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upon the

able instance of the hasty and unfeeling pressive, and unamiable manner in which judgment with which man is prone to con

The doctrines and duties of religion were dernu bis fellow man, and of that rancorous disguised in the stern and rigid habits misrepresentation in particular, with which of a severe Puritanical master. From writers are accustomed to attack and revile this college he took the office of teacher eath other.

to a small congregation at Froome, in It is indeed little to the credit of the Somersetshire, and after a short resiboasted dignity of human reason and hu dence was reinoved to a more weighty man intellect, that even the profession of charge at Exeter. There the eminent the purest principles of charity and love abilities and engaging manners of the cannot teach men to look with pity and young preacher opened to him the seduccompassion, instead of anger and reproach, tive path of pleasure; when the reproof that


and mistakes, and faults some elder members of the society thought of those around them.

necessary, being administered in a magIf any one principle can be selected ner to awaken resentment rather than more contrary than all others to true reli- contrition; and the eagle eye of anger disgion, and more detrimental to human hap. covering in his accusers imperfections of piness, it is that so unhappily prevalent a different character indeed, but of tendenin the present day, both in the political cy little suited to a public disclosure, the and religious world, of applying to men's threatened recrimination suspended the conduct motives which they themselves proceedings, and an accommodation took deny and disavow, when such conduct place, by which Mr. Williams left Exeter, will admit of a more charitable interpreta- and was engaged to the superintendence tion, and may be accounted for without of a Dissenting congregation at Highgate. such evident trespasses upon justice and After a residence there of a year or two, he candour. That David Williams im made his first appearance in 1770, as an bibed, and in some instances avowed, a author, ty a Letter to David Garrick, a disregard to principles which you and I, judicious and masterly critique on the Mr. Urban, esteem as of the highest pos actor, but a sarcastic personal attack on sible importance to oar happiness, and the man, intended to rescue Mossop from productive to us of the most rational con. the supposed unjust displeasure of the solation and hope, we cannot but consider modero Roscius : this effect was proas the greatest misfortune of his life, and a duced, Mossop was liberated, and the subject of deep concern, rather than a cause Letter withdrawn from the booksellers. of opprobrious insult and angry aver. Shortly after appeared “ The Philososion. And this impression would be the pher, in three Conversations," which were stronger upon our minds when we observ. much read, and attracted considerable ed, what every person that was long ac notice. This was soon followed by “ Esquainted with him could not but observe, says on Public Worship, Patriotism, and that bis ruling passion, the general bent Projects of Reformation;" written and of his disposition, and the ultimate end he published upon the occasion of the leading proposed in all his exertions, was to bene- religious controversy of the day ; but fit his fellow creatures, to lessen the sum though they obtained considerable circuof human misery, and to diffuse comfort, lation, they appear not to have softened harmony, and peace over all the dwellings the asperities of either of the contending of men.

That he proceeded upon what parties. The Appendix to these Essays we think erroneous and imperfect princi- gave a strong indication of that detesta. ples is a reason why we should endeavour tion of intolerance, bigotry, and hypoto shew the inefficiency and defect of crisy which formed the leading character such principles; but it can be no just rea of his subsequent life, and which had been son to brand his character with harsh and gradually taking possession of his mind calumnious aspersions.

from the couduct of some of the circle of David Williams was born at a village associates into which bis profession had near Cardigan, in 1738, and after receive thrown bim. ing the rudiments of education, was placed He published two volumes of “Sermons," in a school or college at Carmarthen, pre- chiefly upon Religious Hypocrisy, and paratory to the Dissenting Ministry; which then discontinued the exercise of his proprofession he entered upon in obedience fession, and his connection with the body to parental authority, but very contrary of Dissenters. He now turned his thoughts to his own inclination. His abilities and to the education of youth, and in 1773, acquirements even then appeared of a su. published “A l'reatise on Education, perior order; but he has often in the lat- recommending a method founded on the ier part of his life stated to the writer of plans of Commenius and Rousseau, which these lines, that he had long considered it as he proposed to carry into effect. He took à severe misfortune, that the most injurious a house in Lawrence street, Chelsea, mara impressions were made upon his youthful ried a young lady not distinguished either and ardent eiud by the cold, ausiere, op- by fortune or connection, and soon found


