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press, that he recently advertised for a schoolmistress, offering terms which would realize at least eighty pounds a year, and did not receive a single application. There can be no doubt if he had advertised for a governess in a private family, the applications might have been counted by the score. Yet a schoolmistress should be, and is considered a lady, is very much more her own mistress, and occupies a much more defined and independent position than a governess. An intelligent young lady, who has received a good elementary education, would have little difficulty in passing the examination necessary to obtain a certificate ; and it would be a pity to allow any false notions as to position " to stand in the
way of obtaining a really eligible appointment. The National Society recently advertised for a hundred and fifty certificated schoolmistresses, offering good salaries.
The Alexandra Palace, the Royal Academy, and the Exhibition of the Society of Painters in Water Colours are now added to the amusements enjoyable by Londoners. The Alexandra Palace is very beautiful and attractive in the interior, and well adapted for musical performances. The day concerts and entertainments promise to be very attractive. The exterior of the building is not so striking as that of the edifice destroyed by fire two years ago, and the gardens require time to develop. But the situation is so admirable, the landscape beauties so attractive, and the preparation for out-door amusements so good, that Muswell Hill will probably be a great place of pilgrimage during the coming summer.
Mr. Disraeli must have been in a depressed state of mind when, at the Royal Academy dinner, he said English artists were compelled to trust to their imagination, or visit foreign countries, if they wished to paint beautiful pictures. “He is not blessed with the inspiration of atmosphere. Nature puts on for him her soberest and most congenial garb. He has no purple skies to teach him colour, nor graceful forms and picturesque gestures to feed his idea of beauty, and to stimulate his invention. The London fog invades his studio.” Mr. Disraeli was speaking on the ist of May, when a determined downpour of rain had made London particularly "unlovely" and uncomfortable. But we do enjoy clear atmospheres and beautiful skies; English folks, ladies especially, do have graceful forms, and painters and poets, too, have found inspiration in English lanes, rivers, forests, and seabeaten rocky coasts. The very pictures around him, which owe their merit to their faithfulness to nature, should have taught him better. But our clever Premier likes to give utterance to out-of-the-way ideas.
There have been some interesting marriages in the fashionable world this month. Sir Douglas Stewart married Miss Hester Fraser, daughter of John Fraser, Esq., of Portman Square, and Benicien, Inverness-shire. The ceremony, which was attended by a large circle of friends, took place at St. Mary's, Bryanstone Square, on the 4th of May. On the same day a very brilliant com
pany assembled at St. Peter's, Eaton Square, to witness the nuptials of the grand-daughter of the Duke of Somerset, Miss Margaret Graham, daughter of Sir Frederick Graham, to Mr. Alexander Æneas Mackintosh, of Mackintosh. There were eleven bridesmaids, and the costumes of the guests were very beautiful. The wedding favours were all tied with the Mackintosh tartan ribbon. The newly-wedded pair left town for Bulstrode, the Buckinghamshire seat of the Duke of Somerset. There was another very grand marriage at St. Peter's, Eaton Square, when Miss Charlotte Eleanor Georgina Dennistoun, eldest daughter of Mr. Alexander Dennistoun, of Prince's Gate, was united to her cousin, Mr. John Dennistoun, of Cromwell Road, son of the late member for Glasgow. The marriage was by special license, and did not take place until after twelve o'clock.
She was accompanied by twelve bridesmaids, some of them children. The service was choral, and the church was crowded.
The City presentation of a superb piece of plate to the Duke and Duchess of Edinburgh has been made. [t consists of a silver centre-piece and candelabra, and cost two thousand guineas. A maritime character has been given to the design, and very appropriately, Alfred the Great, who originated the British navy, and whose name is borne by the Duke of Edinburgh, and Peter the Great, who originated the navy of the native country of the Duchess, are commemorated. We like, when we can, to increase the historical information of our readers, and as we do not remember that in any of the books of “Questions," and other manuals used in boarding schools, Alfred the Great is credited with originating the British navy, or, in fact, doing much beyond burning cakes and disguising as a minstrel, we will add to that comprehensive information, that he designed ships of unusual length and speed, and defeated the Danes on the waves which hitherto they had claimed to rule. In 875, exactly a thousand years ago, Alfred's ships defeated a fleet of Danish rovers, and that was the first naval victory gained by Englishmen. So “ the flag ” has “braved a thousand years the battle and the breeze.” In this age of commemoration, it is strange none of our naval enthusiasts have thought of commemorating the fact.
