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REVIEW OF NEW PUBLICATIONS.
58. Mr. Surtees's History of Durham; includes seven antient Boroughs, by continued from p. 240.
charter or prescription : Hartlepool, E with pleasure resume
Barnard Castle, Auckland, Darlington, WE
report of this interesting Work. Sunderland, Stockton, and Gateshead In an Introduction to Part I). Mr.
and four other Market-Towns, Staindrop, Surtees has thus concisely sketched Wolsingbam, Stanbope, and 'Sedgefield. the situativo and limits of the subject Darlington, Stockton, Easington, and
The County is divided into four Wards : of his labours:
Chester, - The County of Durham arose “ The County of Durham is bounded gradually out of Northumberland (a by Northumberland on the North, by term which originally intended every the German Ocean on the East, by York- thing North of the Humber), together shire on the South and South-West, and with the increasing patrimony of the by Westmoreland, Cumberland, and Church; and, besides the main body of Northumberland, on the West and the County, lying betwixt Tyne, Tees, North-West. Within these limits it and Darwent, includes several scattered forms a triangle, witb the apex towards members of that Patrimony: 1. Northe West, and the base resting on the hamshire and Islandshire, including German Ocean. The Tyne forms the Holy Island, and the Farne Isles, and a Northern boundary from its mouth till portion of the main land extending from it receives the Stanley Burn, two miles the Tweed North and North-West, to Last of Prudhoe Castle, and near Brad the sea on the East, and separated from ley Mill; the boundary then follows the Northumberland on the South partly by course of the Stanley Burn Southwards the course of the Till, and partly by an (passing French's Close, Buck's Nook, imaginary line. 2. Bedlingtonshire, lying and Ravenside), to its source, from in the heart of Northumberland, bet wixt whence a short imaginary line inter the rivers Blyth and Wansbeck. These Venes betwixt that and the source of the are usually termed the North Bishoprick, Milkburn, which rivulet then forms the and are included in Chester Ward. 3. boundary, and runs Southward till it The insulated territory of Crake, in the joins the Darwent at Chopwell; from wapontake of Bulmer in Yorkshire, which bence the boundary ascends the course is considered as parcel of Stockton Ward. of the Darwent, full Westward, as far as -The Population of the whole County Blanchland; here a wild and irregular amounts, under the latest returns, to line of demarcation commences, marked 178,078; of whom 10,356 belong to the only by crosses and boundary stones, Nortb Bishoprick, and 453 to Crake. md passing by Boltslaw, Sheriffstone, “ ECCLESIASTICAL Division. The Shorngate Cross, and Stoggle Cleugh Diocese of Durbam ineludes the CounHead, reaches the North-Western apex ties of Durham and Northumberland of the County at the boundary currough (with the exception of the Peculiar of near Kilhopelaw, toucbing both Cum- Hexham, belonging to the Archbishopberland and. Northumberland; from rick of York). The Diocese is divided hence an imaginary line runs Soutb- into tbe Archdeaconries of Durham and Westwards, by Kilhope Cross, Shorts Nortbumberland : the former is subCross, and Headstones, to the head of divided into the Deaneries of ChesterTees, which, rising in Yade-Moss *, be- in-the-Street, Darlington, Easington, twixt Durbam and Westmoreland, and and Stockton ; the latter into those of flowing South-East, completes the South Alnwick, Bambrough, Corbridge, MorWestern and Southern boundary till it peth, and Newcastle." falls into the Ocean. - The County of
This Portion of the Volume con. Durbam, betwixt Tyne, Tees, and Dar. went, contains 610,000 square acres ;
taios a Topographical Account of its greatest length from East to West is Easington Ward, the situation and 45 miles; its greatest breadth 36; and general appearance of which is thus its circumference nearly 180 miles. Be- described: sides the City of Durham, the inty “ Easington Ward includes a portion
*“ Leland. In modern maps a brook, forming part of the boundary betwixt Durbam and Westmoreland, is called the Crookburn, rising in Crossfell and fallįng into the deep pool of the Weel, where the waters of Tees sleep before they thynder dowo the precipice of Caldron Snout." Gent. Mag. November, 1816.
