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D gives name to the Hundred in
1816.] Dorchester Bridge, Oxon.-Nathaniel Bacon. 297

July ). length is a quarter of a mile wanting
ORCHESTER, in Oxfordshire, 8 yards, its breadth 30 feet : part of

this length is in summer apparently
which it is situated, and is 49 miles useless, as the ample centre arch is
distant from London, and 9 from Ox then capacious enough to admit the
ford. Though now chiefly known by whole of the stream; but the winter
the road to Oxford, Worcester, Glou. rains swell this stream to a consider-
cester, S. Wales, &c. passiog through able river, which, overflowing its
it, it was antiently a place of great banks, inundates the meadows on
importance, being an Episcopal see "each side its channel. -- The comple-
of unusual magoitude and splendourtion of the new Bridge was the signal
from the time of St. Biripus until the for removing the old one, which was
latter part of the eleventh century, effected so rapidly; that in December
when it was removed to Lincoln by last scarce a vestige remained.
Remigius. It does not appear, how. In tbe View annexed (which was
ever, to have possessed ang Bridge taken from the old Bridge in Sept.
over the river Thame, although it 1815), the Church appears over the
stood on its banks, before the reiga new Bridge.
of Edward III.; but about that pe The Thame falls into the Isis witha
riod a Bridge was erected here, which in a mile fro his Bridge, and their
absorbed much of the traffick of those 'united waters forms the Thames.
days from the Town and Bridge of Yours, &c.

Wallingford, over which the main
road to the Westeru parts of the Mr. URBAN, Lowestoft, Aug. 3.
Kingdom had previously passed.

OME few years since, there was
This structure had all the charac. an inquiry in your Publication
teristicks of the jufancy of the science after Nathaniel Bacon, the author
of constructing Bridges, as small of a book upon Government. A few
openings for the water, and wide piers notes which I then wrote down, partly
with angular projections, as well to from my own papers, I now trouble
divide and throw off the force of the
current, as to enable foot-passengers In the quarto edition he is said to
to avoid the danger which threatened be of Gray's lon; and probably a re-


passage of carriages, ference to the books of that Body borsemen, &c. Low, narrow, incon would satisfy your Correspondent. venient, and dangerous, ibis Bridge In the time of Oliver Cromwell, the was long the subject of complaint, period of Bacon's publication, a Naand few strangers crossed it without thaniel Bacon was Recorder of the some unpleasant sensations; as many Borough of Ipswich ; at the same of your Readers, Mr. Urban, no time, a Nathaniel Bacon, Esq. lived doubt can testify. The attention of at Freston, near Saxmundham, in Suf: those io whom the cognizance of this

folk: I am inclined to think these grievance properly rested, was not one person.

Nathaniel, the withbeld ; and after a thorough in. son of the last, married against his vestigation, the plan of widening and father's consent, who violently markeffectually improving the old Bridge ed his disapprobation, to Elizabeth, was found impracticable, and founda the eldest daughter of Sir Edward, tions for a new one were immediately sister to Sir Joho Duke, of Benhilllaid, which, under the auspices of the lodge, near Saxmundham. They afCounty Magistrates, was erected upon terwards went to Virginia, where he a liberal scale, and opened for car died in Oct. 1676. (His widow afterriages in the month of July 1815. wards married there to Mr. Jarvis, a The stone fouodat Headington Quarry merchant; and thirdly, to Mr. Mole.) in the same county was chiefly used This was about the period when, as in this siructure, wbich was built from Beverley in his History of Virginia a design by Mr. Sands, and unites to tells us, a Rebellion was raised in that great utility much strength, simpli- Colony by Capt. Nathaniel Bacon, a city, and beauty: it crosses the Thaine young man, who wrested the Goa little above the site of the old vernment from the lands of the Lord Bridge, and with an easy and elegant Berkeley, and died of a braio-fever. curve avoids a very abrupt and dan There can be little doubt these were gerous angle of the old road. Its the same person. Gent. MAG, October, 1816.


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Ray, who set out upon his travels 90 degrees hotter than boiling water. into foreign parts in 1663, says he I would have fain went further, but was accompanied by Mr. Willoughby, wy Guides said they durst not; and Sir Philip Skippon, and Mr. Nathaniel indeed it was so very hot, I breathed Bacon, a hopeful young gentleman. fire, and not air.

