into cities and States, but into other kinds of groups, to each of which the individual member feels a certain loyalty, conflicts may, and do, arise between these various loyalties. A man may be at one and the same time a citizen of a State, a dweller in a city, a member of a trade union, of a church and of a co-operative society. To each of these groups he may owe a loyalty, and these loyalties may, and often do, conflict.

The social importance of the instinct of pugnacity is only now being realized. In the Victorian era, it was easy to minimise its importance in social history, and it even seemed possible to envisage a state of civilization in which the pugnacious instinct would be seen to be, like the vermiform appendix, a relic of a former order without function in the present. But such dreams have been shattered. The seismic experiences of recent years, and the calm study of comparative psychology, have united to prove that the instinct of pugnacity is an ultimate element in the constitution of human nature. It is capable of modification, the direction of its operation and even its manner of functioning may be changed, but the instinct itself can never be eradicated. Nor is this to be deplored. For in the instinct itself there is nothing essentially vicious. It would appear, indeed, to be intimately allied to certain qualities, such as self-assertion, which are considered highly desirable both in the individual and in the community.

In most States, not only in ancient times, but right down to the present day, care has been taken in educating the citizens to

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