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the details of service, but it is quite necessary for her to know sufficient to supply the intelligence that is so often wanting in our domestics. A habit of observation, with a few hints from those who have had practical experience in these matters will supply all the information ordinarily required to insure the proper use and preservation of household furniture and utensils of all kinds. It will be necessary to establish “ thoroughness” as a principle sin cleaning and care; and unless this is firmly enforced, a sensible depreciation of property will soon be perceived. On this subject also future details will be given.
The ventilation and perfect cleanliness of the house must be well attended to, as the health as well as comfort may suffer by its neglect.
In England much too little attention is paid to the daily airing of beds and bedding. Servants are usually too anxious to have the beds made and the rooms arranged; but it is absolutely necessary for health that the windows should be open at the top as well as at the bottom, and all the beds and bedding be well exposed to a good current of fresh air for two hours at least before they are remade. If this precaution were always taken, we should have fewer complaints of sleepless nights. There would be less restlessness among young children, and mothers and nurses would not be so much disturbed.
Many a poor child passes a feverish night, and wakes cross and unrefreshed, for want of due care in the proper airing of her bed. It is an excellent custom to have the children's bed exposed to the air during a great part of the day. In Italy, much care is taken to have the bedding put in the sunshine during the day, and no doubt it preserves the health of many who would otherwise suffer from the imperfect sanitary arrangements of the country. From France, also, we might learn a valuable lesson on this subject. The clean and fresh condition of the bedding is well attended to in a French house, and they are in the habit of having their mattresses very frequently cleaned and re-made, the daily airing being never omitted. We have, it is to be hoped, made some progress
of late years in England. Our old unwholesome featherbeds are gradually disappearing, and the dreadful old four-poster, with its curtains drawn round so as to exclude the air, is now a thing of the past. The more we know and value the benefits of cleanliness and perfect ventilation, and their influence on the health, the less we shall complain of the trouble that it gives us to see those principles carried out. To see blooming, healthy faces round us will be a rich reward for our trouble.
The subject which I wish now to make a few remarks
on is that of our domestic servants. I might, perhaps, say, on the choice of servants; but unfortunately we have now so little choice, that every lady is obliged to be satisfied with the best she can procure.
As this is a great and growing evil, which it is impossible either to ignore or to obviate, it remains for the ladies of England to acquire that knowledge of all household matters which will enable them so to supply, by their intelligence and experience, the shortcomings of their domestics, that the comfort and happiness of the home may be undisturbed.
There are many raw recruits who are dismissed as being wholly "unfit for service," simply because there is no one capable of instructing them in their duties; and hereby many a valuable servant is lost. The raw recruit has at least this advantage; we know her ignorance, and are prepared for her mistakes. Far more dangerous are the “professed” servants, cooks or others, whose ignorance is often as great, though covered over with a mantle of self-esteem. And these are often a source of great trial and annoyance to young housekeepers who, being willing to pay high wages for an experienced person, and who are themselves profoundly ignorant, place everything in their hands, and only awaken to their mistake when they find all comfort flown, and the domestic economy out of joint."
The best plan for a young houskeeper is to ask some experienced friend to seek really respectable and trustworthy servants for her; and that there are still some in England I fully believe. But even if she has been able to find the wished-for treasure or treasures, she must not give up all thought of the future. She must enjoy the present comfort of good and efficient servants, and at the same time be quietly learning from them. All the good things of life are fleeting, more especially good servants, who are greatly given to getting married, often to the great disappointment of their mistresses.
If, however, a good method of doing the business of the house has been commenced by a really efficient servant, it will not be so difficult for the young housekeeper to carry
it on, even if a change of servants should be found necessary. But even this cannot be done unless the mistress has put her intelligence and power of observation to good use. She must see how things ought to be done, in order that she may instruct others, should the necessity occur.
A woman who thoroughly understands the management of a house, will not be at the mercy of her servants, as we see so many are.
She will be respected by them, because she can instruct them; for knowledge is power even in housekeeping.
OUR MONTHLY GOSSIP.
entertainments cease to be given in town, and the scene of social gatherings is removed into the country, far
away from London, there could scarcely be a more suitable time for redeeming the promise made at the request of several of our readers, to give a few suggestions respecting the successful management of garden parties.
We are all familiar with that terrible spirit of dulness, which often, in spite of the most untiring exertions of the hostess and her household, creeps over some parties. We remember the suppressed yawns for an hour before the carriages which were to convey the guests to their homes began to come round, and our mutual congratulations on finding ourselves outside our host's entrance gates, and on the high road to the shelter of our own roof-tree. In
many instances the fault lies with the hostess and her defective arrangements, but in country neighbourhoods, where “sets" exist, and a spirit of exclusiveness prevails, she is frequently the victim of a social state over which she has no control.