of the sea-coast of the County of Dur. Bishop-Wearmouth, Sunderland, and b'am, from the mouth of the Wear on Seabam. From all and every of these the North to a point betwixt Blackhalls Parishes it would be easy to give and Hartlepool on the South. The pleasing extracts, and to multiply in. Wear divides it from Chester Ward on
stances of the Author's successful the North, and on the West, as far as
exertivos. We are, however, almost the junction of the Croxdale Beck with irresistibly led to Houghton-le-Spring, the Wear, near Sunderland Bridge. The the residence of that Apostle of the Croxdale or Tursdale Beck then forms the Western boundary, separating Eas- North, Bernard Gilpin, of whole life ington from Darlington Ward, to a point an excellent epitome is here given, in Tursdale estate, where Darlington, chiefly selected from his firsť BioStockton, and Easington Wards meet. grapher, Bp. Carleton ; but, as the An imaginary line then commences, history of this venerable Pastor is sometimes following and sometimes leave very generally known, we shall pass ing the course of Cornforth or Kellue on to the succeeding Rectors of Beck, and, passing along the extreme Houghton. verge of Kelloe Parish, and through that
“ Inimitable almost as was the chaof Hart, forms the Southern boundary racter of Gilpin, his Church has never of Easington Ward, dividing it from that
been left destitute; and can boast a of Stockton. Within these limits Eas.
succession of Pastors, on all of whom a ington Ward forms an oblong square, portion at least of the Northern Aposparrowest at the North, and broadest at
tle's spirit has descended." the South, and of which the Western boundary is very irregularly formed by After noticing the charitable Bethe windings of the Wear. The general quests of the Rev. George Davenport aspect of the Eastern coast of Durham and Dr. Bagshaw, Mr. Surtees gives is bare and dreary, and the soil, except- the following interesting Memoir, acing where improved by artificial culture, companied by an excellent Portrait*, generally a cold harsh clay, intersected by chains of limestone, whose tame,
“ Sir George Wbeler, D. D. who sucmonotonous forms, destitute of wood, ceeded Dr. Bagsbaw in the Rectory of and frequently ploughed to their sum- Houghton-le-Spring, was descended from mits, exclude alike the romantic gran. been possessed of property in the Coun
an ancient family of gentry who had deur of a mountainous region, and the softer features of the Southern grazing ties of Kent and Middlesex; his father, districts. Yet there are beauties which
Col. Charles Wheler of the Guards, sufmay escape the eye of a casual observer. fered for his loyalty to King Charles J, Betwixt the swells of country lie nume
and Sir George was born whilst his parous dales or denes almost entirely con
rents were on that account in exile at cealed from the higher grounds. Every Breda in Holland. In 1667 he became brook which falls to the sea bas its
a Member of Lincoln College in Oxford, banks adorned with a profusion of wild but before he bad taken a degree, he and varying scenery; the vales com
went abroad with Dr. James Spon of mencing imperceptibly together with Lyons, and embarking at Venice, sailed the course of their little streamlets, Lesser Asia and Greece. On his return
to Constantinople, and travelled through sometimes contract themselves into nar. row glens, scarce affording a single rug
be received the honour of knighthood, sed foot-patb; sometimes open into
and in 1683, the degree of A. M, from irregular amphitheatres of rock, covered the University of Oxford; be published with native ash or bazel, or deepen into
an account of his travels, and of several ravines resembling the bed of a rapid antiquities in Greece and Asia Minor, in river, terminating on the coast either in 1682, and presented several pieces of wide sandy bays, or in narrow outlets, antiquity which he had collected to the where the stream mines its way under University; his valuable casket of Greek crags of the wildest and most grotesque Dean and Chapter Library of Durbam,
Medals he afterwards gave by will to the appearance.”