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himself at the head of a lucrative and have to acknowledge the lasting benefit prosperous establishment. A severe do of his energetic and powerful pen. mestic misfortune in the death of his wife During the alarm in 1780, he published blighted this prospect of fame and for a tract, intitled " A Plan of Association tune : his fortitude sunk under the shock; on Constitutional Principles;" and in his anxious attendance upon her illness in- 1782, on occasion of the County meetings jured his own health, the internal concerns and associations, he gave to the public his of the family became disarranged, and he “ Letters on Political Liberty ;" the niost left his house and his institution, to which

important perhaps of all his works; it he never again returned.

was extensively circulated both in England During his residence at Chelsea, he

and France, having been translated into became a member of a select club of poli. French by Brissot, and was the occasion tical and literary characters, to one of of its author being invited to Paris, to whom, the celebrated Benjamin Franklin, assist in the formation of a constitution he afforded an asylum in his house at for that country: had Mr. Williams's Chelsea during the popular ferment against temperate and rational advice been fol., him, about the time of the commence lowed, what torrents of human blood ment of the American war. In this club might have been spared! He continued was formed the plan of public worship in about six months in Paris ; and on the tended to unite all parties and persuasions death of the king, and declaration of war in one comprehensive form. Mr. Wil against this country, took leave of his liams drew up and published, “A Liturgy friends of the Girondist party, with an alon the universal principles of Religion and most prophetic intimation of the fate that Morality;" and afterwards printed two vo awaited them. He brought with him on lumes of Lectures, delivered with this Li his return a letter from the Minister of torgy at the chapel in Margaret-str. Ca. War, addressed to Lord Grenville, and vendish-square, opened 7th April, 1776. intended to give Mr. Williams, who was This service continued about four years, fully and confidentially entrusted with the but with so litile public support, that the private sentiments and wishes of the perexpence of the establishment nearly in sons then in actual possession of the guvolved the Lecturer in the loss of his liber. vernment of France, an opportunity of couty. As the plan proposed to include in veying those sentiments and wishes to the one act of public worship every class of British Ministry. Mr. Williams delivered men who acknowledged the being of a the letter into the hands of Mr. Aust, the God, and the utility of public prayer and Under Secretary of State, but never heard praise, it necessarily left unnoticed every from Lord Grenville on the subject. Some other point of doctrine ; intending, that further curious circumstances relating to. without expressing them in public wor this transaction are detailed in a page or ship, every man should be left in unmo two, corrected by Mr. Williams himself, in lested possession of his own peculiar opi. Bisset's History of George 111. pions in private. This, however, would Previously to receiving this invitation not satisfy any of the various classes and he had removed from Russell-street to divisions of Christians; it was equally Brompton, for the purpose of executing an obnoxious to the Churchman and to the

engagement he had formed with Mr. Dissenter; and as even the original pro Bowyer, to superintend the splendid ediposers, though consisting only of five or tion of Hume, and write a continuativn of six, could not long agree, several of the History; but after his return from them attempting to obtain a more marked France he found himself in an extraordiexpression of their own peculiar opinions nary situation, for at the very time he had and dogmas, , the plan necessarily ex been denounced in France as a Royalist, pired : and Mr. Williams has bimself of he had been branded in his own country late expressed his own surprise that he as a Democrat; and he was informed that should not even then have formed a more his engagement respecting the History of accurale estimate of the present imper- England could not be carried into effect, fection of human nature. Mr. Williams in consequence, as it was stated, of au in now occupied his time and talents in as timation having been given that the privi. sisting gentlemen whose education had lege of dedication to the Crown would be been defective, and in forwarding their qua withdrawn if he continued the work. About lifications for the senate, the diplomacy, this time he published the “ Lessons to a and the learned professions. In this em young Prince,” and engaged in, and af. ployment he prepared, and subsequently terwards executed, the “ History of Monpublished, “ Lectures on Political Princi. mouthshire,” in one vol. 410. with plates ples,” and “ Lectures on Education," in by his friend the Rev. John Gardnor. 3 vols. His abilities also were ever most With regard to the circumstance upon readily and cheerfully employed in the which he always seemed inclined to rest cause of friendship and benevolence; and his fame, and which was most dear to his many persons under injury and distress beartthe establishment of the Literary