One of your late Correspondents is "I have been about three weeks anxious to benefit the situation of at this once famous cily (Rome); our brave Sailors in some points. the ruins of its aptient grandeur, with The easy and frequent forgeries of the indumerable gardens now within the wills of Sailors is as much a Na- the walls, the beautiful Campania and tional disgrace, as it is one of the villas, make the finest views in Naseverest evils in their service. It ture. I visit all the statues, palaces, appears a check might be put to it, churches, pictures, &c. that are in the if every Captain of a Ship was ap- first and second class; but amidst all pointed to keep a register of the wills the elegance of Nature and cost, one of his sailors ; and that oo alteration daily sees a lazy, idle, vicious people, of a will, when lodged with him, and were it not for the constant should be valid, unless made in bis raree-shows of processions, &c. to presence, or of some one specified divert the lower people, the oppresofficer. Some difficulties may arise sion would be insupportable. The in such an arrangement, but none to present Pope, a worthy good man, much extent; while the benefit would economical, oot enriching his family be very great, which might also be in that enormous manner his predeextended.


cessors have done, only allows 158.

for his own table per diem: I almost Mr. URBAN,

Sept. 18. daily see him ; very affable indeed, TI THE Friend to whom the follow. very politely smiled, and blessed me

ing Letter from the benevolent yesterday. As I never kneel (as I Howard was addressed, was many should tremble to pay him that ador. years Minister of Carter-Lane, near ation that I have seen others do), so St. Paul's, where Mr. Howard attend it was more kind and obliging. ed when in Towo. The person men 66 The Pretender I meet in the tioned with so much affection was street; looks very stupid, bends douMr. Howard's second wife, a Miss ble, quite altered since I saw him at Leeds. Mrs. Pickard thought Mr. Paris 20 years ago. I think of learHoward absented himself too much ing this City next week for Loretto, from his sou and friends in England, Bologna, apd Venice. Very hot we and had expressed herself pretty freely are here, especially the nights. No on that subject.

F. C. Country in every view like our own. To the Rev. Mr. PICKARD, I long to see my boy and friends ;

Bow-lane-yard, London. but no getting on this hot weather : “Dear Sir,--Though I shew you a lassitude by the great perspiration; what a rambling disposition I have; I am now almost in a bath, though yet amidst my many faults, I hope, only writing at 9 and 10 o'clock in no distance alienates my affection the morning: the thermometer 77° in from my friends. Since I have left the shade. England, I have been travelling about “ Thus, dear Sir, though conscious France, Flanders, Holland, Switzer- nothing I can wrile can be any enter- land, and Italy.

tainment, but that friendship you have “ Naples I spent some little time ever shewn both to me and that per-at-a fine city, admirable for views; son whose memory I revere, demands the most remarkable, Mount Ve- the most grateful acknowledgment. suvius. I ascended about three parts I beg my best respects to Mrs.Pickard, of the mountain, when I found by who, i know, condemns me. great my thermometer the earih some pleasure to hear of your weifare. what botter than the atmosphere, Hope to be in Holland (at Rotterdam) which continually increased till I got the latter end of September, as I into the top, wheo my thermometer tend going through Germany from was 218°. I then, after I got the bet Venice. With my ardent wishes, and, ter of the smoke, in a quarter of an permit me to say, a desire of an inhour descended into the mouth, when, terest in your prayers, I am,

dear Sir, by repeated experiments, I found it affectionately yours, J. HOWARD. raised wy glass to 240, which is near Rome, June 16, 1770."


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Sept. 18.

Ireland, when our Sovereign first as(UCH objection has been raised sumed the title of Britanniarum Rex new Silver Coins now fabricating at there is an obvious propriety in the the Royal Mint. This inscription of legend on the new Coins exhibitiog BRITT. Rex, is found fault with as an abbreviation, which appears to be not warranted by precedent, and the the more peculiar symbol of the one cause of complaint exists in the re title, rather than that which is the duplication of the letter T in the common representative of both. word Britt. The Gentlemen who There are not wanting, however, raise this objection are just wise authorities to shew that the words enough to discover that Brilt. is Britannia, Britanni, and Brito, were meant to be an abbreviation for antiently spelt sometimes with a single Britanniarum; and that is all the and sometimes with a double to credit which can be allowed them. Lucretius, l. 6, v. 1104, in the fol. With their Ainsworth in their hands, lowing line, they fancy that they have ascertained

Nam quid Britannis cælum differre as an indisputable fact, that although

putamus, it was usual with the Romans to double the final letter of ai abbreviated

makes the first syliable long, from

which some learned Commentators word as a token of the plural number, in the instances of the names of indi

on the passage have inferred, that the viduals or of offices, yet that the

word may be written with a double t. usage did not extend to the names of inscription in Gruter, p. 493,"0. M.