About 1683, Sir George entered into The Parochial History then com- holy orders, contrary to the wishes of mences; and contains the Parishes of several powerful friends, who would willDalton-le- Dale, Easington, Castle- ingly bave supported his interest at Eden, Heeleden, Hart, Kelloe, Trim- Court. His sense of the sacred office don, Pittington, Houghton-le-Spring, which he had undertaken may be best
* Copied from a painting at Houghton Hall, in a surplice and red scarf, black scull-cap, grey hair, and mild venerable countenance.
expressed in his own words : 'I cannot fore their Majesties, for whose health but wonder how it comes to pass that and happiness are still a part of all my the dignity of priestlwod is so con devotions both private and publicke, temned in our days ; sure it must be though my humble designs never prompteither because those that bave the ho ed me to importune them at Court.nour conferred on then dishonour it by Many interesting traits of Sir George misusing it, or men ignorantly know not Wbeler's character and disposition may either how to value so great a favour be gathered from his printed works from God and man, or to enjoy so great (which afford the strongest internal evia happiness. If I have any skill to dence of coming from the heart as well chuse wbat in my opinion is best and as the head), and from much of his cormost eligible, I would much rather be respondence, which is still preserved in an understanding Vicar of a moderately the family. His religion, though austere' endowedChurch,than to bethe most rich, in regard to bimself, never rendered him if vicious, Lord of the Manor : for in- harsh or severe in his judgment of deed he (the Vicar) is to be esteemed others, and, however strict in his own the Chief of a Christian Parish, and observances, he was neither an enemy General of so many Convents and Mo to innocent recreations nor to personal nasteries as be has houses in his Parish; accomplishments, when consistent with and if he lives there and doth his duty, the purity of the Christian character; deserves to wear a mitre better than the and though sincerely attached, both by Abbot of St. Denys, and, in plain terms, judgment and inclination, to the disa non-resident Bishop who absents bim- cipline and institutes of that Church of self from his flock upon any terms be which he was a member, his zeal and sides the affairs of his Diocese, or ser charity embraced the whole Christian vice of his King and Country. In 1684, world. Nor will it on the whole, perSir George was collated by Bp. Crewe to haps, be more than justice to conclude; the second Stall in Durham Cathedral; that few ever more happily united the and in 1708, being then Vicar of Basing- dignified manners and sentiments of stoke in Hants, was promoted by the birth and rank with the venerable simsame Patron to the Rectory of Hough- plicity and modesty of the Christian paston-le-Spring. Lord Crew's political tor, than Sir George Wheler. Sir Geo. opinions are well known; and Sir George, Wheler died at Durham Jan. 18, 1723, descended from parents in whom loyalty and was buried in the Galilee of Durham was an inheritance, participated pro Cathedral, where a handsome monubably in some degree in the sentiments ment is erected to his memory by bis of his Patron. It is obscurely binted only surviving son, Granville Wheler. that one unworthy personage of Sir With a spirit worthy of the successor of George's own numerous family endea Bernard Gilpin, Sir George Wheler bevoured to bring his venerable kinsman queathed all the arrears which should into disgrace and danger, for some un be due at the time of his death from his guarded expressions of attachment to spiritual promotions, to charitable purthe unfortunate House of Stuart. But, poses within the Parish of Houghton-lewhatever might be Sir George's feelings Spring. This sum, amounting to upwards of compassion for the banished descend of 5001. was applied in augmentation of ants of a Prince for whom his ancestors the revenues of Davenport's Almshouses. had fought and suffered, bis sincere at He also lest 600l, for the establishment tachment to the Church of England pre of a perpetual School for thirty poor girls, served him steady in his allegiance to of wbom twelve are cloathed. In 1693, that Establishment under which reli. Sir George Wheler had erected, princigious liberty had found shelter from the pally at his own expence, though asattacks of arbitrary power, and 'the in sisted by a Mr. Seymer of Lombardtegrity of his beart and the innocence street, a Chapel for his tenants in Spitalof his handso defied suspicion. At an fields; and his will intimates an intenearlier period Sir George bad been ac tion of giving up this Chapel to the cused by a thankless dependent of omit French Protestants, and of establishing ting the usual prayers for the established an Almshouse for his decayed tenants Government m'a more groundless ac there but neither of these designs were cusation,' says Sir George, could not executed. He gave 501. by will to the be imagined, nor one from which I could Society for the Propagation of Christian more easily clear myself. As I sub Knowledge, and an exhibition of jui. mitted to the present Government as I a year for ever' to a poor scholar that am perswaded in conscience I ought to shall be of Lincoln College, Oxford, and do, so have I done nothing ever since bred up at the Grammar-school of Wye against, or disrespectfull towards it. I in Kent.'—Granville Whelér, the youngam much concerned to be so abused be- est but only surviving son of Sir George,
took holy orders in obedience to a de are surrounded by a plain pediment. şire expressed in his father's will. He The mansion has undergone little either is known as the author of some papers of repair or alteration ; and, as it has in the Philosophical Transactions, and been built with a massy solidity, calcuwas Rector of Leak in Nottinghamshire, lated to resist the injuries of time and and Prebendary of Southwell; he re neglect, it presents, perhaps, at this day built his father's Chapel in Spitalfields, one of the most perfect specimens extant and rebuilt and endowed the Parish of the plain durable style of architecture Church of Otterden. In 1727, Mr. which distinguished the Old Hall House, Wheler purchased the Manor of Otter the residence of the middling gentry in den, which still continues the seat of the age of James or Elizabeth. From his descendant.”.
