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478.- DETAIL OF THE ABOVE BASKET.
479. - ANOTHER PRETTY PIECE
477.- EMBROIDERED WORK CASE.
No. 500 is begun like the former pattern, with a circle of 8 chain. Ist round : 4 times alternately 3 double, 3 purl ; every round is closed by a slip stitch. 2nd round : I double in both parts of the centre stitch of the three double, 14 chain, the first 3 to form i treble, 3 times alternately I treble in the centre of the 3 treble, 11 chain. 3rd round : 14 chain, the first 3 to form i treble, crochet back along the 10 chain, I leaf as follows : miss 1, i double, i treble, 4 long treble, I treble, I double, i slip stitch, then alternately till the next corner pattern is reached, 16 chain, crocheting back along the last ten stitches i leaf as above described. At the end of this row crochet back along it as follows: 9 chain, crochet back along it i leaf as follows : miss i, i double, i treble, 4 long treble, i treble, I double, I slip stitch in the opposite leaf; then alternately 6 double in the 6 free chain of the last row, I leaf; where the last leaf is crocheted, 2 double in the 5th and 4th of the 14 chain. The 3rd round of the corner figure is then continued, 3 times alternately I chain, I treble
in the next stitch but one, 5 chain, i treble where the last treble was worked *, 6 times alternately I chain, i treble in the next stitch but one, 5 chain, I treble where the last was worked, repeat once from *, then 3 times alternately I chain, I treble, in the next stitch but one. The border is then continued as above described, omitting of course the 3 chain form i treble ; the corner-figure is then completed as follows: 3 times alternately I chain, I treble in the stitch but one, and for the 4 corners, 5 chain, i treble where the last treble was worked, twice alternately I chain, I treble in the next stitch but one, then I chain; fasten and cut off the thread. Then crochet along each side of the centre rows of the border as follows: 1 double in the centre stitch of 5 chain, next to a row of leaves, then alternately 6 chain, i double at the end of the next leaf. Then edge the border
, and the corner figure together as follows: I treble, 1 chain, miss I ; increase and decrease at the corners so that the work lies flat.
YOUNG ladies will perhaps be startled at the sugges
tion of Pharmacy, or Practical Chemistry, as an occupation. Yet it is by no means unsuited to women, and is much more interesting and less troublesome than most of the forms of fancy work in which so many women spend so great a proportion of their time. A higher consideration is, that Pharmacy is a really useful occupation, and one, also, by which one can get one's living. This latter is a consideration not to be despised in these days when women so far outnumber men, that it is simply unfair to expect that a large proportion of the former shall be supported by the earnings of the latter, as hitherto. We all know men who are burdened with the maintenance of sisters, and who accept the burden cheerfully; but how painful it must be to the sisters, who feel that they are a weight upon a man whom, perhaps, they prevent having a fair start in life. If every girl in middle-class families were brought up to some remunerative occupation, there would be no chance of such miserable dependence as this—that is, if health and strength continue. As it is, girls fritter away their time upon the most foolish things; and, in fact, it is the business of some people's lives to discover purposeless occupations on which girls may spend their energy and waste their intellect.
Any one who knows what it is to have an occupation in life must be aware of the increased interest with which it endues existence. Sometimes, indeed, one may feel tired of work, but is it not better to be tired with work than to be weary with doing nothing? Who would not
rather wear out than rust out? There is some satisfaction in the former, and the latter brings but a miserable, vague unrest ; for one feels that one is spending one's labour for nought.
Need I bring any further excuse for suggesting new modes of occupation for the young women of England ?
The only objection that can seriously be brought against pharmacy as an occupation for women is that of novelty. This, no doubt, is a grave one just at present ; but there can be no such objections as those which suffice to deter us from recommending girls to enter the medical profession. The Lancet says, on the subject of women as dispensing chemists, " There is nothing in the process of education, or in the business of a pharmaceutical chemist, that would be unbecoming in a woman. For purposes of neat compounding she would be a serious rival. The success of a pharmaceutical chemist turns very largely upon the way in which dispensing is conducted, and the natural handiness and neatness of a woman would find ample field in it. Doctors are only waiting till dispensing can be done at reasonable prices by chemists, to hand over the whole of their prescriptions to them. Perhaps the introduction of women into the trade may hasten this most desirable arrangement." This is certainly encouraging—more so than men usually are to women when the latter desire to enter upon any
unwonted path. The law, too, has done its part towards throwing open the way, for, by the Pharmacy Act of 1868, women were admitted to the examination which, when successfully passed, legally qualifies them to practise pharmacy.