Garden parties are of two classes, i.e., those in the neighbourhoods of large towns, where every foot of ground is a matter of serious consideration, and those in the country, where, in a wide demesne, nature has had the aid of art to make the locality convenient as well as beautiful. In the first, the hostess has the adventitious aid of experienced tradesmen, which is not to be despised. House rent in London is so high that many people, who have a large visiting list, are obliged to be contented with small reception-rooms; therefore, should they desire to discharge all their social obligations at once, a garden party seems the most feasible undertaking. A marquee erected, in which the contractor will even lay down a boarded floor suitable for dancing upon if required, at a few hours' notice, provides a large drawing-room. The florist comes in and makes beautiful every corner of the house with flowers; the confectioner sends in the
supper, including plate, china, glass, and waiters; the band comes at the proper hour, and leaves off when it is time for people to take their leave; and the hostess need only fill up cheques for the tradesmen's bills, when all is over. Even guests in London are more easily managed than those in the provinces, for they are too well accustomed to such entertainments to expect exciting amusements, and too conventional to show how dull they sometimes find the most brilliant-looking assemblage.
The country hostess, on the other hand, must rely altogether upon her own resources,
-her own cook, her own attendants, her own gardener; and even for music,
if she desire to have it, she must be indebted to amateur friends. But she has her consolations in the space at her disposal. If there be an archery club in the neighbourhood, she can set up targets; she can have one or two sets of croquet players at work at one time; she can have her Badminton ground likewise; and her lawn tennis-sphairistike, as it is called-by setting up another Badminton net, and substituting tennis balls for shuttlecocks.
It is almost needless to remark that “Aunt Sally," once popular in the early days of Christy Minstrelism, is now tabooed in all decent society; on a racecourse it might be tolerated, but not where ladies and gentlemen assemble.
The secret of a successful garden party is to make every one feel as comfortable and as much at home as possible. Why should a lady who never suffers from ennui at home while walking in her own grounds, look, while in her neighbour's, as if she were the victim of some deep social conspiracy, intended eventually to crush her? Attention by the hostess to the minor details of her party, more than the conception of a grand scheme, is the only way to exorcise this evil spirit, and keep it from affecting her guests, individually and collectively.
First.—She should think of everything possible to be provided which will tend to the comfort of her friends, remembering that there is no pleasure where comfort is absent.
Second.—Never to aim at stylish effects of which she may have heard or read, only making such arrangements as her own servants may be safely trusted to carry out. To keep within their powers, rather than tax them to the uttermost, is wise legislation.
Third.—Whatever refreshment be given, to let it be the best of its kind.
Fourth.–To think of all the little details which are necessary to be attended to some days previously, and write them down.
Long invitations in the country are often necessary, as ladies may wish to provide themselves with special dresses, and in case of a sudden spell of wet weather a few days' postponement might be desirable. The hour named must vary according to the distance which the guests have to travel. In London from five o'clock till eight is usual. In the country two or three o'clock till seven is more suitable.
Though the invitations suggest an out-of-door entertainment, it is absolutely essential to have the sittingrooms of the house prepared for company, as, even if the weather continue fine, there are always elderly people and
invalids who are unable to remain out of doors. The in the same neighbourhood, previous acquaintance is supmaid who takes charge of the ladies' cloak-room should posed. In London, to conclude a party thus would be be given a liberal supply of light mufflers-knitted shawls, considered exceedingly bad style. Long before such an bournouse cloaks, etc., for those who may not have calcu- idea could be broached, carriages ordered for a certain lated on a chilly evening, or standing in an exposed hour draw up, and there is a general exodus. Nor is situation. This is one of the details to be attended to there often music by amateurs; a band plays out-ofpreviously by the hostess. It is desirable that the plea- doors, and professional singers favour the company with a sure-ground should be as little removed from the draw
few songs, for which they are paid. In the country such ing-room windows as possible, to avoid separating those an arrangement would be absurd, and a hostess attemptwithin from those without, and the windows kept open ing more than the inspiriting music of a band to play in if no one decidedly objects. Within, there ought to be a her grounds would justly be covered with ridicule. liberal display of flowers, prints, photographs, and pretty Much grumbling is abroad at the prevailing tendency things of all kinds, with which the elderly people can to make croquet an ultra-scientific game; however families amuse themselves, or which are likely to suggest subjects may choose, when by themselves, to play severely, with of conversation. As the hostess must be in-and-out-and- the narrow square hoops, or perhaps with tunnels under everywhere, it would be impossible for her to devote her the hoops, it is bad taste to inflict it upon strangers. The attentions exclusively to any one section of her company. young ladies of the house-supposing there should be Out in the grounds forethought also is necessary. Seats such-already enjoy considerable advantage by playing are indispensable, and besides the usual iron chairs, por- upon their own grounds; but a proper sense of the duties table ones ought to be scattered about in every direction. of hospitality will keep this in their remembrance, and Neale's patent chairs of stained pine, with carpet seats, control their actions. The same remarks apply to the easily folded, and so light that a child can carry them, targets for archery, the distance of which ought to be are now de rigueur for croquet and Badminton grounds. regulated by general consent, so far as it can be ascerThey only cost about six or seven shillings each, and tained. Nothing so insures a display of good taste as the yield comfort worth double the money. They can be existence of an undercurrent of good feeling; and while had from the patentee in the Strand, but can be procured people are good-naturedly indulgent to anything unusual through any furnishing shop. Neat little umbrella tents which provides for their comfort, the sharpest criticism of canvas are also used at garden parties, large enough to most surely follows pretension, or aiming at some novelty shelter a group of single seats, or a long chair which of which, peradventure, the lady has only heard or read. holds three or four people.
