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40 feet high. They may be procured from the nurseries, and we can hardly recommend to our planters more acceptable additions to our nut bearing forest trees.

The Chinquapin or Dwarf chestnut, (C. pumila,) is a curious low bush, from four to six feet high. The leaves are nearly the size of the ordinary chestnut, or rather smaller, and the fruit about two-thirds as large. It is indigenous to all the states south of Pennsylvania, and is often found in great abundance. It is a curious little tree, or more properly a shrub, and merits a place in the garden: or it may be advantageously planted for underwood in a group of large


As the chestnut, like the oak, forms strong tap-roots, it is removed with some difficulty. The finest trees are produced from the nut, and their growth is much more rapid when young, than that of the transplanted tree. It prefers a deep sandy loam, rather moist than dry; and will not, like many forest trees, accommodate itself to wet and low situations.


Nat. Ord. Urticacea

Lin. Syst. Diœcia, Tetrandria.

This interesting tree is found growing wild on the Arkansas River, and other western tributaries of the Mississippi, south of St. Louis, where, according to Mr. Nuttall, it attains the height of 50 or 60 feet. The branches are rather lightcoloured, and armed with spines, (produced at every joint,) about an inch and a half long. The leaves are long, ovate and acuminate, or pointed at the extremity; they are deep

green, and more glossy and bright than those of the orange. The blossoms are greenish; and the fruit is about the shape and size of a large orange, but the surface much rougher than that fruit. In the south, we are told, it assumes a deep yellow colour, and, at a short distance, strikingly resembles the common orange: the specimens of fruit which we have seen growing in Philadelphia, did not assume that fine colour; but the appearance of the tree laden with it, is not unlike that of a large orange tree. It was first transplanted into our gardens from a village of the Osage tribe of Indians, whence the common name of Osage orange. The introduction of this tree was one of the favourable results of Lewis and Clarke's Expedition. It was named by the min honour of the late Wm. Maclure, Esq. President of the American Academy of Natural Sciences.

The wood is fine grained, yellow in colour, and takes a brilliant polish. It is also very strong and elastic, and on this account the Indians, of the wide district to which this tree is indigenous, employ it extensively for bows, greatly preferring it to any other timber. Hence its common name, among the white inhabitants, is Bodac, a corruption of the term bois d'arc, (bow-wood,) of the French settlers. A fine yellow dye is extracted from the wood, similar to that of the Fustic.

As the Osage orange belongs to the monacious class of plants, it does not perfect its fruit, unless both the male and female trees are growing in the same neighbourhood. Many have believed the fruit to be eatable, both from its fine appearance, and from its affinity with, and resemblance to that of the bread-fruit; but all attempts to render it pleasant, either cooked or in a raw state, have hitherto failed: it is therefore probably inedible, though not injurious. Perhaps

when fully ripened, some mode of preparing it by baking or otherwise, may render it palatable.

As an ornamental tree, the Osage orange is rather too loose in the disposition of its wide-spreading branches, to be called beautiful in its form. But the bright glossy hue of its foliage, and especially the unique appearance of a good sized tree when covered with the large orange-like fruit, render it one of the most interesting of our native trees; while it has the same charm of rarity as an exotic, since it was introduced from the far west, and is yet but little planted in the United States. On a small lawn, where but few trees are needed, and where it is desirable that the species employed, should all be as distinct as possible, to give the whole as much variety as can be obtained in a limited space, such trees should be selected as will not only be ornamental, but combine some other charm, association, or interest. Among such trees, we would by all means give the Osage orange a foremost place. It has the additional recommendation of being a fine shade tree, and of producing an excellent and durable wood.

The stout growth and strong thorns of this tree, have been thought indicative of its usefulness for the making of hedges; a method of fencing, which sooner or later must be adopted in many parts of this country: and from the experiments which we have seen made with plants of the Osage orange, we think it likely to answer a very valuable purpose; especially in the middle and southern states. The Messrs. Landreths of Philadelphia, have lately offered many thousands of them to the public, at a low rate, and we hope to see the matter fairly tested in various parts of the Union.

A rich deep loam is the soil best adapted to the growth of this tree; and as it is rather tender when young, (though

quite hardy when it attains considerable size,) it should, as far as possible, be planted in a rather sheltered situation. A dry soil is preferable, if it must be placed in a cold aspect, as all plants not perfectly hardy are much injured by the late growth, caused by an excess of moisture and consequent immature state of the wood, which is unable to resist the effects of a severe winter.


Nat. Ord. Urticaceæ. Lin. Syst. Monœcia, Tetrandria.

The three principal species of the Mulberry, are the common Red American, the European Black, and the White mulberries. None of them are truly handsome in scenery; and the two latter are generally low spreading trees, valued entirely for the excellency of the fruit, or the suitableness of the foliage for feeding silk worms. Our common mulberry, however, in free, open situations, forms a large wide-spreading, horizontally branched, and not inelegant tree: the rough, heart-shaped leaves with which it is thickly clothed, afford a deep shade; and it groups well with the lime, the catalpa, and many other round-headed trees. We consider it, therefore, duly entitled to a place in all extensive plantations; while the pleasant flavour of its slightly acid, dark red fruit, will recommend it to those who wish to add to the delicacies of the dessert. The timber of our wild mulberry tree is of the very first quality; when fully seasoned, it takes a dull lemon-coloured hue, and is scarcely less durable than the locust or Live oak. Like those trees, it is much valued by

ship-builders; and at Philadelphia and Baltimore it commands a high price, for the frame-work, knees, floor-timbers, and trunnels of vessels. The Red mulberry is much slower in its growth than the locust; but so far as we are aware, it is not liable to the attacks of any insect destructive to its timber; and it would probably be found profitable to cultivate it as a timber-tree. The locust, it will be remembered, grows thriftily only on peculiar soils, loose, dry, and mellow : the Red mulberry prefers deep, moist, and rich situations. No extensive experiments, so far as we can learn, have been made in its culture; but we would recommend it to the particular attention of those who have facilities for plantations of this kind.

The Black mulberry of Europe, (Morus nigra,) is a low, slow-growing tree, with rough leaves, somewhat resembling those of our Red mulberry, but more coarsely serrated, and often found divided into four or five lobes; while the leaves, which are not heart-shaped on our native species, are generally three-lobed. The European mulberry bears a fruit four or five times as large as the American, full of rich, sweet juice. It has long been a favourite in England, and is one of the most healthy and delicious fruits of the season. Glover says:

"There the flushing peach,
The apple, citron, almond, pear, and date,
Pomegranates, purple mulberry, and fig,
From interlacing branches mix their hues
And scents, the passengers' delight."


We regret that so excellent a fruit should be so little cultivated here. It succeeds extremely well in the middle

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