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Difference between a city and country house, p. 340. The character-
istic features of a country house, p. 341. Examination of the leading
principles in Rural Architecture, p. 343. The harmonious union of build-
ings and scenery, p. 348. The different styles, p. 351. The Grecian
style, its merits and associations, p. 352;-its defects for domestic pur-
poses, p. 353. The Roman style. The Italian style, p. 356;—its pecu-
liar features, and examples in this country, p. 358. Associations of the
Italian style, 360. Swiss style, p. 362. The pointed or Gothic style,-
leading features, p. 364. Castellated buildings, p. 367. The Tudor

ESSAY ON LANDSCAPE GARDENING.

SECTION I.

HISTORICAL SKETCHES.

Objects of the Art. The ancient and modern styles. Their peculiarities. Sketch of the ancient style, and the rise and progress of the modern style. Influence of the English poets and writers. Examples of the art abroad. Landscape Gardening in North America, and examples now existing.

"L'un à nos yeux présente D'un dessein régulier l'ordonnance imposante,

Prête aux champs des beautés qu'ils ne connaissaient pas,

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most sacred associations," says the amiable Mrs. Hofland, "are connected with gardens; our most simple and most

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refined perceptions of beauty are combined with them." And we may add to this, that Landscape Gardening, which is an artistical combination of the beautiful in nature and art-an union of natural expression and harmonious cultivation-is capable of affording us the highest and most intellectual enjoyment to be found in any cares or pleasures belonging to the soil.

The development of the Beautiful is the end and aim of Landscape Gardening, as it is of all other fine arts. The ancients sought to attain this by a studied and elegant regularity of design in their gardens; the moderns, by the creation or improvement of grounds which, though of limited extent, exhibit a highly graceful or picturesque epitome of natural beauty. Landscape Gardening differs from gardening in its common sense, in embracing the whole scene immediately about a country house, which it softens and refines, or renders more spirited and striking by the aid of art. In it we seek to embody our ideal of a rural home; not through plots of fruit trees, and beds of choice flowers, though these have their place, but by collecting and combining beautiful forms in trees, surfaces of ground, buildings, and walks, in the landscape surrounding us. It is, in short, the Beautiful, embodied in a home scene. And we attain it by the removal or concealment of every thing uncouth and discordant, and by the introduction and preservation of forms pleasing in their expression, their outlines, and their fitness for the abode of man. In the orchard, we hope to gratify the palate, in the flower garden, the eye and the smell, but in the landscape garden we appeal to that sense of the Beautiful and the Perfect, which is one of the highest attributes of our nature.

This embellishment of nature, which we call Landscape

Gardening, springs naturally from a love of country life, an attachment to a certain spot, and a desire to render that place attractive-a feeling which seems more or less strongly fixed in the minds of all men. But we should convey a false impression, were we to state that it may be applied with equal success to residences of every class and size, in the country. Lawn and trees, being its two essential elements, some of the beauties of Landscape Gardening may, indeed, be shown wherever a rood of grass surface, and half a dozen trees are within our reach; we may, even with such scanty space, have tasteful grouping, varied surface, and agreeably curved walks; but our art, to appear to advantage, requires some extent of surface-its lines should lose themselves indefinitely, and unite agreeably and gradually with those of the surrounding country.

In the case of large landed estates, its capabilities may be displayed to their full extent, as from fifty to five hundred acres may be devoted to a park or pleasure grounds. Most of its beauty, and all its charms, may, however, be enjoyed in ten or twenty acres, fortunately situated, and well treated; and Landscape Gardening, in America, combined and working in harmony as it is with our fine scenery, is already beginning to give us results scarcely less beautiful than those produced by its finest efforts abroad. The lovely villa residences of our noble river and lake margins, when well treated-even in a few acres of tasteful fore-ground,—seem so entirely to appropriate the whole adjacent landscape, and to mingle so sweetly in their outlines with the woods, the valleys, and shores around them, that the effects are often truly enchanting.

But if Landscape Gardening, in its proper sense, cannot be applied to the embellishment of the smallest cottage

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