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great object being accomplished, he late century, but at present Bread went on leisurely with the rest, as he seems to bave lost niuch of its former could save money for what was want estimation, and is in many cases coniog: after five years he raised the sidered rather to occasion than to second story, and in ten it was tiled allay indigestion; and Dr. C::dogau, and coated ; the inside was not com a physician of considerable eminence pleted when Mr. Plumptre commu in his day, wrote a pamphlet exnicated the story to the Society, but pressly to point out its deleterious there was house-room for himself and qualities. i conceive it to be true his family, and another apartment that Bread now is not so universally was let for a guinea a year.

ayreeable to the stomach as formerly, “ In this manner,” says that Gentle- and if used in any excess, will digest man, “ Joseph Austin, with singular in- with greater difficulty than various dustry and reconomy, in the course of other species of food. Whether this ten years built himself a bouse, which is to be attributed to any change in he began with only 14s. in his pocket. tre powers of the stomach, in conseDuring that time his wife had four

quence of any alleration in our prechildren, and buried as many more. sent mode of diet, I know dot; but I The money which it cost him was about

believe the principal cause to arise 501, the whole of which was saved from

from the change of the thing itself, the earnings of daily labour. The house and garden occupy about twenty poles different valure from the Bread in

which I have do doubt is of a very of ground; and the garden is as creditable as the house to the industry and good contemplation of the Writer of the sense of the owner; one of the fences Note; far less pure, wholesome, and was made of sweet briar and roses mixed

nutritivus. Less labour and care are with woodbine, another of dwarf plum- beslowed on the making ; the bakers trees, and against the back of the house avail themselves of every means to he had planted a vine, a neetarine, and accelerate the fermentation, and for a peach-tree.”

this, and other purposes, many most Yours, &c.

J. T. nosious ingredients are introduced.

I really doubt whether one pure, unMr. URBAN,

Sept. 4. adulterated loaf of wheateo Bread VHE following vote, which I wet ever issues from the shop of a London

baker : some artifice, inconsistent Physico-Theology, has induced me wilh the antient simplicity of the to endeavour, through the channel of 'process, and prejudicial to its lightyour publication, to draw the atten ness and purity, being ever employed. tion of individuals to the existence of Indeed London Bread has become so an abuse productive of more injury notoriously bad, that a different preto the community than many others paration of flour, &c. denominated of apparently greater magnitude. French Bread, or Freuch rolls, is ge

“Among the many noble contrivances nerally made use of at the better for food, I cannot but attribute that tables. universal aliment, Bread, to the revela As Bread has fallen, Meat seems to . tion, or at least the inspiration, of the have risen in the general estivation, Creator and Conservator of Mankind; with respect to its effects on the not only because it is a food used in all,

stomach. It is admitted to digest or most parts of the world, but especially because it is of incomparable use in the prejudices which existed agaiust ils

more readily than Bread: the niany great work of digestion, greatly assisting the ferment, or whatever causes the

free use are wearing away, and it is

recommended by modern Physicians digestion of the stomach. Of which take this example from the noble Mr. Boyle:

in many cases, which would have • He extracted a menstruum from Bread

caused the antiept Doctors to stand alone, that would work on bodies more

aghast. But as Bread must necessacompact than many hard minerals, nay, rily form the principal article of subeven on glass itself, and do many things sistence in this country, especially that Aqua-fortis could not do ; yet by among the poorer classes of the peono means was this so corrosive a liquor ple, it is much to be regretied that as Aqua-fortis, or as the other acid ibey should be deprived of so wholemenstruum.'

some and nutritious an aliment as it This opinion was nearly universally was accustomed to be, and that the adopted at the commencement of the bakers should be permitted to injure

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588: Molasses for Malt.-Letter of Mr. J. Highmore. [LXXXVI. the health of the jobabitants of this Sir,-I received by your son a letgreat City for their personal emolu- ter, the contents of which gave me a ment; and I know not that a Com- sensible grief, since I understand by mittee of the House of Commons it how much you regret the want of could be more usefully employed, friends and agreeable conversation in than in investigating the subject, and the place where you are; from which in endeavouring to point out a re account I form to myself a much medy for so dangerous an abuse. more melancholy idea of your retreat Much and proper precaution is used than I could before have conceived ; to secure to the publick the justiosomuch that, after the beautiful deweight of the loaf; but why should scription you give me of your situanot competent persons be equally tion, I must conclude (however apt authorized to ascertain its quality, we are to flatter ourselves with the and avalyze its composition? The ex- prospect of happiness in a retired pence would be insignificant, the be- coupiry life, even without society,) Defit of the highest importance to the that we therein deceive ourselves, community.

