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the simple cultivator of the soil must are arrived ; and it is not a difficult grow it. The same causes will produce matter to discover the difference in the same effects in every age and clime. point of permanency and simplicity England then may be said to be covered between them. with a rich mould, in wbich all the virtues ripen to great perfection (an Eng the Continent of North America : on

I draw threeimaginary lines through, lish Gentleman is admitted to be the most perfect of buman beings); but in

the coast; the middle settlements; this mould the vices also luxuriate with

and the back settlements. On the unexainpled rankness, to prove which

first are settled inhabitants, bearing a we need not travel out of the record. similarity of thought and action to Germany, on the contrary, has no depth ourselves, imbibing some prejudices of soil, in which either great virtues' or arising from circumstances that pervices can strike deep root. We meet haps cannot be well avoided. Envy there seldom with such instances of ele- is too conimon an appendage of the vated benevolence, patriotism, gene. human heart--we know it.

—we feel rosity, &c. as are very common in this

it-and it produces a struggle in the Country; but we neither meet with instances of such desperate depravity- generous mind to rid ilself of it: we There is in a poor country neither the general in those who might have left

cannot then be surprised to find it same incitement nor the same tempta- their Country under circumslances of tion to commit crime as in a rich one. A pickpocket seldom pilfers to satisfy

a painful or an embarrassed nature; the cravings of hunger; and he probably and the same impressions descend to would not think of conimittir.g a crime, the next generation : hence is to be were it not for the alluring temptation

traced that desire to become a Naval of the gold watch, with its ponderoas and a Commercial People, almost in appendages. Vice, in England, has the opposition to, and envy of ourselves. virulence of the small-pox ; in Germany, It is showy, I grant; but it is not juthe mildness of the Vaccine. - All this dicious; because their powers of setmight be made still more evident; but tlement are immense, and it must - enough, I trust, has been said, to make

and will produce equal jealousies, it comprehensible to the humblest capa

and ultimately the evils attendant op city, that lenity to vice may be condu

comp

ition and political disputes. cive to the cause of virtue in Germany, when it would become destructive to

The Middle Settlements are inhasociety in England."

bited by persons from all nations, and

these are all agriculturists, but unIt has frequently occurred to my bappily not sufficiently attentive to thonghis, that, circumstanced as the those improvements that are rapidly United States of America are, with gaining in all well-infurmed States an immense Continent and line of a listlessness of action, and a fondness coast, their attention should be for politicks, over-rule too much the solely confined to Agriculture and attention that might otherwise be their own Coasting Trade, in order to paid to improvements. hecome a permanently great people; The third line is in the Woods, without any intercourse whatever of i.e. borderers of the immense forest. a commercial nature with Europe by Placed almost out of civilization, and their own shipping - leaving the na beyond the influence of, and submisvigation of the Atlantic open entirely sion to, human laws, it is not surto Europcau shipping and laying a prising to find persons almost emduty ou all importations in foreiga bracing the barbarism of the savage, bottoms: these duties would be the in the ferociousness of their conduct means, of lessening the taxes, and and callousvess of their minds. To their non-intercourse by their own justify this remark, permit me to add, vessels would prevent their being that ihe first time I was ever on a embrviled with European politicks, Jury, and, a young man, was to sit on leaving them perfectly free and inde a trial for murder, a Virginian back pendent of all that refined political settler, or, agreeably to the language management now become so necessary of the Country, “a Cracker," had in all European States. --- If we begin placed the muzzle of his rifle in the with the Plough and the Loom, we interstices of a log-house, and coolly can easily trace the various bearings shot a man dead seated at his own of Agriculture ayd Commerce in hearth, to obtain the wife : with a States, up to the zenith to which we judgment convinced, but with trem

bling lips, I pronounced the verdict, his wife ready to lie-in again. In this Guilty; he expressed his surprise un state he applied to Mr. Fairfax, and moved, and with the same indiffer. told him that if be would let bin ence was executed. For once in my have a little bit of ground by the life, I felt it my duty to attend, and road side, “ he would show him the see the effects of a Jurors' verdict. fashions on it.” The slip of land for

Taking, therefore, into considera- which he asked was exactly a rood : tion the extent of this vast region; Mr. Fairfax, after inquiring into his the line of coast it enjoys; the count- character, suffered bim to have it; less multitude of inhabitants it can the neighbours lent him some little support; I cannot but conceive that assistance in the carriage of bis maby keeping themselves distinct; and terials ; he built his bouse, enclosed bý a tending to Agriculture and the the ground with a single row of Coasting Trade only, the American quick set, which he cut down six lines States would beconie a powerful and when it was young, and planted the a permanent State. Unhappily, how- garden. The manoer in which he set ever, for us in ortals, resilessness of to work, and the way in which the action and various other evil passions work was performed, pleased Mr. so besét us, as to produce other pur Fairfax so much, that he told him he suits thao those that are best calcu should be rent-free. His answer, as laled for the happiness of mai.