After the presentation, the Duke of Edinburgh, presided at the annual meeting of the National Life-boat Institution, which ladies should feel a great interest in supporting. The terrible calamities near our coasts, which have received a heartrending increase during the last week or two, must appeal to our sympathies, and strengthen our interest in the exertions of an institute which endeavours, and so successfully, to afford invaluable aid in the case of shipwreck. In the months of December, January, and February last, 295 lives were saved by the life-boats from ships wrecked or in distress on our shores. Such a fact is a potent argument for doing our best to increase the efficacy of the institution.
THE BALTIMORE BONAPARTES.
THE story of the Baltimore Bonapartes is one of the
saddest but most interesting chapters in the romance of modern history. It is now more than seventy years since Jerome--the youngest and weakest of Napoleon's brothers-arrived in New York in command of a French frigate. Napoleon Bonaparte, the conqueror of Egypt and Italy, the first Consul of France, was then filling the world with the éclat of his genius, and Jerome was received with distinction in the “ first circles" of New York.
Early in the autumn of 1803, young Bonaparte visited Baltimore. Parties, dinners and receptions were given in his honour. He was the lion of the day. The leading citizens of Baltimore contended for the privilege of entertaining the distinguished young stranger.
At the elegant and hospitable home of Samuel Chase, one of the Maryland signers of the Declaration of Independence, Captain Bonaparte was introduced to Miss Elizabeth Patterson. This lady, though not yet eighteen, was one of the reigning belles of Baltimore. To the exquisite beauty of her person were added a sprightly wit, fascinating manners, and many brilliant accomplishments. An immediate and ardent attachment sprang up between the handsome and dashing young Frenchman and the beautiful Baltimore girl, an attachment which increased, day after day, as they were constantly thrown together either at home or in society. In spite of the warnings of friends, in spite of the remonstrances of her father, Miss Patterson determined to marry, declaring that she“ would rather be the wife of Jerome Bonaparte for an hour than the wife of any other man for life.” Finding her so firm and determined in the matter, Mr. Patterson at last gave a reluctant consent to the marriage.
The marriage of Jerome Bonaparte and Elizabeth Patterson took place on Christmas Eve, 1803. The ceremony was performed by the Right Rev. John Carroll, Bishop of Baltimore, afterward Archbishop and Primate of the American Catholic Church. The marriage contract was drawn up by Alexander J. Dallas, and the wedding was witnessed by the Mayor and other prominent citizens of Baltimore. Mr. William Patterson, the father of the bride, was one of the merchant princes of Baltimore, ranking in the mercantile world with John Jacob Astor, of New York, and Stephen Girard, of Philadelphia. During the American Revolution he had freely given large sums of money to support the war for independence, and had enjoyed the intimate friendship of Washington, La Fayette, and other eminent leaders.
Shortly after their marriage, Jerome and his wife made an extended tour in the Northern and Eastern States. In Philadelphia, New York, Boston, Albany, and other cities which they visited, they were received with
the distinction due to the brother of the First Consul of France.
But trouble was not long in coming. Even during this bridal tour, alarming news arrived from France. Napoleon was furious when he heard of Jerome's marriage; he immediately directed that his allowance should be stopped and that he should return to France by the first frigate; otherwise he would be regarded as a deserter. At the same time, Jerome was forbidden bring his wife to France, and all the captains of French vessels were prohibited from receiving on board "the young person to whom he had attached himself,” it being the intention of the First Consul that she should not, on any pretext whatever, be permitted to enter France, and if she succeeded in so doing, she was to be sent back to the United States without delay.
Jerome was frightened. He hesitated, at first, to return, fearing to meet Napoleon in his anger. He delayed his departure from America week after week and month after month, vainly hoping that time would soften the heart of the tyrant, and reconcile him to his marriage. At last, on the morning of the nith of March, 1805, Jerome and his wife embarked at Baltimore for Europe, and on the 2nd of April arrived at Lisboa. Here they had at once a proof of Napoleon's despotic power. A French guard was placed around their vessel, and Madame Jerome was not allowed to Jand. An ambassador from Napoleon waited upon her, and asked what he could do for Miss Patterson. To whom she replied :
“Tell your master that Madame Bonaparte is ambitious, and demands her rights as a member of the Imperial family."
Soon after arriving at Lisbon, Jerome hastened to Paris, hoping, by a personal interview, to win Napoleon over to a recognition of the marriage. On his way through Spain he met Junot, who had just been appointed Minister to Portugal. Junot endeavoured to dissuade him from resisting the wishes of Napoleon. Jerome declared that he would never abandon bis beautiful young wife.