AMICUS. since I cannot but think you as well

furnished for self-conversation as alMr. URBAN,

Dec. 3. most any man I know, who yet comN a Scarcity of Bread, there is a plain for want of other.

plan which might be of essential The contempt wherewith you treat service to the Country; I mean the that philosophy which teaches the substituting Molasses for Mait in disesteem of wealth is, I think, very Beer. The quantiiy of provision just, as you use the word wealth; but which might thus be thrown into the I apprebend that it is not generally scale for the advantage of the Poor used to signify a competency, or what would be incalculable, as almslevery is sufficient to answer all the calls and family uses beer made with mali. conveniencies of life; but to express The barley thus saved by the disuse the same as the word 'riches, viz. of mait inight be eaten in Bread by more than enough for all such pura the rich, as was the custom in the poses, in which sense you also despise scarcity of 1799, and the wheaten it; i. e. having every thing needful Bread left for the use of the Poor, of and reasonable, you desire not superwhich they are particularly fond. fluities. I dare say you would chuse Beer made of molasses is certainly three servants rather than six, and so more wholesome, and is not less plea- of other things; or otherwise, after sant, than Beer made of mall. Mo- having obtained such a competency as Jasses to an enormous amount might I have described, you wouid despise be easily procured from Demerary weallh, or a further increase, in com: and the West India islands at no dear parison of other more rational enjoy. rate, as the rum which is made of ments to be quitted on that score. molasses bears at prese:t a low price. The death of Mr. Goldfinch, when In this plan the Poor might receive we consider his real merit, is

great essential advantage, without injury loss to his friends, and in that light to any one improperly. There would none were more sensible of it than be no unjustifiable injury to the myself; but when we reflect upon farmer, as in a scarcity of Bread the the misery of his lise (and his willingprofits of bis farm must be very high. ness, or rather desire, on that account, Yours, &c.

HUMANUS.

to resign it), it wonld hardly be con: sistent with humanity to have wished

a longer duration to it. Your obli. Mr. URBAN,

Dec. 4.

gations to bim I know not; LAVING lately read in your Mis- put me to the blush when you talk of

any to me--sincerely think the ba: Highmore's, I am willing to add the lance on the other side; which you following, if you should feel inclined will find no compliment, if you shall to insert it; and a few more afterwards

think fit to favour me with your cor. shall be at your service, written to

respondence, where there is so much the same Correspondent, then residing knowledge of the world, and of hu. at Neath in Glamorganshire. » man nature; I expect great advarYours, &c. B. Clericus.

from the continuance of it. I

but you

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hare,

have never seen Dr. Tindal but once deavour to pervert the minds of men since, and that on occasion of the sub in theological matters, whether Puriscription to his book, which I have taps or Deists, as the worst of men. received and read. You are pleased The one, by too great confidence in to bing, something on that subject at speculative reason, forget they are the close of yours, but I do not un MEN; and the other, for want of the derstand it as what you expect my proper exercise of il, forget that dithoughts about, nor perhaps might it vine quality which raises them above be prudent in a letter to use so inuch the brutes that perish. We ought, freedom as would be necessary in therefore, in my humble opinion,' to making any remarks thereon.--I find encourage those whose abilities are nothing to complain of but the shorl. exeried in the cause of true and ra. ness of your letters, which I think tional doctrines, which are not reshould be always in proportion to the pugnani to the Word of God. distance of place, aid space of time of the many subjects which have between them; and I venture io pro caused disputes amongst men who' mise for myself that no remembrance call themselves Christians, and who of yours shall be neglected or unan bear the badge of Christ, there has swered by, Sir, your affectionate been none more fertile of controversy friend, aud most humble servant, than that of the Divine Tripity. But

Jos, HIGIMORE. yet, would men study THEMSELVES, . London, December 10, 1730.

they would there find ample matter Mrs. Goldfinch I have not seen yet, for wonder and incredulity. - The but shall the first opportunity con- knowledge of the junction of the soul vey your respects as desired. My anal body is unknown to man, in wife joins iu service to your spouse whom that junction is effected; and and self.