Captain Hutton the estate bas descended An excellent Memoir of the Rev. lineally to the present owner, the Rev. John Rotheram*, A. M. next fol. John Hutton, M. A.” lows, for which we refer to the Work Under the Parish of Pittington is itself.
given a very ample account of SherHaving an opportunity of present- burn Hospital, taken from the printed, ing our Readers with a correct repre but not generally published, Collecsentation of Houghton Hall (see Plate tions of George Allan, esq. II.), we shall select Mr. Surtees's de An uncommonly fine View of the scription of this curious specimen of Iron Bridge at Sunderland,
engraved early domestic architecture :
by Mr. George Cooke, in his best “ Robert Hutton, S. T. B. Prebendary style, from a drawing by Mr. Blore, of the Third Stall in Durham Cathedral, bas induced us to extract Mr. Sur. and Rector of Houghton from 1589 to tees's account of it; more particularly 1623, acquired a considerable property as the Bridge has lately been brought by purchase from different individuals into notice by a public Lottery : within the Manor of Houghton. His grandson, Robert Hutton, Esq. hore a
“The antient passage of the river was captain's coinmission of a troop of by two ferry-boats: the Pann-boat, a
little below the situation of the present horse-guards in Cromwell's army. He served through the whole of the Scot- Bridge, and the Low-boat, which still tish campaign ; and was with Monk at
continues nearer to the Harbour. In the storming and plunder of Dundee. 1790, Rowland Burdon, esq. conceived After the Restoration he remained zeal
the idea of throwing an arch of cast iron ously attached to the Puritans; which
over the Wear, and after some opposimay probably account for his being bu
tion, an Act of Parliament was obtained ried in his own orchard, where an altar
for the purpose in 1792.
The use of tombstill bears the following inscription:
iron had been already introduced in the
Dale, and in the bridges built by Payne;
but the novelty and advantage of the
plan adopted at Wearmouth, on Mr. ET MORIENDO VIVIT.
Burdon's suggestion, consisted in retain-To this gentleman, who is the theme ing, together with the use of a metallic of much village tradition, the building material, the usual form and principle of of the family mansion-house is generally the stone arch, by tbe subdivision of the attributed — and, if the same tradition iron into blocks, answering to the keybe credited, with the plunder obtained stones of a common arch, and which, at the sacking of Dundee ; but the with a much greater degree of lightness, building itself affords strong evidence possess, when brougbt to bear on each of an earlier date, and may more pro other, all the firmness of the solid stone bably be ascribed to the Rector of arch. The blocks are of cast iron, five Houghton, the founder of the family, feet in depth and four in thickness, bavbetwixt the years 1589 and 1623. Its ing three arms, and making part of a external structure is an oblong square, circle or ellipsis; the middle arm is two the corresponding sides exactly uniform, feet in length, and the other two in proand the chief front to the Westo equally portion; on each side of the arms are plain with the rest, without façade, or flat grooves three-fourths of an inch ornamented doorway. The windows are deep and three inches broad, in which regular, divided into five, or into three are inserted bars of malleable or wrought lights, by stune mullions; and the leads iron, which counect the blocks with
HIC IACET ROBERTVS
* This highly-respectable Clergyman is also fully noticed in the VllIth and IXth Volumes of Nichols's “ Literary Anecdotes.".