Sir Thomas Bernard justly says, de-
Yours, &c.
T. WALTERS. sur ves to be remembered. “ Now,

Sir, you have a pleasure in seeing my Mr. URBAN,

Nov. 30. cottage and garden neat: and why THE THE two following interesting should not other Squires liave the

stories are extracted from the same pleasure in seeing the coltages “Report of the Society for beitering and gardens as nice about thew ? the Condition of the Poor :" they The poor would then be happy, and are well worth the attention of those would love them, and the place where Country Gentlemen who have a sin they lived: but now every nook of cere wish to ameliorate the coudition land is to he let to the great farmers, of their indigent labourers.

and nothing left for the poor but to - Twenty years ago there stood a go to the parish.” small cottage by the road side, near

“ Though my visit,” says Sir Thomas, Tadcaster, which, for its singular

was unexpected, and he at the latter beauty, and the realness of its little

end of his Saturday's work, his clothes gardei, attracted the notice of every

were neat and sufficiently clean. His traveller. The remarkable propriety countenance was healthy and open ; he wbicb appeared in every part of this was a little lame in one leg, the consen tenement, made Sir Thomas Bernard quence of exposure to wet and weather. curious to learn the history of the He said be bad always worked hard and owner, and he obtained it from his well; but he would not deny but that own mouth.

Britton Abbot (such he had loved a mug of good ale when he was the owner's name) was a day- could get it. When I told him my oblabourer: begioning to work with a

ject in inquiring after him, that it was farmer at nine years old, and being have cottages and gardens as neat as his,

in order that other poor persons might careful and ividustrious, he had saved

and that he must tell me all his secret nearly 401. by the time that he was

how it was to be done, he seemed extwo-and-twenty. With this money, tremely pleased, and very much affected. he married and took a faria at 301. a

He said ' nothing would make poor folks. year; but the farm was too much

more happy than finding that great folks for his means, and before the end of thought of them that he wished every the second year be found it necessary poor man had as comfortable a honie as to give it up, having exhausted al his own--not but that he believed there most all his little property. He then might be a few thoughtless fellows who removed to a collage, where, wiih would not do good in it.'” two acres of land and lig rigjit of Britton Abbot was at this time common, he kept 1 # (cows, anu lived sixty-seven, and had lived happily in comfort for nine years; at the ex with his wife for five-and-forty years. piration of that time the common He earned from twelve to eighteeå was enclosed, aod be had to seek a

shillings a week by task-work; “but new babitation with six childrev, and to be sure," he said, " I litve u grund

character

OF

WASTE GROUND WOULD AFFORD HA-
BITATION AND COMFORT TO TWENTY

eharacter in all this country." Five if a man of known industry and good of his children were living, and hav character, like Joseph Austin or Briling been well brought up, were thriv. ton Abbot, applies for ao indulgence ing in the world. Upon his rood of of this kind, ihere is very little proground he hai filieen apple trees, one bability that the application will be green gage, three winesour plum refused. Austin was at this time trees, iwo apricot trees, curranis, about forty-two years of age; he had gooseberries, and three bee-hives ; he a wife and four children, and his whole reared also from this garden abun stock of worldly riches amounted to dance of common vegetables, and fourteen shillings: but men who deabout forty bushels of potatoes an serve friends are seldom without nually. When this map was turned them ; and a master, with whom he adrift

upon the world by the ioclosure usually worked at harvest, sold him of the commoo, if he had been wild an old cottage ior nine guineas, which out hope, or if the rood of land for he was to work out. He bad for which he asked bad been denied, he some time in his leisure hours been and his six children, and his pregnant preparing bats, a sort of bricks made wife, might have gone to the work of clay and straw weli beaten togehouse, and become a burden to the ther, eighteen inches long, twelve publick, instead of setting it an ex wide, and four deep, not burnt, but ample, and teaching a most important dried in the sun : with these, and the lesson to their superiors. We will maierials of the old coitage, he went transcribe Sir Tbos. Bernard's words, to work. The buts make a better and print them, as he has done, in a wall than lalb iud piaster with a coat. maoner which may tend to excite the ing of clay, less wood is required, and attention they deverve : “Five UN the house is stronger and warmers SIGHTLY, UN PROFITABLE ACRES but they must be protected from rain