yet all know that there is such an

union. Why then should we, who Mr. URBAN, Tunbridge, Dec. $. cannot comprehend ourselves, pre11 ( T is a source of infinite regret to sume lo question the union of Three

all good men and sincere worship- Divine and Infinite Essences ? It is ers of God, that Religious Contro- surely arrogance in us to say, that be

versies ever had a beginning. But if cause we cannot comprehend how we look into the history of the first such a thing is done, we will not beages of the Church, we shall perceive lieve it. It were equally as reasona. that the seeds of discord and disunion bie to say, that because we do not were early sown by the Eueiny.- know of what materials, or how the Much iw it is to be regretted, and world was formed, we will not believe though it would have been better for that it ever had a beginning : yet the general interests of Religion, and we all acknowledge it must have had the wellare of mankind, had such dis some beginning, consequently, some putes never originated; yet much creation; and even Heathen philosocredit is due to those who endeavour phers agree-gigni de nihilo nihil. to dispel the mists of fanaticism and I have been led to make these obe irreligion by the true exposition of servations from the perusal of a little the Holy. Volume, Sober reason, Work, published at York (but may unprejudiced by misgoverned zeal, be purchased in London), denominated and unioflated by presumptuous self “ The Postscript to the Rejection of sufficiency, has aniversally acknow. Reason," &c. which is worthy the alJedged the doctrines of the Church of tention of every Divine of the EstaEngland to be the inost pure and blishment, and all persons who feel genuine of

any Established Religion. interested in the safety of our Nam Its doctrines are all sanctioned by tional Church, Scriplure, and reconcileable to un This Work exhibits profound represuming Reason.

But yet there search and great biblical knowledge. HAVE BEEN, ARE, and ever WILL BE Many of the texts coilated in favour : men, who, believing themselves capa of the Holy Trinity have never, I be. ble of comprehending EVERY THING, lieve, been adduced before. · It conec assume to reject Infinity, because aludes, as its title imports, with some their FINITE uuderstanding cannot observations on the Bible Society attain to it. As for my part, I have question -- question which, in my always looked upon those who en opinion, involves ibe vital interests

of the Established Church, and the bere I am led to notice “the * Dediwelfare of the Nation. For what cation of lhe Postscript;" a beautiful confidence can we place in those who 'aud feeling composition, replete with object to written expositions of the exalted sentiments and Christian feel. Bible, and yet at ibe same time insisting. It is quite out of the common upon having Livingexpositors where run of fulsome Dedications, and may ever the Bible is disseminated ? Such at least boast of novelty. a system, however plausible the Bible How much soever some of the DisSociety may be, and however power senters are to be respected as inep fully supported by Royal influence, and Christians, yel, Mr. Urban; I am or sanctioned by Ducal patronage, is, inclined to look upon them, iu the in my opinion, erroneous, and will at agų regate, as a body of men ensome future time (which Heaven croaching upon established sound avert !) be productive of scenes that opinions, and little guided by the true England bas once too fatally wit. Gospel spirit. Though they may Dessed. Not that I would object to make large claims to righteousness the diffusion of knowledge through and superior sanctity, yet (for Gød every rank of life: not that I would only knows) I am inclined to think wish the people to remain in igno- their zeal apparent, their religion Pance, fettered by the trammels of Pharisaical. superstition, as heretofore was the The Unitarians seem to level their case, under the doininion of Popery. attacks at the very basis of ChrisNo; let them be enlightened ; let tianity; and, by denying the Divinity reason be cultivated ; and the truths of Christ, they reject the merits of of Religion expounded to them, un the Redemption, and dissipate the corrupted and unperverted by un. authority of the Gospel Covenant. governed zeal and systematic delu. Thus they would bring us back again sion. The system of delusion prac. to the ages of Heathenism and Pagan fised by the Court of Rome upon the doctrines. general ignorance of mankind, pro In hopes that this may attract the duced the glorious Reformalion. Why notice of some more able Champion then should we, through a pretended of the Church than myself, I am, Mr. zeal to open their eyes, intoxicate the Urban, Yours, &c. W.S.' people's braio with vaio delusions and untempered zeal?

For mine own part, I glory that in our Country the Extracts from the MSS. of Dr. Reformation first dawned, and that ANDREW COLTEE DUCAREL. the English peasantry, like our venerable Constitution, are superior to, Notes about SIGUELMUS, who went to and better informed than any existing

the Island of St. Thomas in the community of men.

East Indies, in the time of King But yet I would not have the seeds

ALFRED. of manly reason withered by too much Mr. Malthews's respects to Dr. heat, nor choked by the thorns of Ducarel, and will be proud of the “ false Religion." I would have the honour of waiting on bim on Saexpansion of knowledge, like every turday. In mean time, inclosed is radical improvement, produced by what occurs in Will. de Malmesbury gradual and temperate measures. concerniug Sighelm, which he will be

Let those who pretend to “ Libe very glad if the Doctor finds satisrality" be on their guard, lest their factory. There is no epoch mentionliberality degenerate into credulity, ed but the reign of Alfred in general

. "and credulity into a general indiffer. Mr. M.'s friend, the Knight of Malta

, - ence to all creeds, orthodox and is very desirous to find out whether heterodox.