When Jerome reached Paris, he requested an interview with Napoleon, which was refused. He was told to address the Emperor by letter, which he did, and received an answer that put an end to all his hope concerning his wife. This was the substance of Napoleon's reply :
"Your marriage is null, both in a religious and legal point of view. I will never acknowledge it. Write to Miss Patterson to return to the United States, and tell her it is not possible to give things another turn. On condition of her going to America, I will allow her a pension during her life of sixty thousand francs per year, provided she does not take the name of my family, to which she has no right, her marriage having no existence."
When Napoleon declared that Jerome's marriage was "null, both in a religious and legal point of view," he was expressing his own wishes rather than stating the facts. At the time of Jerome's marriage to Miss Patterson, Napoleon was only the First Consul of France, and could have no control over the members of his family. Jerome's mother and eldest brother, Joseph, were the only persons whose consent was necessary, and they concurred in approving the marriage. The marriage had been celebrated according to the prescribed rites of the Catholic Church, of which Jerome professed to be a member, and the ceremony had been performed by the highest dignitary of that Church in America.
When Jerome was at length admitted to the presence of his brother, Napoleon thus addressed him :
“So, sir, you are the first of the family who has shamefully abandoned his post. It will require many splendid actions to wipe off that stain from your reputation. As to your love affair with your little girl, I do not regard it."
In the meantime, what had become of the “beautiful young wife," left by her husband a stranger in a foreign land, surrounded by open enemies and false friends? Toward the end of April, Madame Jerome Bonaparte, finding that she would not be allowed to land at Lisbon, or any port from which Napoleon had power to exclude her, sailed for Amsterdam. Here she arrived on the ist of May. Napoleon, who was now the absolute master of the Continent of Europe, in anticipation of her arrival in Holland, had ordered Schimmelpenninck, the Grand Pensionary of the Batavian Republic, to prevent" Madame Jerome Bonaparte, or any person assuming that name, from landing in any port of that country. In compliance with this despotic command, when the ship “ Erin," with Madame Bonaparte, arrived in the Texel Roads, she was ordered off immediately, and all persons were forbidden to hold any communication with the ship under a severe penalty. The “Erin ” remained in the Texel eight days, during which time she was strictly guarded, being placed between a sixty-four gun ship and a frigate.
Excluded from the ports of Continental Europe, and fearing that an attempt would be made upon her life if she stayed in Texel, Madame Bonaparte sailed for England. Her first and only child was born at Camberwell, London, on the 7th of July, 1805, and named Jerome Napoleon Bonaparte. Two months after this event the young mother and her child embarked for the United States, and arrived in Baltimore after a prosperous voyage of four weeks.
The weak and fickle Jerome soon forgot his “dear little wife,” as he once was fond of calling her. After leaving her at Lisbon in April, 1805: Jerome addressed
her frequent and tender letters, declaring repeatedly that his “dear little wife was the sole object of all his love, for whom he would be willing to give up his life.”
His often repeated determination “never to abandon his beautiful young wife” melted away before the frowns and brilliant promises of Napoleon. In a few months after separating from her at Lisbon he consented to a divorce. As a reward for his pusillanimity Jerome was created a Prince of the Empire and raised to the rank of Admiral in the French navy.
On the 22nd August, 1807, he was married to the Princess Catherine of Würtemberg, with all the pomp and ceremony with which Napoleon knew so well how to dazzle the French people. At the end of these festivities Jerome and his wife left France to take possession of the new kingdom of Westphalia, which was formed out of the territories of the Grand Duke of Hesse, and given to Jerome for his weak compliance with the measures of Napoleon. To the honour of Pope Pius VII. it should be stated that he firmly resisted Napoleon's attempts to get him to declare null and void the marriage of Jerome Bonaparte and Miss Patterson. The marriage was annulled by Napoleon's Council of State, but the Pope always refused to sanction the divorce, and in the eyes of the Catholic Church, of which Napoleon proudly called himself the eldest son, the only legitimate descendants of Jerome Bonaparte, are the Baltimore Bonapartes.
Upon several occasions, the Baltimore Bonapartes endeavoured to have their legitimacy established by the French courts. Through the powerful influence of King Jerome and his son, Prince Napoleon, these attempts always failed. Jerome died at the close of 1859. Early in 1861, Madame Patterson-Bonaparte and her son, Jerome Napoleon, made a final appeal to the Cour Impériale de Paris. M. Berryer, the eminent French Advocate, argued their case with distinguished ability. He cited an array of interesting and irresistible facts, proving beyond question the legality of the marriage of Jerome Bonaparte and Elizabeth Patterson. A copy of the marriage contract was produced, signed by the contracting parties, and William Patterson, the father of the bride, and witnessed by Bishop Carroll, M. Sotin, the Vice-Consul of France, at Baltimore, and Alexander Le Camus, afterward le Comte de Furstentein, Minister of Foreign Affairs in Westphalia, during the reign of Jerome in that kingdom. The certificate of the marriage, duly authenticated by the late Very Reverend Henry B. Cos. kery, Rector of the Baltimore Cathedral, was also produced at the trial.