This conjecture is confirmed by an places. This position they lay down,

F. CI. Prisco Junio Italico Legato only because it happens that Ainsworth, in a table relative to these Augustorum Pr. Pr. Prov. Cappainatters subjoined to his Dictionary, tannice," &c. in the saine book,

dociæ Leg. Aus. Pr. Pr. Prov. Brit

in does not give any instance of such an abbreviation applied to a place. This these words, "M. Ulpio Justo vix.'

another inscription, P: 569, occur omission, on his part, may be easily,

annos XLV, natione Britto.Again, accounted for, from the circumstance that the isstances of abbreviations of tiana, p. 1169, is this verse, barba

in an Epitaph under the title Christhe latter sort are comparatively rare. 'They could only occur where the

rous enough to be sure: pame of the place abbreviated chanced Sedavitque etiam Brittonum sæpe suto be of the plural number, which was very seldoin the case among the It is curious also, that that learned Romans, though it more frequently . and accurate Avtiquary Dr. Pegge, occurred with the Greeks. And, whose researches so often used to again, these objectors should be in- enrich your Magazine, in a descripformed, that it was by vo meaus usual tion of a Romao pig of lead, which with the Romans, in their inscrip- bore the letters TI. CL. TR. IVT. BR. tions, to abbreviale in this way the EX. ARG. Archæol. vol, IX. p. 48, plural number. On the contrary, thus expresses himself: “If it be although the word shortened was of thought that Brittannicus above is not the plural number, the final letter well founded, we may substitute Britwas much oftener single than double, taonia ;" although he had before in all instances, whether of names of spelled, in the same memoir, these persons, offices, or places. Thus the words with a single t. The variance common words on Roman inscrip was perhaps accidental, but it is mations of Numinibus Augustorun were terial only as it adds bis authority to much more frequently represented by that of those persons who, on the NVM. AVG. than by nvm. AVGG.; and strength of antient inscriptions, are cos. and conss. or coss. iodifferently of opinion, that the words in question mean Consules. There is not a doubt, may at pleasure be expressed with therefore, but that Brit. Rez would either a double or a singlet. See Dr. have been sufficient to denote Britan. Siukeley's Hist. of Carausius, I. p. 268, niarum Rex, but it would equally where he refers the Brittæ op two have served for Britanniæ Rex; and stones in Cannigieter de Brittenburgo, when we recollect that the present is p. 21, to Britain. See also Roman the first coinage after the Union with

Coins passim.



Sometimes also it appears that a The following extract of a letter just single n only was used in forming the received from a friend on the spot, word. Thus in an inscription found conveys all the information which i near Seign in Morlachia, Archæol. yet possess on the subject: vol. III. p. 344, the words Provinc,

Uyea Sound, Aug. 13, 1816. Britan. occur.

sé For some time past, the proprietor But il is perfectly clear, from an of Uyea, Mr. Thomas Leisk, has had tient precedents, that there is no men employed in erecting a dyke in the foundation whatever for the distinc- Island; who, in quarrying stones on the tion which the objectors on the pre- top of a small conical hill called the . sent occasion have raised between the Wart, found a great quantity of loose abbreviations of names of persons or

stones collected together in a heap; offices, and those of places. Abbre- upon removing the uppermost of them,

a mound of earth intermixed with small viations, except of words of very

stones appeared, which the men began common occurrence,

were not 80 often used as these Gentlemen ima. they discovered a great number of Stone

to dig up, when, to their great surprize, gine. Bụt when they were adopted, Urns, containing the ashes of the dead. they were so without discrimination; They were arranged in regular order, and are, in proportion to possible oc surrounded with large stones to separate casions, as often to be met with de. them from each other, and of different noting names of places, as titles of shapes and sizes ; some round, others office or designations of individuals. oval, none larger than a common basin.

Thus, in an inscription, Gruter, 389. I had the curiosity to go to the place, 2. to T. CI. Candidus, or, as others and took out one myself, and examined read, M. Porcius Cato, we find these its contents. In the bottom, the small letters, H. H. P. P. which are an ab- pieces of unconsumed bones were carebreviation for Hispaniarum Provin- fully laid; next to them the human dust; ciarum Prætorii Præfecto. In 200

above it, a covering of clay, and over ther, discovered by the Abbé Fortis, curiosity. I have kept one for you."

all a large stone. If you esteem it a in a tour through the Apennines, Archæol. vol. V. p. 177, occurs the

I have written to request a full and

exact account of the circumstance, very disputed word Britt. itself. This latter inscription is imperfect, accompanied with one of the urns, but as far as is material for our pre: cheerfully communicated to you;

which, when I receive it, shall be sent purpose it runs thus: C. Nonio

with some observations on the reC. F. Au. Cæpian. Equo. Publ. ex. Quin. Decurls. jvdicv. Præf. Coh. III. mains of Antiquity still extant in the BRITT. Num. Veteranor. Equitatæ,

Zetland Islands, and several circum&c.

stances connected therewith. To borrow a sentence from Sir W,

A NORTHERN ISLANDER. Teinple : “ These passages are sufficient to humble the presumptiou of Strictures on the different Methods of modern Sciolists, if their pride were

disposing of the Dead, as practised not as great as their iguorance.” If,

by Antient and Modern Nutions. however, they wish for further in

“ Pallida Mors æquo pulsat pede pauformation, I will refer them not to a

perum tabernas School Dictionary, but to Fabrettus, Regúmque turres.”—Hor. Od. iv. lib. I.