Fund, he had, so far back as the time of the gradual loss of his corporeal and mental his residence at Chelsea, projected a plan powers; his memory became very consi. for the assistance of deserving authors in derably impaired, and for some length distress; and after several ineffectual at of time preceding his decease he was tempts, he so far succeeded in the years unable to walk or move without assistance. - 1788 and 1789 as to found the institution, The tender assiduities of an affectionate and commence its benevolent operations. Nièce soothed the sorrows of declining You, Mr. Urban, if not one of the first, nature, and received from him the most yet certainly "rank as one of the earliest affecting and frequent expressions of gratiOfficers ;' and well know the unremitting tyde. The state of his mind cannot be zeal and activity with which the Founder so well depicted as by himself in the foldevoted the full force of bis splendid abili- lowing letter, one of the last he ever wrote, ties, and the greater part of his time and and addressed to a clergyman of the Church attention, to foster and support the infant of England, in the country : institution. He had the heartfelt satisfac. " Dear Sir, tion of seeing it continually rise in public “ I am now drawing near my end, and estimation, and at length honoured with

am desirous to conclude my days in the illustrious patronage of his Royal

peace. I have outlived almost all my re: Highness the Prince of Wales, who gene. lations and all my acquaintance; and I rously bestowed an annual donation for

am desirous to exchange the most sincere the purpose of providing a house for the

and cordial forgiveness with those I have use of ihe Society, and expressly desired in any sort offended. I had once a great that Mr. Williams should reside in it.

regard for you; why it was not continued singular and striking work, written by I have forgotien. Indeed, a paralytie Mr. Willians and several of his zealous

struke has greatly destroyed my memory, and able coadjutors, who each put their

and will soon destroy me., I take leave of names to their own several productions, my friends and acquaintance: among was given to the publick under the title of

others I take leave of you. I greatly «The Claims of Literature ; explanatory esteemed you and your worthy father, and of the Nature, Formatiou, and Purposes of I hope you will oviy remember what you the Institution."

saw commendable and good in me, and During the peace of Amiens Mr. Wilo believe me very sincerely yours, D. W.” liams again visited Paris, and is supposed to have been then intrusted with some

It will readily be supposed that this lete confidential mission from the Government

ter brought the gentleman immediately to of his own Country, his remarkable figure town; and his friendly offices of kindness having previously been noticed epiering contributed very much during the last two the bouses of several of the bigher mem

years to the comfort and consolation of bers of the then Administration. On bis

his suffering friend, wiro breathed his last return he published a much enlarged edi

on Saturday morniig, the 29th of June, tion of a liitle work which the alarm of in

and was interred the Saturday following,

in St. Ange's church, Soho, under this invasion had induced him to write, entitled

scription : “Regulations of Parochial Police ;' and he is thought to have been the author of a

David Williams, esq. aged 78 years; sort of periodical publication which ap

Founder of the Literary Fund. peared about that time in numbers, “ Ege. In the words of his friend, Captain ria; or Elementary Studies on the Progress Thos. Morris, " The distinguishing trails of Nations in Political Economy, Legisla. of Mr. Wiiliams's character were, a bộund. tion, and Government;' but which does jess philanthropy and disinterestedness; not appear to have been continued beyond studious of every acquisition that forms the first volume. The last acknowledged the taste, but applýing the strength of his work that proceeded from his prolific pen genias to the arts of government and eduwas, “ Preparatory Studies for Political cation as objects of the highest importance Reformers." It is curious and instructive to the welfare of nations and the happiness to observe the marked and striking effect of individuals. In his dress elegantly plain ; produced by his experience of reform and in domestic life attentive to the niceties of reformers in the stinggles of, and couse decorum ; in public politely ceremonious; quent upon, the French Revolution ; his in all his manners dignified and distindiction retains its full vigour, but his anti- guished ; in conversation elevated; in his cipations are much less sanguine, and his person tall and agreeable, having a comopinions on the pliability of the materials manding look softened with affability.” on which reformers are to operate, or in A review of the life and writings of this other words, on the real character of hu- remarkably gifted man strongly illustrates man nature, seem much changed. About the observation, That political and moral five years since he was seized with a severe philosophy, theories of government and edu. paralytic affection, from which he par. carion, even when displayed with splendid lially recovered, but continued to suffer ability and enforced with the most engaging GENT.-Mag. July, 1816.