Numerous letters were read from ex-King Jerome to Jerome Bonaparte of Baltimore, in which the latter was addressed respectively, “Mon cher enfant” and “ Mon cher fils." Other members of the Bonaparte family wrote him most affectionate letters, acknowledging the existing relationship. But in spite of the eloquence of Berryer and justice of the cause, the appeal was denied.
Madame Bonaparte has always enjoyed society, which her wit, beauty, and brilliant conversation have fitted her to adorn. When she returned to Baltimore after her romantic visit to Europe a new interest was thrown around the former belle and beauty. A glamour of romance, and poetry, and suffering, was about her. Those who had envied her as the bride of Jerome Bonaparte could well afford to sympathize with her as the deserted young wife. Her brave and determined spirit sustained her in the midst of trials which would have crushed an ordinary woman. When Jerome, whom she had once adored as the embodiment of chivalrous gallantry, abandoned her, whom he had sworn before God and man to love, honour, and cherish until death, her love and admiration changed to absolute contempt.
After the downfall of Napoleon, Madame Bonaparte visited Europe, and remained there seven years. Her fascinating manners, extraordinary beauty, and romantic history, made her admired and celebrated all over the Continent. She spent several years in Florence, and was the ornament of the Court of Tuscany, which was at that time one of the most brilliant in Europe. In these splendid scenes, Madame Bonaparte was always the gayest of the gay. She went to a ball every night. Her regular habit was to spend the early part of the evening in music and reading. At nine, her maid came to dress her for the ball. Precisely at ten, she drove to the soirée, and invariably left at midnight. In society, her sarcastic wit was as much feared as her beauty was admired.
It was while residing at Florence, in 1822, that Madame Bonaparte saw Jerome for the first and last time after their separation at Lisbon, in 1805. They met in the gallery of the Pitti Palace. On seeing her, Jerome started, and whispered to the Princess of Würtemberg, his second wife : “ That is my former wife." He immediately quitted the gallery, and the next morning left Florence. No words passed between them.
Madame Bonaparte spent the winter of 1823 in Vienna. Here, her social success was almost as brilliant as at Florence.
Young Jerome Bonaparte of Baltimore accompanied his mother to Europe, and was placed at school in Geneva. After remaining there several years, he joined his mother in Italy in 1821, where most of the Bonaparte family were then residing. He was received with affectionate kindness by his grandmother, the venerable Madame Mère, his uncles Lucien and Louis, his aunt Julia, wife of Joseph Bonaparte, and aunt Pauline, Princess Borghese, and all his numerous cousins. So delighted were they all with the bright and handsome young Baltimore Bonaparte, that they were anxious to make a match between him and his young cousin, Charlotte, daughter of Joseph. In the event of the marriage taking place, the Princess Borghese promised to leave the young couple three hundred thousand francs. Nothing came of this project. The two cousins continued devotedly attached to each other and frequently
corresponded. Young Jerome visited her beautiful home at Point Breeze, New Jersey, where her father lived from 1816 to 1839. In the spring of 1823, Jerome returned to America, and in the next autumn, entered Harvard University, where he remained three years. In 1826, he again visited Italy, and renewed his intimate personal relations with his family there. His half-brother, Prince Jerome, and half-sister, Princess Mathilde, became tenderly attached to him. It was during this visit to Europe that Jerome's acquaintance with Louis Napoleon began; this soon ripened into a most cordial intimacy.
Not long after his return to America (namely, in November, 1829), Jerome, then about twenty-four years old, was married to Miss Susan May Williams, a native of Baltimore, but descended of a prominent family of Massachusetts. Letters of congratulation came from the different members of the Bonaparte family, including Madame Mère, Joseph, Louis, Jerome, and his cousin Charlotte. On the 5th of November, 1830, a son was born to Mr. Bonaparte, and named Jerome Napoleon. After spending one year at Harvard, young Jerome entered West Point, July ist, 1848, where he distinguished himself, both in the class-room and in all martial exercises, graduating high in his class in 1852. Perhaps a more dashing, more noble-looking young officer than Jerome Napoleon Bonaparte never left West Point; tall, graceful, handsome, with dark eyes, and regular features, he was every
inch a soldier. When Louis Napoleon came to America in 1837, Mr. Jerome Bonaparte invited him to visit him at his countryseat near Baltimore. On the ist of January, 1853, Jerome addressed a letter to Napoleon III., congratulating him upon the occasion of his ascending the Imperial throne of France, to which the Emperor responded, expressing the great pleasure which the letter of his cousin had afforded him, and concluding with an invitation to visit France.
