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vereth whether they love him better than the world. Accordingly was it foretold by Christ, saying, “that in the later times it should be said, Lo here, lo there is Christ:" which is to be understood, not as if the very person of Christ should be assumed and counterfeited, but his authority and pre-eminence, which is to be the truth itself, should be challenged and pretended. Thus have we read and seen to be fulfilled that which followeth, "Ecce in deserto, ecce in penetralibus :"* while some have sought the truth in the conventicles and conciliables of heretics and sectaries; others in the external face and representation of the Church; and both sorts have been seduced. Were it then that the controversies of the Church of England were such, as they did divide the unity of the spirit, and not only such as do unswathe her of her bands, the bands of peace, yet could it be no occasion for any pretended Catholic to judge us, or for any irreligious person to despise us; or if it be, it shall but happen to us all as it hath used to do; to them to be hardened, and to us to endure the good pleasure of God. But now that our contentions are such, as we need not so much that general canon and sentence of Christ pronounced against heretics, "Erratis, nescientes Scripturas, et potestatem Dei ;" you do err, not knowing the Scripture and the power of God: as we need the admonition of St. James, "Let every man be swift to hear, slow to speak, slow to wrath ;" and that the wound is no way dangerous, except we poison it with our remedies: as the former sort of men have less reason to make themselves music in our discord, so I have good hope that nothing shall displease ourselves, which shall be sincerely and modestly propounded for the appeasing of these dissensions, for if any shall be offended at this voice, "Vos estis fratres;" ye are brethren, why strive ye, he shall give great presumption against himself, that he is the party that doth his brethren wrong..

The controversies themselves I will not enter into, as judging that the disease requireth rather rest than any other cure. Thus much we all know and confess, that they be not of the highest nature, for they are not touching the high mysteries of faith, such as detained the churches for many years after their first peace, what time the heretics moved curious questions, and made strange anatomies of the natures and person of Christ; and the catholic fathers were compelled to follow them with all subtlety of decisions and determinations to exclude them

*Behold he is in the desert; behold he is in the secret chambers of the house.

from their evasions, and to take them in their labyrinths; so as it is rightly said, "illis temporibus, ingeniosa res fuit, esse Christianum;" in those days it was an ingenious and subtle thing to be a Christian.

Neither are they concerning the great parts of the worship of God, of which it is true, that "non servatur unitas in credendo, nisi eadem adsit in colendo;" there will be kept no unity in believing, except it be entertained in worshipping; such as were the controversies of the east and west churches touching images, and such as are many of those between the church of Rome and us: as about the adoration of the sacrament, and the like; but we contend about ceremonies and things indifferent, about the external policy and government of the church; in which kind, if we could but remember that the ancient and true bonds of unity are "one faith, one baptism," and not one ceremony, one policy; if we would observe the league amongst Christians, that is penned by our Saviour, "he that is not against ns is with us;" if we could but comprehend that saying, "differentiæ rituum commendant unitatem doctrinæ ;" the diversities of ceremonies do set forth the unity of doctrine; and that "habet religio quæ sunt æternitatis, habet quæ sunt temporis;" religion hath parts which belong to eternity, and parts which pertain to time: and if we did but know the virtue of silence and slowness to speak, commended by St. James, our controversies of themselves would close up and grow together: but most especially, if we would leave the over-weening and turbulent humours of these times, and revive the blessed proceeding of the Apostles and fathers of the primitive church, which was, in the like and greater cases, not to enter into assertions and positions, but to deliver counsels and advices, we should need no other remedy at all: "si eadem consulis, frater, quæ affirmas, consulenti debetur reverentia, cum non debeatur fides affirmanti;" brother, if that which you set down as an assertion, you would deliver by way of advice, there were reverence due to your counsel, whereas faith is not due to your affirmation. St. Paul was content to speak thus, "Ego, non Dominus," I, and not the Lord: "Et, secundum consilium meum;" according to my counsel. But now men do too lightly say, "Non ego, sed Dominus;" Not I, but the Lord: yea, and bind it with a heavy denunciation of his judgments, to terrify the simple, which have not sufficiently understood out of Solomon, that "the causeless curse shall not come."

A wish is then expressed that "there were an end and surcease made of this immodest and deformed man

ner of writing lately entertained, whereby matter of religion is handled in the style of the stage"-in evident allusion to the Martin Mar-Prelate controversy, which began in 1589, a circumstance which may help to settle the date of the discourse.