as much as possible, and especially

toward the bottom. As he bad to SUCH FAMILIES As Britton ABBut’s.” live and support his family by his The quarter of an acre which was daily labour, this buildin: could only granted bim was vol worth a shilling be carried on when bis regular day's a year before it came into his hands. work wis done; he has often conti

nued it by ivoonlighi, and beard the Joseph Austin, a bricklayer in the clock stike twelve before he withneighbourhood of Cambridge, had drew from an occupation in which often locked with a longing eye upon his heart was engaged: this, too, a bit of ground by the rvad-side, part when he had to rise at fuur the next of what is called the Lord's Waste, morning, walk to Cambridge (nearly by a term which reflects little credit four miles distant) to his work, and upon manorial rights, or parochial return in the evening. If his consti. management. Whenever he looked

tution had not been unusually strong, at this spol, he used to think whal a it must have suok under these extranice place it would be for a house ; ordioary exertions a fate more freand being a house-builder by trade, quent ihan is generally supposed and something of a castle-builder by among the iodustrious poor. But he nature, he used, as suon as he feil

scems to have possessed an unweariaasleep at nigiit, to dream that he was ble frame of body, as well as an inat work there with his bricks and his vincible spirit. Wheu the building trowel. At lengto he applied to the was one story high, and the beams Manor Court, and got a verbal leave were to be laid on, the carpenter disto build there Two of bis oeigh covered that the timber from the old bours, moved by elvy as he says, cottage would not serve for so large threatened that if he began his house a place. This was a severe disapthey would pull it donn; upon this pointment: nothing, however, disbe applied a second time to the Court, couraged hiin : he covered it over and obtained a legal permission with with a few loads of huum, and immethe assent of all the copyholders, pay- diately began a small place in the ing for the entry of his oame on the same inander, at the end, working at Court rolls, and sixpence a year quit- this with such perseverance, that he rent. And here we must do our

got bis family in within four months Country the justice to observe, that after the foundations were laid. This

greut

great object being accomplished, he late century; but at present Bread went on leisurely with the rest, as he seems to have lost niuch of its former could save money for what was want estimation, and is in many cases coning: after five years he raised the sidered rather to occasion than to second story, and in ten it was tiled allay indigestion; and Dr. Crdogan, and coated ; the ioside was not com a physician of considerable eminence pleted when Mr. Plumptre commu in his day, wrote a pamphlet exnicated the story to the Society, but pressly to point out its deleterious there was house-room for himself and qualities. i conceive it to be true his family, and another apartment that Bread now is not so universally was let for a guinea a year.

ayreeable to the stomach as formerly, “ In this manner,” says that Gentle and if used in any excess, will digest man, “ Joseph Austin, with singular in- with greater difticuliy than various dustry and reconomy, in the course of other species of food. Whether this ten years built himself a house, which is to be attributed to any chaoge ia he began with only 14s. in his pocket. ! tre powers of the stomach, in conseDuring that time his wife had four

quence of any alieration in our prechildren, and buried as many more. sent mode of diet, I know pot; but I The money which it cost him was about

believe the principal cause to arise 501, the whole of which was saved from

from the change of the thing itself, the earnings of daily labour. The house and garden occupy about twenty poles differevt valure from the Bread in

which I have po doubt is of a very of ground; and the garden is as creditable as the house to the industry and good contemplation of the Writer of the sense of the owner; one of the fences Note; far less pure, wholesome, and was made of sweet briar and roses mixed nutritious. Less labour and care are with woodbine, another of dwarf plum- bestowed on the making ; the bakers trees, and against the back of the house avail themselves of every means to he had planted a vine, a nectarine, and accelerate the fermentation, and for a peach-tree.”

this, and other purposes, many most Yours, &c.

J. T. Doxious ingredients are introduced.

I really doubt whether one pure, unMr. URBAN,

Sept. 4, adulterated loaf of wheaten Bread He following vote, which I wet ever issues from the shop of a London

with a few days ago in Derham's baker : some artifice, inconsistent Physico-Theology, has induced me with the antient simplicity of the to endeavour, through the channel of process, and prejudicial to its lightyour publication, to draw the atten. ness and purity, being ever employed. tion of individuals to the existence of Indeed London Bread has become so an abuse productive of more injury notoriously bad, that a different preto the community than many others paration of flour, &c. denominated of apparently greater magnitude. French Bread, or French rolls, is ge