each other, and are secured by square All the Plates given with this Vobolts driven through the shoulders and lume are deserving of the bighest arms of the blocks and bar-iron, fastened commendation. The subjects of the by cotterells or forelocks. The whole
more principal ones, besides those alstructure consists of six ribs, each con
ready noticed, are, Two Views of taining 105 of these blocks, which butt
Durham Cathedral (1. loterior of on each other like the voussoirs of a stone arch. The ribs are six feet dis the Choir, which forins the Frontistant from each other, braced together piece to the Volume, and 2. Entrance
from the Cloisters ;) and Hartlepoole by hollow tubes or bridles of cast iron;
These are from drawings and thus the blocks being united with Church. each other in ribs, and the ribs con
by Mr. Blore, who has been ably nected and supported laterally by the
seconded by the burins of Mr. Henry bridles, the whole becomes one mass,
Le Keux, Mr. Byrne, and Mr. John having the property of key-stones cramp Le Keux. A Landscape of Lambton ed together. The whole weight of the Hall, from a painting by Glover, is iron is 260 tons; 46 malleable, and 214 most delightfully engraved by J. Pye. cast. The piers or abutments are piles The five Plates of Seals, also, from of nearly solid masonry, 24 feet in thick drawings by Mr. Blore, are executed ness, 42 in breadth at bottom, and 37 at with a truth and feeling that cannot the top : the South pier is founded on be exceeded. Indeed all the Plates the solid rock ; on the North, from the less favourable nature of the ground, that we besitate not to say, they are
in the Volume are so truly excellent, the foundation is carried ten feet below the bed of the river. The arch is the equal, if not superior, to any ever
before published in a County History. segment of a large circle, of which the chord or span is 236 feet; the height Work will be eagerly coveted by all
We doubt not that this valuable from low water to the spring of the arch 60 feet; and its versed sine 34 feet; Topographical Collectors; and from producing so flat an arch, that ships of the avidity with which it has been 300 tons pass the arch within 50 feet of received by the Gentlemen in and its centre with great facility, having 94 near the County of Durham, we ven. feet clear at low water, and abundance ture to predict, that it will soon be of depth in the mid-stream. The span- ranked among the Libri rariores. drils of the arch are filled with iron circles, diminishing from the abutment to the centre; the superstructure is of
59. Amusements in Retirement; conti
nued from our last, p. 540. timber, planked over, and supporting the carriage-road, formed of marle, gra
THIS Volume is divided into the vel, and limestone. Tbe whole breadth general heads of Happiness, Musick, is 32 feet, with footpaths on each side, Literature, and Science ; each of laid with flags, and bounded by an iron wbich branches off into numerous balustrade. The whole of this magni- subdivisions, set forth in a copious ficent structure was completed within Table of Contents. three years, under the able and zealous
The articles in general are as enterdirection and inspection of Mr. Thomas taining as those in the “ Philosophy Wilson, of Bishop-Wearmouth, arcbiThe arch was turned on a light marks of that sombre turn of thought
of Nature;” but they bear evident scaffolding, which gave no interruption alluded to jo our last. whatever to the navigation of the river, and the mode of bracing the ribs was so
We take as an example: expeditious, that the whole structure "The miseries of those who have no ties was put together and thrown over the of friendship or affection. river in ten days, and the frame imme “ Whatever be his rank, his wealth, diately removed. The foundation-stone or his ability, no one can be esteemed was laid the 24th September, 1793, and fortunate, who has no ties of friendship, the Bridge was thrown open to the Pub of blood, or of humanity, to chain him lick amidst a vast concourse of specta to existence. He creeps upon the earth tors on the 9th of August, 1796. The as a worm! The sun sets, the evening whole expence of the undertaking was star rises, flowers expand, and the au26,0001. of which 22,0001. was sub tumnal moon lulls all nature; but to scribed by Mr. Burdon; the sums thus him every joy is in perspective, his boadvanced are secured on the tolls with
som is void, and his heart is cheerless5 per cent interest, and all further ac for no one hails him as a friend, and no cumulation goes in discharge of the one regards hiin as a brother, or benecapital,"
factor. Well and often has it been said,