Mr. Bonaparte and his son visited Paris in June, 1854, and immediately upon their arrival were invited to dine at Saint Cloud by the Emperor. When they entered the Palace, Mr. Bonaparte received from the hands of the Emperor a paper containing the deliberate opinion of the Minister of Justice, the President of the Senate, and the President of the Council of State, upon the subject of the marriage of Prince Jerome with Miss Elizabeth Patterson, to the effect that Jerome Bonaparte ought to be considered a legitimate child of France. Prince Jerome opposed the recognition of his son's legitimacy, said he would not consent to his remaining in France, and so wrote to the Emperor. Napoleon III. replied that the laws of France recognized the son of Miss Patterson as legitimate, and on the 30th of August, 1854, a decree was inserted in the “Bulletin des Lois," declaring that M. Jérôme Bonaparte est réintégré dans la qualité de Français.
Another decree, dated September 5th, 1854, conferred upon young Jerome Bonaparte, of Baltimore, the
He had pre
rank of Lieutenant in the French army.
In the summer of 1870 Jerome Bonaparte died in Baltimore, leaving his large fortune to his wife and two sons.
Madame Bonaparte is still living in Baltimore, at the age of ninety years. She says she has no intention of dying until she is a hundred. She has been to Europe sixteen times, and contemplates another trip this summer. This old lady has more vivacity and certainly more intelligence than many of the leading women of fashion of the present day. She expresses her opinion upon all subjects with great freedom, and sometimes with bitter. ness. She has little or no confidence in men, and a very poor opinion of women : the young ladies of the
present day, she says, all have homo mania. All sen. timent she thinks a weakness. She professes that her ambition has always been—not the throne, but near the throne. Mr. Patterson, her father, died in 1836, at an advanced age, in possession of a large fortune. In his will, which is one of the most remarkable documents that has ever been deposited in the Orphans' Court of Baltimore, he says: “The conduct of my daughter, Betsey, has, through life, been so disobedient that in no instance has she ever consulted my opinion or feelings; indeed, she has caused me more anxiety and trouble than all my other children put together; her folly and misconduct have occasioned me a train of experience that, first to last, has cost me much money "--in this, he means the marriage of his daughter to Jerome Bonaparte. The old gentleman left her, out of his great wealth, only three or four small houses and the wines in his cellarworth in all about ten thousand dollars.
Madame Bonaparte is very rich: she has made her money by successful speculations and by her life-long habit of saving. For years she has lived at a boardinghouse in Baltimore, seeing very little company. Her costume is ancient, and there is nothing about her appearance that suggests the marvellous beauty that led captive the heart of Jerome Bonaparte. Her eyes alone retain some of the brightness of former days.
Our brief existence here away ;
Gives promise of a brighter day. Bright flowers decay; gay foliage fades
Beneath November's chilly reign ; But robed in gayer tints, the Spring
Beholds the blushing flowers again.
So when some grief has blighted hopes
Of happiness too dearly cherished,
Has with departed idols perished.
However great our cause of sadness
And brings again our wonted gladness.
NEW BOOKS. True-Hearted : a Book for Girls. By Crona Temple. style of great earnestness, and we can recommend it as being (Hatchards, Piccadilly.)
what it calls itself—a book for girls. Although this story ends with a wedding, and has its share of romance, no mother who objects to novels need The Lady's Knitting Book. Second Series. By E. M. C., fear to put it in her daughter's hands. The motive of the author of The Lady's Crochet Book. (Hatchards, Picauthoress in writing it seems to have been to show the evils cadilly.) of pride and selfishness as illustrated in the character of This useful little book contains forty-six patterns of Hester Wallingham, who eventually becomes a very fine useful and ornamental work, among them a sleeveless jacket, character through religious influences. The title probably a stocking, an opera-cloak, and a Shetland veil. The inrefers to Hester's fidelity to her cousin, but the authoress structions are printed in good type and on good paper, and seems to have been too tender-hearted to expose the lovers are both clear and precise to many trials. Jeanie Durrant is the most pleasing character in the book, and would be altogether charming if such The Lady's Crochet Book. (Hatchards.) a pæan were not sung over her because she performs a simple This is another very useful book, and contains instrucact of charity. Readers of True-Hearted will be disappointed, tions for many different kinds of antimacassars, besides bednot to be told whether she eventually married the young room slippers, and the numberless small articles that are baronet who is so fond of her. The book is written in a constantly being crocheted for babies' wear.