Among the many noble contrivances nerally made use of at the better for food,

cannot but attribute that tables. universal aliment, Bread, to the revela As Bread has fallen, Meat seems to tion, or at least the inspiration, of the have risen in the general estuation, Creator and Conservator of Mankind; with respect to its effects on the pot only because it is a food used in all, stomach. It is admitted to digest or most parts of the world, but especially

more readily than Bread: the niany because it is of incomparable use in the

prejudices which existed against its great work of digestion, greatly assist

free use are wearing away, and it is ing the ferment, or whatever causes the digestion of the stomach. Of which take

recommended by modern Physicians this example from the noble Mr. Boyle:

in many cases, which would have • He extracted a menstruum from Bread

caused the antient Doctors to stand alone, that would work on bodies more

aghast. But as Bread must necessacompact than many hard minerals, nay, rily form the principal article of subeven on glass itself, and do many things

sistence in this (uentry, especially that Aqua-fortis could not do; yet by among the poorer classes of the peono means was this so corrosive a liquor ple, it is much to be regretted that as Aqua-fortis, or as the other acid they should be deprived of so wholemenstruum.'

some and nutritious an aliment as it This opinion was nearly universally was accustomed to be, and that the adopted at the commencement of the bakers should be permitted to injare

the

TI

1

ACRES

OF

WASTE GROUND WOULD AFFORD HA-
BITATION AND COMFORT TO TWENTY

eharacter in all this country.". Five if a man of known industry and good of his children were living, and have character, like Joseph Austin or Briling been well brought up, were thriv. ton Abbot, applies for ao indulgence ing in the world. Upon his rood of of this kind, ihere is very little proground he haj filieen apple trees, one bability that the application will be green gage, three winesour plum refused. Austin was at this time frees, two apricot trees, currants, about forty-two years of age; he had gooseberries, and three bee-hives ; he a wife and four children, and his whole reared also from this garden abun stock of worldly riches amounted to dance of common vegetables, and fourteen shillings: but men who deabout forty bushels of potatoes an serve friends are seldom without nually. Wben this map was turned them; and a master, with whom he adrifi upon the world by the ioclosure usually worked at barves!, sold him of the commoo, if he had been with

ai old cottage íor n'ne guineas, which out hope, or if the rood of land for he was to work out. He bad for which he asked bad been denied, he some time in his leisu re hours been and bis six children, and his pregnant preparing bats, a sort of bricks made wife, might have gone to the work of clay and straw weli beaten togehouse, and become a burden to the ther, eighteen inches long, twelve publick, instead of setting it an ex wide, and four deep, not burnt, but ample, and teaching a mást important dried in the sur : with these, and the lesson to their superiors. We will maierials of the old coitage, he went transcribe Sir Tbos. Bernard's words, to work. The bats make a better and print them, as he has done, in a wall than lalb iud plaster with a coat. manner which may.lend to excite the ing of clay, less wood is required, and attention they deserve : “ FIVE UN the house is stronger and warmer SIGHTLY, UNPROFITABLE

but they must be prolected from rain as much as possible, and especially

toward the bottom. As be bad to SUCH FAMILIES As Britton A Bbut's.” live and support his family by his The quarler of an acre which was daily labour, this buildin: could only granted bim was vot worth a shilling be carried on when bis regular day's a year before it came into his hands. work was done; he has often conti

noed it by woodlighi, and beard the Joseph Austin, a bricklayer in the clock strike twelve before he withneighbourhood of Cambridge, had drew from an occupation in which often locked with a longing eye upon his heart was engaged: this, too, a bit of ground by the road-side, part when he had to rise at four the next of what is called the Lord's Waste, morning, walk to Cambridge (nearly by a term which reflects little credit four miles distant) to his work, and upon manorial rights, or parochial relurn in the evening. If his copsti. managem(nt. Whenever be looked tution had not been unusually strong, at this spol, he used to think whal a it must have suuk uuder these extranice place it would be for a house ; ordioary exertions--a fate more fre. and being a house-builder by trade, quent ihan is generally supposed and something of a castle-builder by among the industrious poor. But he nature, he used, as soon as he fell

seems to bave possessed an unweariaasleep at night, to dream that he was ble frame of body, as well as an ioat work there with his bricks and his vincible spirit. When the building trowel. Al lengto he applied to the

was one story high, and the beams Manor Court, and got a verbal leave were to be laid on, the carpenter dis

. to build there Two of his neigh covered that the timber from the oid bours, moved by elivy as he says, cottage would not serve for so large threatened that if he began his house a place. This was a severe disapthey would puli il down; upon this pointment: nothing, however

, dis

. be applied a second time to the Court, couraged hiin : he covered it orer and obtained a legal permission with with a few loads of huum, and immethe assent of all the copyholders, paya diately began a small place in the ing for the entry of his pame on the same manner, at the end, working at Court rolls, and sixpence a year quit- this witb such perseverance, that he rent. And here we must do our got his family in within four months Country the justice to observe, that after the foundativss were laid. This

great

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