benevolence, and with the best and most lenting censures of each other, and harsh
earbest motives of doing good, are found and unkind disputes, even upon the doc-
by a painful experience to be wholly inade trines of peace and love; thus supplying
quate to the task of reforming mankind, if the doubtful and uubelieving with the most
employed without the aid of Christianity; unanswerable of all arguments, that drawn
it is the Gospel alone that can reach the from the hypocrisy of professing prioci-
weak and erring beart of man, and round ples without suffering them to ivfluence
the reformation and improvement of socie the practice.
ties upon the purity, the virtue, and the The Silhouette that accompanies this
piety of individuals. From the same re memoir * is a good representation of the
view also, those who profess and call countenance, but is more stiff and erect
themselves Christians, may learn that a than the manner, of the Founder of the
much larger portion than they are willing Literary Fund: there is an excellent Bust
to allow of the censure and blame which of him in the House of the Society, exe-
they are soʻready to charge upon Infide cuted, and generously presented to the
lity, may in fact be more justly charge- Institution, by Richard Westmacott, esq.
able upon themselves ; upon that discre-

B. D.
pancy of principle and practice, that
envy, hatred, malice, and uncharitableness

* It shall be given in our next. which leads them into severe and unre

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EDMUND CALAMY, Esq. May 22. Died at Alphington, in the vici ceed Mr. Vincent Alsop, as Pastor of the nity of Exeter, Edmund Calamy, Esq. aged Congregation of Protestant Dissenters in 10.---He was lineally descended froni Ed Prince's-street, Westminster; where he mund Calamy, a very eminent,learned,and was followed by Dr. Hughes, the Rev. S. pious Nonconformist Divine, who lived in Say, the Rev. Dr. Kippis, the Rev.T.Jervis,' the tempestuous reign of Charles I. He and the Rex. P. Houghton; &c. in succes was born in London in 1600, and was ad sion. This venerable person published mitted of Pembroke Hall in the University Mr. Baxter's History of his Life and of Cambridge, where he took the degree Times ; and afterwards a very useful of B.A. in 1619, and that of B.D. in 1632. Abridgment of it, which he subseqnently Dr. Felton, the learned Bishop of Ely, improved into a much larger and more made him his Chaplain, and gare him the valuable work. In 1728, he completed Vicarage of Swaffham Prior in Cambridge. his great design of preserving the History shire, which he afterwards resigned on be of such Ministers, Lecturers, Masters, and ing chosen one of the Lecturers of St. Ed. Fellows of Colleges, &c. as were ejected munds Bury, in Suffolk. On the Restora. and silenced after the Restoration; tion in 1660, he was appointed one of the work of prodigious industry and labour, Chaplains to King Charles II. and was and which is alone sufficient to transmit offered the Bishoprick of Lichfield and bis memory with honour to posteritý, as Corentry, which he refused. He always it has supplied the learned world with a maintained a strict adherence to the prin- poble collection of Memoirs which otherciples of religious liberty, and the rights wise, in all probability, had been dissid. of conscience; of which he gave an une pated and lost." He also distinguished quivocal proof, when, on the passing of himself by many other learned and useful the Act of Uniformity in 1662, he resigned writings, and had the degree of Doctor in the living which he then held, St. Mary, Divinity conferred on him by the Univers Aldermanbury. He died Oct. 29, 1666, sities of Aberdeen, Edinburgh, and Glas. within ino months after the Fire of London,


He died in the City of Westminster Another of the ancestors of the late Mr. ju 1732; and bis loss was greatly regretted Calamy, several of whom were distin- (says his Biographer), not only by the guished for piety and learning, was Dr. Dissenters, but also by moderate merabers Edmund Calamy, born in 1671, grandson of the Established Church, both Clergy to E. Calamy mentioned above, by his and Laity, with many of whom he lived in eldest son.

In 1688, he went over to the great intimacy. A great and deserved Vuiversity of Utrecht, where be attended character of Dr. Calamy was given in his the lectures of the learned Grævius, and funeral sermon by Mr. Mayo, as a perother eminent professors. On his return son of sound judgment, extensive learning;

gland, among other studies, be began sincere piety, of a candid and benevolent to inquire into the controversy between temper, and very moderate with regard the Church of England and the Noncon to differences in point of religion.” (See formists; and after a long and sober exa Biogr. Brit. Dr. Kippis's Edition.) mination of what had been written on both Thus the name of Edmund Calamy is a sides, he resolved to join himself to the name ever-memorable in this country in Jatter. In 1703, he was chosen to suc the annals of Nonconformity, and dear to



and was interred in a family-vault in the 1816.] Edmund Calamy, Esq.--Rev. Cooper Willyams. 21 all the friends of religious liberty and ed his general deportment, rendered him truth. Mr. Calamy, the subject of this beloved and respected by those who were brief memoir, who was grandsoo to Dr. best acquainted with his character and the Edmund Calamy just now noticed, was virtues of his heart; as they will ever enbred to the profession of the Law. Hav. dear his memory to his amiable family, ing received his education at the Academy