there be any manuscript extant of A departure from the venerable the following, mentioned by Leland, institutions of our ancestors, sanc Balæus, Pitsæus, as well as by Ware: tioned by age, confirmed by reason, Thomæ Scropi (al. Bradelegi) Episc. and authorized by Scripture, may be Dromorensis Liber de Legatione sua productive of evil consequences. And ad Rhodios. M. bas looked for it,

* To the Society for promoting Christian Knowledge, and to every Member of the Establishment.

without

cess.

without success, in all the Catalogues no more than triplex; supposing the at the Museum. If any notice of it MS text to be divided into three coshould fall in the Doctor's way, the lunins; which, as I have not seen, I communication will be highly accept cannot be positive in. Triquadrus is able.--Museum, 7 Sept. Wednesday. a corruption of triquetrus, i.e. three" De Episcopis Schireburnensibus, Sales. fold, or tripartite; Holioke and Lit.

tletun cite Cerdt for their authority. buriensibus, Wiltunensibus. “ Sighelmus (et Asserus prædecessor)

So that the loscription may in Engambo sub Rege Alfredo Adulfi quarto lish be thus rendered: Mailbrite Mac. filio fuisse noscuntur.

Durnan has well (or worthily) 64Sighelmus trans mare causa Elee- pounded this Book of our Lord (ex• mosynarum Regis, et etiam ad Sanctum pressed) in three Columns. If this Thomam in Indiam missus, mira pro- explanation should be any way satis. speritate, quod quivis in hoc sæculo factory, I shall be glad, who am, with miretur, Indiam penetravit; indeq. re due respect, your real friend, diens exotici generis Gemmas, quarum

W. MASSEY.
illa bumus ferax est, reportavit. Non Wandsworth, Feb. 16, 1754.
nallæ illarum adhuc in Ecclesiæ monu-
mentis visuntur."

READING SCHOOL.
Will. Malmesburiens. de Gestis Pontif.

Mr. Spicer's compliments to Dr.
Ang. Lib. II. (in Saville's Edition of
the Rerum Anglic.Scriptores, p.141.) been made at the Rolls without suca

Ducarel. The strictest search has N. B. He appears to have been the

Secundo Eliz. a charter was twelfth Bishop of the above-mentioned Sec, or of the West-Saxons in general. ing—not a word of the pudding there.

granted to the Corporation of Read

The said Queen granted a stipend of Mr. MASSEY to Dr. DUCAREL.

101. per annum to the Master. This I am very much obliged to you, grant not to be found in the Rolls. Doctor, for the hints you have given me is it to be met with at the Treasuryin your kind letter, and beg the continuance of your future notices. The this may probably lead us to our ori.

aut ubi gentium? The discovery of quotation from Hickes's Thesaurus in.

ginal foundation. -- Mr. Spicer will dicates, that the reed (Calamus) was

make all due ackoowledgments to used to write withal, wheo Eadwin's

Dr. Ducarel for his trouble and loss Picture was drawn ; but I waot to know when quill-pens were first in- tended with, or fail of success.

of time, whether bis inquiries be altroduced; and I request your observa

Fleet-street, Tuesday Morning.
tion, in reading books above 300
years old, in Latin or French (I think,

Qu: if not founded in the Guild or
Doctor, you understand French), where Fraternity of Jesus, in St. Mary's
you find penna, or pluma, or une Church at Reading ; if so, search the
plume, put for a pen. I imagine Mr. Augmentation-office.-A.C. D.
Wanley is wrong in joining the epithet
Metallinum* to Calamum; for, if it Dr. Ducavel to Sir JosHDAVANNECK,
were an iron style that Eadwi held Bart. concerning the Couts of Arms
in one haod, what occasion bad ho ut Heveaing bam Hall, in Suffolk.
for a penknife in the other?

Sir, Having some time since met If I could be certain that some of the with an account of the Coats of Arms, plates in your old book were copper, &c. remaining at your fine Seat and dod that they were engraved ia Eng. Church of Heveningbanı, I hope you land, I should gain several years to will excuse the liberty I take of troumy former reckoning. Pray be so bling you with it. I thought it good as to examine that particular would be the more agreeable to you critically for me; and, if you can, dis- at this time, as you are now upon the cover any name of the sculptor upon spot, and may thereby have an opthem.

portunity of examining which of I should think that the word tri ihese Arms may still be remainiog quadrum in the Inscription signifies since. 1663, when this account was

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* By the bye, metallinum is a barbarous word.

t La Cerda was a Spanish Jesuit, who wrote three volumes of Commentaries upon Virgil. Gent. Mag. Suppl. LXXXVI, Paar II.

first C

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