Nor are there more than ordinary difficulties in the way of preparing for these examinations, for the Pharmaceutical Society admits ladies as students to the lectures given daily at their offices, 17, Bloomsbury Square, W.c. The fee is four guineas.
Only, however, the scientific branches of pharmacy are taught at these lectures; and in addition to these, the would-be practitioner must possess a knowledge of the more practical branches, such as can only be gained by constant experience in the laboratory. Admission to the latter is at present refused to women students by the Pharmaceutical Society, but both laboratory courses and lectures are thrown open to women at the South London School of Pharmacy, 325, Kennington Road. At this establishment, women enjoy equal advantages with men. At this, the only place where a woman can fully qualify herself to pass the examination which enables her legally to open business as a pharmaceutical chemist, a woman can complete the course at an expense of about fifteen pounds. The course of training extends over one year. After this the next step to be taken is to pass the Minor Examination in prescriptions, practical dispensing, pharmacy, materia medica, botany, and chemistry.
After this, the “Major Examination," successfully passed, confers the title of pharmaceutical chemist on the candidate.
I should have premised that no student is admitted to either the Pharmaceutical Society or the South London School of Pharmacy, unless he or she shall have passed the preliminary examination in elementary English, Latin, arithmetic, and the metrical system of weights and measures.
If any girl should feel inclined to take up the occupation of dispensing chemist, she ought to practise fractions and decimals thoroughly. And I may remark that at present an advantage exists which in two years will exist no longer, for, after January, 1877, all the abovementioned training will have to be supplemented by a three years' apprenticeship to a registered chemist or druggist. Therefore, dear readers, those of you who possess the usual amount of education together with scientific tastes, should think over the matter, and you must also take into consideration that the profits in the trade of dispensing chemists are reckoned at from four to six hundred per cent. It is not in every trade that one can lay out a hundred pounds and get six hundred in return!
It may be said that with profits so enormous, men would be unwilling that women should step in, and that something similar might happen to that which occurred in London when an attempt was made to employ women
as jewel burnishers, a trade for which they are preferred to men in America. The attempt was defeated by the men, who struck work, on fiuding that some young women were, by their superior style of work, earning 3s. 6d. a day, and the employer was unwillingly obliged to dismiss the women.*
But in the case of pharmacy no such opposition need be feared, as at a meeting of the Pharmaceutical Society last year, the introduction of women was recommended on account of the difficulty of obtaining young men as assistants. Further, it was urged that women who might enter the trade would naturally employ women as assistants, and that, consequently, much of the difficulty of training girls for the profession would disappear. This is a consummation devoutly to be wished.
“ Babetta Schnell,” says the “ Englishwoman's Review," " seeing that her husband preferred amusement to his profession, and that they must shortly be ruined, learned his art of dentistry, and supported herself and daughter. After his death, having presented herself for examination, and obtained the legal right to do so, she practised till 1845, when she went to America, where her example has since been followed." This lady needed moral courage no less than physical, for there is no doubt that strength of mind no less than strength of wrist, is needed for the drawing of a tooth; and, besides, there can be few more disagreeable occupations than dentistry. We are not all Babetta Schnells, and I quote her case with the view of showing how much a woman may do, and also of showing how much more easy is the path to work than it was even in days so comparatively recent.
Now and then opportunities may occur which would make it easier still. For instance, apothecaries might prepare their daughters themselves, and with mutual advantage. The neat precision that usually characterises a woman's manipulation and arrangement, would be especially valuable in the mixing of prescriptions and measuring of quantities. Altogether this appears to be a promising opening for women who, either from dislike to teaching or from scruples as to entering this already overcrowded profession, are on the look out for other modes of earning a living.
When the course of training has been completed, no difficulty ought to be experienced in obtaining situations in dispensaries, both public and private, as dispensing chemists, and those women who would not object to setting up a shop on their own account in this lucrative trade, ought to find themselves quite as successful in it as men have generally been hitherto.
SYLVIA. * I quote the above from the " Year Book of Women's Work,' by L. M, H., an invaluable little volume.