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SECTION II.

BEAUTIES AND PRINCIPLES OF THE ART.

Capacities of the art. The beauties of the ancient style. The modern style.

General beauty, and Picturesque beauty: their distinctive characteristics. Illustrations drawn from Nature and Painting. Nature and principles of Landscape Gardening as an Imitative art. The Graceful school. The Picturesque school. Simple beauty of the art. The principles of Unity, Harmony, and Variety.

"Here Nature in her unaffected dresse,

Plaited with vallies and imbost with hills,

Enchast with silver streams, and fringed with woods,
Sits lovely."-

CHAMBERLAYNE.

"Il est des soins plus doux, un art plus enchanteur.
C'est peu de charmer l'œil, il faut parler au cœur.
Avez-vous donc connu ces rapports invisibles,
Des eorps inanimés et des êtres sensibles?
Avez-vous entendu des eaux, des prés, des bois,
La muette éloquence et la secrète voix ?
Rendez-nous ces effets."

Les Jardins, Book I.

EFORE we proceed to a detailed, and more practical consideration of the subject, let us occupy ourselves for a moment with the consideration of the different results which are to be sought after, or, in other words, what kinds of beauty we may hope to produce by Landscape Gardening. To attempt the smallest work in any art, without knowing either the capacities of that art, or the

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schools, or modes, by which it has previously been characterized, is but to be groping about in a dim twilight, without the power of knowing, even should we be successful in our efforts, the real excellence of our production; or of judging its merit, comparatively, as a work of taste and imagination.

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[Fig. 11.] The Geometric style, from an old print.

The beauties elicited by the ancient style of gardening were those of regularity, symmetry, and the display of laboured art. These were attained in a merely mechanical manner, and usually involved little or no theory. The geometrical form and lines of the buildings, were only extended and carried out, in the garden. In the best classical models, the art of the sculptor conferred dignity and elegance on the garden, by the fine forms of marble vases, and statues; in the more intricate and laboured specimens of the Dutch school, prevalent in England in the time of William IV., (Fig. 11,) the results evince a fertility of

odd conceits, rather than the exercise of taste or imagination; and to level ground naturally uneven, or to make an avenue, by planting rows of trees on each side of a broad walk, requires only the simplest perception of the beauty of mathematical forms. In short, to lay out a garden in the geometric style, was little more than a formal routine, and it was only after the superiour interest of a more natural manner was enforced by men of genius, that beauty of expression was recognized, and Landscape Gardening was raised to the rank of a fine art.

The ancient style of gardening may, however, be introduced with good effect in certain cases. In public squares and gardens, where display, grandeur of effect, and a highly artificial character are desirable, it appears to us the most suitable; and no less so in very small gardens, in which variety and irregularity is out of the question. Where a taste for imitating an old and quaint style of residence exists, the symmetrical, and knotted garden, would be a proper accompaniment; and pleached alleys, and sheared trees, would be admired, like old armour, as curious specimens of antique taste and custom.

The earliest professors of modern Landscape Gardening, have generally agreed upon two species of beauty, of which the art is capable-variations no less certainly distinct, on the one hand, than they are capable of intermingling and combining, on the other. These are general, and picturesque beauty: or, to speak more definitely, the beauty characterized by simple and flowing forms, and the expressed by striking, irregular, spirited forms.

The admirer of nature, as well as the lover of pictures and engravings, will at once call to mind examples of scenery distinctly expressive of each of these kinds of beauty. In

nature, perhaps some gently undulating plain covered with. emerald turf, partially or entirely encompassed by rich, rolling outlines of forest canopy,-its widest expanse here broken occasionally by noble groups of round-headed trees, or there interspersed with single specimens whose trunks support heads of foliage flowing in outline, or drooping in masses to the very turf beneath them. In such a scene we often behold the azure of heaven, and its silvery clouds, as well as the deep verdure of the luxuriant and shadowy branches, reflected in the placid bosom of a sylvan lake; the shores of the latter swelling out, and receding, in gently curved lines; the banks, sometimes covered with soft turf sprinkled with flowers, and in other portions clothed with luxuriant masses of verdant shrubs. Here are all the elements of what is termed natural beauty,—or a landscape characterized by simple, easy, and flowing lines.

For an example of the opposite character, let us take a stroll to the nearest woody glen in your neighbourhood—perhaps a romantic valley, half shut in on two or more sides by steep rocky banks, partially concealed and overhung by clustering vines, and tangled thickets of deep foliage. Against the sky outline breaks the wild and irregular form of some old, half decayed tree near by, or the horizontal and unique branches of the larch or the pine, with their strongly marked forms. Rough and irregular stems and trunks, rocks half covered with mosses and flowering plants, open glades of bright verdure opposed to dark masses of bold shadowy foliage, form prominent objects in the foreground. If water enlivens the scene, we shall hear the murmur of the noisy brook, or the cool dashing of the cascade, as it leaps over the rocky barrier. Let the stream turn the ancient and well worn wheel of the old mill in the middle ground, and we shall have an illus

tration of picturesque beauty, not the less striking from its familiarity to every one.

To the lover of the fine arts, the name of Claude Lorraine cannot fail to suggest examples of beauty in its purest and most elegant forms. In the inimitable pictures of this great master, we see portrayed all those graceful and flowing forms, and all that finely accordant colouring, which delight so much the mind of refined taste and sensibility-compositions emanating from a beautifully harmonious soul, and inspired by a climate, and a richness of nature and art, nowhere surpassed.

On the other hand, where shall we find all the elements of the picturesque, more graphically combined, than in the vigorous landscapes of Salvator Rosa! In those rugged scenes, even the lawless aspects of his favourite robbers and banditti, are not more spirited than the bold rocks and wild passes by which they are surrounded. And in the productions of his pencil, we see the influence of a romantic and vigorous imagination, nursed amid scenes teeming with the grand as well as the picturesque-both of which he embodied in the most striking manner.

In giving these illustrations of general, and of picturesque beauty, we have not intended them to be understood in the light of exact models for imitation in Landscape Gardening-only as striking examples of expression in natural scenery. Although in nature many landscapes partake in a certain degree of both these kinds of beauty, yet it is no doubt true that the effect is more satisfactory, where either the one or the other character predominates. The accomplished amateur, should be able to seize at once upon the characteristics of these two species of beauty in all scenery. To assist the reader in this kind of discrimination, we shall

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