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a pleasant drive or walk, so as to allow the owner or visitor to enjoy at the same time an agreeable circuit, and a glance at all the various crops, and modes of culture. In the plan before us, the approach from the public road, is at b; the dwelling at c; the barns and farm-buildings at d; the kitchen garden at e; and the orchard at f. About the house are distributed some groups of trees, and here the fields, g, are kept in grass, and are either mown or pastured. The fields in crops are designated h, on the plan; and a few picturesque groups of trees are planted, or allowed to remain, in these, to keep up the general character of the place. A low dell, or rocky thicket, is situated at i. Exceedingly interesting and agreeable effects may be produced, at little cost, in a picturesque farm of this kind. The hedges may be of a great variety of suitable shrubs, and, in addition to those

that we have named, we would introduce others of the sweet brier, the Michigan or prairie rose, (admirably adapted for the purpose,) the flowering crab, and the like-beautiful and fragrant in their growth and blossoms. These hedges we would cause to grow thick, rather by interlacing the branches, than by constant shearing or trimming, which would give them a less formal, and a more free and natural air. The winding lanes traversing the farm, need only be gravelled near the house,-in other portions being left in grass, which will need little care, as it will generally be kept short enough by the passing of men and vehicles over it.

A picturesque or ornamental farm like this, would be an agreeable residence for a gentleman, retiring into the country on a small farm, desirous of experimenting for himself, with all the new modes of culture. The small and irregular fields, would, to him, be rather an advantage, and there would be an air of novelty and interest about the whole residence. Such an arrangement as this, would also be suitable for a fruit farm, near one of our large towns, the fields being occupied by orchards, vines, grass and grain. The house, and all the buildings, should be of a simple, though picturesque and accordant character.

The cottage ornée may have more or less ground attached to it. It is the ambition of some to have a great house and little land, and of others, (among whom we remember the poet Cowley,) to have a little house and a large garden. The latter would seem to be the more natural taste. When the grounds of a cottage are large, they will be treated by the landscape gardener nearly like those of a villa residence; when they are smaller, a more quiet and simple character must be aimed at. But, even where they consist of only a rood or two, something tasteful and pretty may be ar

ranged. In fig. 25, is shown a small piece of ground, on one side of a cottage, in which a picturesque character is attempted to be maintained. The plantations here, are made mostly with shrubs instead of trees, the latter being only sparingly introduced, for the want of room. In the disposition of these shrubs, however, the same attention to picturesque effect is paid as we have already pointed out in our remarks on grouping; and by connecting the thickets and groups here and there, so as to conceal one walk from the other, a surprising variety and effect will frequently be produced, in an exceedingly limited spot.

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The same limited grounds might be planted in the graceful manner with good effect; choosing, in this case, shrubs of symmetrical growth and fine forms, planting and grouping them somewhat singly, and allowing every specimen to attain its fullest luxuriance of development.

[Fig. 25. Grounds of a Cottage ornee.]

In making these arrangements, even in the small area of a fourth of an acre, we should study the same principles, and endeavour to produce the same harmony of effects, as if we were improving a mansion residence of the first class. The extent of the operations, and the sums lavished, are not by any means necessarily connected with successful and pleasing results. The man of correct taste will, by the aid of very limited means, and upon a small surface, be able

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*For a variety of modes of treating the grounds of small places, see our Designs for Cottage Residences.

to afford the mind more true pleasure, than the improver who lavishes thousands without it, creating no other emotion than surprise or pity at the useless expenditure incurred; and the Abbé Delille says nothing more true than that,

"Ce noble emploi demand un artiste qui pense,
Prodigue de génie, et non pas de dépense."

From the inspection of plans like these, the tyro may learn something of the manner of arranging plantations, and of the general effect of the natural style, in particular cases and situations. But the knowledge they afford, is so far below that obtained by an inspection of the effects in reality, that the latter should, in all cases, be preferred, where it is practicable. In this style, unlike the ancient, it is almost impossible that the same plan should exactly suit any other situation than that for which it was intended, for its great excellence lies in the endless variety produced by its application to different sites, situations, and surfaces; developing the latent capacities of one place and heightening the charms of another.

But the leading principles, as regards the formation of plantations, which we have here endeavoured briefly to elucidate, are the same in all cases. After becoming familiar with these, should the amateur landscape gardener be at a loss how to proceed, he can hardly do better, as we have before suggested, than to study and recur often to the beautiful compositions and combinations of nature, displayed in her majestic groups, masses, and single trees, as well as open glades and deep thickets; of which, fortunately, in most parts of our country, checkered here and there, as it is, with beautiful and picturesque scenery, there is no dearth or

scarcity. Keeping these few principles in his mind, he will be able to detect new beauties, and transfer them to his own estate; for nature is truly inexhaustible in her resources of the beautiful.

CLASSIFICATION OF TREES, AS TO EXPRESSION. The amateur, who wishes to dispose his plantations in the natural style of Landscape Gardening, so as to produce graceful or picturesque landscape, will be greatly aided by a study of peculiar expression of trees individually, and in composition. The effect of a certain tree, singly, is often exceedingly different from that of a group of the same trees. Το be fully aware of the effect of groups and masses, requires considerable study, and the progress in this study may be greatly facilitated by a recurrence from groups in nature, to groups in pictures.

As a farther aid to this most desirable species of information, we shall offer a few remarks on the principal varieties of character afforded by trees in composition.

Almost all trees, with relation to forms, may be divided into three kinds viz: round-headed trees, oblong or pyramidal trees, and spiry-topped trees; and so far as the expressions of the different species comprised in these distinct classes are concerned, they are, especially when viewed at a distance, (as much of the wood seen in a prospect of any extent, necesssarily, must be,) productive of nearly the same general effects.

Round-headed trees compose by far the largest of these divisions. The term includes all those trees which have an

irregular surface in their boughs, more or less varied in outline, but exhibiting in the whole a top or head, comparatively round; as the

[Fig. 26. Rouud-headed Trees.]

oak, ash, beech, and walnut. They are generally beau

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