who are

now deploring his loss. Mr. of Warringtou, under the care of those Calamy was for many years, during his reeminent men, Dr. Aikin, Dr.Priestley, Mr. sidence in the Metropolis, a Fellow of the Seddon, and Mr. Holt, he removed to SocietyofAntiquaries,andahighly-respectEmanuel College, Cambridge; he then ed member of the principal public trusts entered the Society of Lincoln's Inn, and among the Dissenters; and was concerned was afterwards called to the Bar,

in the execution of several private trusts, Counsel, he attended the Courts in West. which were committed to him in conse, minster Hall for several years; but at quence of the high estimation in which he length quitted his residence in Lincoln's was justly held by a numerous circle, of lan Fields ; and sought, and found, in the friends, for rectitude, honour, and inte, retirement of the country, that tranquil. grity. Having been in a declining state lity and quietude which were congenial to of health for several months, he finished the habits of his mind. In social and his earthly course on Suoday the 12th of domestic life, he exhibited a consistent May, when no apprehension of immediate paltern of those mild virtues of humanity danger was entertained by his family ; which were calculated to render it respect. able, ușeful, and happy. His native ur. burial-ground attached to the Protestant banity and kindoess, his obliging temper, Dissenting Chapel at Gulliford, near kis unassuming and accounmodating man. Lyınpston, in Devonshire, his funeral be, pers, together with the genuine benevo- ing attended by his family and several lence, courtesy, and candour, which mark. respectable friends. J. J. Lympston.

As a


Rev. COOPER WILLYAMS. July 17. Died, in Bernard-street, Rus. Bishop of Llandaff, though the latter was sell-square, aged 54, the Rev. Cooper about six years his senior. From thence Willyams, rector of Kingston and Stour Mr. W. removed to Emanuel College, mouth, Kent. Leaving to an abler and Cambridge, where he took bis degrees. more impartial hand the delineation of About 1789 he was presented by the Me. Willyams's moral and intellectual Church of Canterbury to the vicarage of character, the present writer will confine Ixning, near Newmarket; and in 1806 he, himself to a few dry facts. Mr. W. was presented by Sir Egerton Brydges to known to the publick as author of “ The the rectory of Kingston, near Canterbury ; Campaign in the West Indies, under Sir and at the same time, by the Lord ChanCharles Grey and Sir John Jervis, 1794;" cellor, to the neighbouring rectory of Lit. and of “TheVoyage up the Medi:erranean,

le Hardres, which he immediately ex. 1798;' having been present at the im- changed with Dr. Ingles for the rectory of mortal battle of the Nile, as chaplain to Stourmouth, in the same diocese, Captain Hallowell's ship, the Swiftsure, of which battle he has given the first, the

DEATHS. most particular, and the most authentic 1816,, AT the Cape of Good Hope, account. He had early imbibed a love March 6. Lieut-gen. James Nicol, of for the sea.

His father, Captain John the East India Company's service. Willyams, was many years the oldest com April 4. At the Cape of Good Hope, mander of the Navy; and died at Canter- ' aged 58, Major-Gen. Joseph Baird, brobury, in 1779, aged more than 70. His ther of Sir David Baird, bart, G. C. B. grandfather also was a captain in the and K. C. As an officer, he was ever disNavy, and resided at Deal, but was of a guished by his steady zeal and superior Cornish family; being a younger son (or intelligence; and possessed in an eminent grandson, I forget which) of the Wilo degree the happy talent of conciliating the lyams's of Carnanton, in Cornwall. Mr. a tachment of all under his command by W. was born in June 1762. His mother his impartiality ; as a member of society is yet living in her 90th year, being the his loss will be sincerely and deeply lalast representative of the ancient families mented, from the inflexible integrity of his of Goodier and Dineley, and sister to the character, and the openness and simplitwo last haronets of that name. Mr. W. city of his manners. Every respect was married a daughter of Snell, esq. of shown to his memory by the attendance Cheltenbam, by whom he has left two of all the troops in garrison at his fune. sons and two daughters. He was educatedral His widow, sister of Lord Riversdale,, at Cauterbury school, at the saine time with two of her children, arrived from the with Mr. Justice Abbott, and the now Cape on the 3d of July.

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