HEN we reflect upon the derius, Johannes de Vitâ in Antiq. Benevent., Gudius, Gruter, and Grævius. nature is reduced, after the soul has These learned Authors will, I believe, deserted the body, we may exclaim on reference, confirm my observations. with the poet Blair, For the present, I trust, enough has

“ Tell us why this waste been said to satisfy the scruples of Why this ado in earthing up a carcase Doubt, and to silence the cavils of That's fall'n into disgrace, and in the Ignorance.

Smells horrible?"


There is no man, however much he Mr. URBAN, Kenl-roqd, Aug. 1. may decry the solemnity of a public A has

lately been made in one of the with peculiar apprehensions the Northern Islands of Zetland called mourntul equipage of Death ; Vyca (lying near the Island of Unst). who does not betray some preference

Keinesius, Donius, Maffeius, Murato Waplorable state to which human


in the choice of a spot in which his jected to the laws of Nature, induce bones may be eventually deposited ? us to venerate a people who, at a ladividuals, influenced either by vul. period when almost every other nagar or particular prejudices, often tion was involved in ignorance and declaim against the pomposity of barbarity, had ingenuity to invent, family vaults, though further reflec- and perseverance to finish their works: tion may convioce them that such whose magnitude not only astonishes edifices are not wholly preposterous. the present age, but which have been If a father has begotten in lawful deemed by some the constructions of wedlock three children, he will pro. a supernatural ageocy. The method bably have the satisfaction before he they employed in their fupereal mysdies of seeing a numerous offspring of teries has been well recorded by many grandchildren surround him, which writers; it is sufficient here to rewill gradually and progressively in- mark, that bodies thus prepared have crease as time advances, or matri- remained in a state of preservation monial connexions are contracted. from times iminemorial. The re-miogling of one generation In the antient churches of this with another after death, though an Country, where an old grave has been unpleasing idea, is to some people a casually explored, the body is often melancholy consolation for that event. found entire, and the very features

Putrefaction is the final vicissitude discernible, after a lapse of several from which no animal or vegetable centuries. To prove this, many insubstance is exempted; and that very stances might be adduced : the foltruth, which we often deplore as de- lowing is a memorable one, in the priving us of all we held dear in this person of King Edward the First: world, is in fact the identical blessing

“ It was imagined from the Royal that preserves our persons from in

warrants . de cerà renovanda circa fectious vapours, and maintains with

corpus Edwardi primi,' Issued during an equal hand the equilibrium of Na

the three succeeding reigns from that ture. The following quotation is an Monarch, that more than ordinary care accurate definition of the progress of had been taken in embalming bis body. putrefaction:

Accordingly, pernoission was granted by " It was said of old that the Creator the Dean of Westminster to Sir Joseph weighed the dust, and measured the Ayloffe to open the tomb and coffin, water, when he made the world. The which appears to have been done with first quantity is here still; and though great care and decorum. On lifting the man can move, mix, and unmix, yet he lid, the Royal corpse was found wrapped can destroy nothing. The putrefaction in a large square mantle of strong, of one thing is only a preparation for

coarse, and thick linen cloth, diapered, the being, bloom, and beauty of ano

of a dull, pale, and yellowish brown ther : something gathers up all frag- colour, and waxed on its under side.

When the folds of the external wrapper ments, and nothing is lost. Link after link the vital chain extends,

were thrown back, and the Sudarium And the long line of being never ends.” removed, the "corpse was discovered,


richly habited, adorned with the ensigns Among the Egyptians, the most

of Royalty, and almost entire, notwithrefined and antient people of all an

standing the length of time it had been

entombed." tiquity, the art of preserving dead bodies from putrefaction was brought Wax here appears to have been the to the highest state of perfection. principal resister of putrefaction, Their mummies, which have resisted though there are many other subthe ravages of time together with stances of similar properties well those wonderful sepulchral and mo known to modern Chernists : acids, numental buildings called the Pyra- tar, &c. but particularls colu, preMIDS, are instances demonstrating at serve animal substances from putreonce with what careful solicitude they faction, maintaining the cohesion of eodeavoured to secure their dead the different members, and consefrom dissolution and decay.

quently preventing an immediate disThese edifices, while they confirm, solution of the whole body. That by their scarcely perceptible decay, cold is an active retarder of putrethe incontestable truth that human faction is confirmed by well.attested performances are mutable and sub. examples. In the more Northern


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