An ambitious hostess, who had been told that iced The matter of refreshments is one which must be coffee was en règle, ordered her cook to prepare some, regulated by the special circumstances of each case. and to make it on the morning of the party. The cook,
Should the guests come from a long distance, a cold being as new to the idea as her mistress, obeyed. She collation is expected, and if the dining-room be large made the coffee, and took care to add the ice in good enough, it gives a greater appearance of comfort to serve time—while the coffee was boiling. The mistress, exit there. Through the evening this must be followed by ceedingly indignant at her stupidity, rated her soundly, tea and coffee, which is either made out of doors, or made a fresh supply herself, and left it to cool. Alas! carried out by servants, and served at intervals. A con- for the aspirant to style, she made cafè au lait instead of servatory, or marquee, or a summer-house may be turned cafè noir, all unconscious that only the latter may be to good account for tea-making, and it is often a pleasing served cold, and that it is not usual for ladies to consume diversion to people who like moving about, to saunter in unlimited cups of a beverage, one-fourth of which is search of refreshment, instead of having it carried to brandy or liqueur. So the cold coffee was voted de them. N.B. The dowagers in the drawing-room must testable, and no one was pleased. on no account be overlooked in the distribution of bohea. Another incident - it happened a few years ago
But if the guests come from the immediate neigh- during our last very wet summer-illustrates a course bourhood, being supposed to have lunched at home, the directly opposite to that pursued by the hostess of the icy refreshment may be of a lighter character, and the enter- coffee. A lady, let us call her Mrs. Blank, whose bustainment more al fresco, by avoiding the dining-room. band had amassed a considerable fortune in commercial In that case tea, coffee, ices, fruit, cake, etc., are con- pursuits, aspired to higher society. She had been born in sidered sufficient, with sherry, claret cup, lemonade, etc., a social rank above that of the man she had married. She which ought to be iced.
that debateable land which borders high and If the gathering partake more of the sociable than middle life; one step might send her forward up to the the formal character, the guests adjourn late in the even- highest step of the social ladder, but one little mistake, ing to the house, and have a little music. There are and she might be relegated to city circles once more. At always some young ladies who are glad to contribute to this crisis she gave, at her husband's country seat in the the general amusement. In the country, an impromptu neighbourhood of London, a garden party. She had been quadrille is occasionally attempted; for, as the guests live liberal and generous towards the pet charities of a noble
lady, not remotely allied to royalty, and, in consideration, an invitation, tremblingly issued, was a ccepted. But scarcely had the guests assembled, when a thunderstorm of more than usual severity reduced the lawn and pleasure-grounds to a state of wet sponge. The guests crowded into the house, looked at the grass, and privately each one determined to get away as soon as possible. But Mrs. Blank decided otherwise. She telegraphed for a supply of India-rubber overshoes; the response was prompt, and they came in time. Astonishment kept some silent, and others resolved, when they left the house, to say, "How vulgar !” But the noble lady had a soul above such consideration. “How sensible!” she cried, and held out her foot to be fitted. “How sensible !"
cried every one in chorus, and Mrs. Blank's party was a great and lasting success. This year she is seen at Marlborough House, is among the exclusives at Prince's, and the fashionable papers describe her dresses.
Nor is any one daring enough to call her parties, like the other lady's coffee, detestable ; for she not only knows how to make people comfortable, but does so thoroughly.
To aspire to court circles is not the highest aim in life, and few there be who need study the matter with such an end in view. But it is the spirit and not the letter in which entertainments are given which matters, and it is quite as much required for every-day life as it is in giving successful Garden Parties.
PARIS FASHIONS FOR AUGUST.
for weddings, we hear of several as either just youthful bride of the Duke de X—; and the less having taken place or about to come off. Wedding gifts, costly but exceedingly tasteful bracelet which one of corbeilles and trousseaux, are ever interesting topics. our young barristers who joins great talent to a hand
Paper Pattern, 25. 9d.; Flat Pattern, half-price; to be had of MADAME GOUBAUD, 30, Henrietta Street, Covent Garden.
Jewellers are showing their fair clients the marvellous some face, and, better still, to the finest qualities of the watch encased in one huge garnet, edged with pearls, heart, is to place in the corbeille of his fiancée, an destined to the daughter of a general, about to become heiress as beautiful as she is rich and noble, but whom the wife of a merchant prince; the sapphire ear drops his merits have won when so many higher in rank of the future Marchioness de C—-; the necklace of and fortune failed to please her. Our great houses