To leave all reverent and religious compassion towards evils, or indignation towards faults, and to turn religion into a comedy or satire; to search and rip up wounds with a laughing countenance, to intermix Scripture and scurrility sometimes in one sentence, is a thing far from the devout reverence of a Christian, and scant beseeming the honest regard of a sober man: "Non est major confusio, quam serii et joci ;" there is no greater confusion than the confounding of jest and earnest. The majesty of religion, and the contempt and deformity of things ridiculous, are things as distant as things may be. Two principal causes have I ever known of atheism; curious controversies and profane scoffing: now that these two are joined in one, no doubt that sect will make no small progression.

Bacon objects, however, to the vain policy of attempting to suppress the Puritan or anti-hierarchical pamphlets.

And indeed we see it ever falleth out, that the forbidden writing is always thought to be certain sparks of truth that fly up into the faces of those that seek to choke it, and tread it out; whereas a book authorized is thought to be but "temporis voces," the language of the time. But in plain truth I do find, to mine understanding these pamphlets as meet to be suppressed as the other. First, because as the former sort deface the government of the Church in the persons of the bishops and prelates, so the other doth lead into contempt the exercises of religion in the persons of sundry preachers; so as it disgraceth an higher matter, though in the meaner person.

And he concludes this part of his subject as follows :-

As it were to be wished that these writings had been abortive, and never seen the sun; so the next is, since they be come abroad, that they be censured, by all that have understanding and conscience, as the intemperate extravagancies of some light persons. Yea farther, that men beware, except they mean to adventure to deprive themselves of all sense of religion, and to pave their own hearts, and make them as the

highway, how they may be conversant in them, and much more how they delight in that vein; but rather to turn their laughing into blushing, and to be ashamed, as of a short madness, that they have in matters of religion taken their disport and solace. But this, perchance, is of these faults which will be soonest acknowledged; though I perceive, nevertheless, that there want not some who seek to blanch and excuse it.

He then proceeds:—

But to descend to a sincere view and consideration of the accidents and circumstances of these controversies, wherein either part deserveth blame or imputation, I find generally, in causes of Church matters, that men do offend in some or all of these five points.

The first is, the giving occasion unto the controversies: and also the inconsiderate and ungrounded taking of occasion.

The next is, the extending and multiplying the controversies to a more general opposition or contradiction than appeareth at the first propounding of them, when men's judg ments are least partial.

The third is, the passionate and unbrotherly practices and proceedings of both parts towards the persons each of others, for their discredit and suppression.

The fourth is, the courses holden and entertained on either side, for the drawing of their partisans to a more straight union within themselves, which ever importeth a farther distraction of the entire body.

The last is, the undue and inconvenient propounding, publishing and debating of the controversies. In which point the most palpable error hath been already spoken of, as that, which through the strangeness and freshness of the abuse first offereth itself to the conceits of all men.

Now concerning the occasion of the controversies, it cannot be denied, but that the imperfections in the conversation and government of those which have chief place in the Church, have ever been principal causes and motives of schisms and divisions. For whilst the bishops and governors of the Church continue full of knowledge and good works; whilst they feed the flock indeed; whilst they deal with the secular states in all liberty and resolution, according to the majesty of their calling, and the precious care of souls imposed upon them, so long the Church is" situated" as it were 66 upon a hill;" no man maketh question of it, or seeketh to depart from it; but when these virtues in the fathers and leaders of the Church have lost their light, and that they wax worldly, lovers of themselves, and

pleasers of men, then men begin to grope for the Church as in the dark; they are in doubt whether they be the successors of the Apostles, or of the Pharisees; yea, howsoever they sit in Moses' chair, yet they can never speak, "tanquam auctoritatem habentes," as having authority, because they have lost their reputation in the consciences of men, by declining their steps from the way which they trace out to others; so as men had need continually have sounding in their ears this same "Nolite exire," Go not out; so ready are they to depart from the Church upon every voice. And therefore it is truly noted by one that writeth as a natural man, that the humility of the friars did, for a great time, maintain and bear out the irreligion of bishops and prelates.

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For this is the double policy of the spirtual enemy, either by counterfeit holiness of life to establish and authorise errors; or by corruption of manners to discredit and draw in question truth and things lawful. This concerneth my lords the bishops, unto whom I am witness to myself, that I stand affected as I ought. No contradiction hath supplanted in me the reverence that I owe to their calling; neither hath any detraction or calumny imbased mine opinion of their persons. I know some of them, whose names are most pierced with these accusations, to be men of great virtues; although the disposition of the times, and the want of correspondence many ways, is enough to frustrate the best endeavours in the edifying of the Church. And for the rest, generally, I can condemn none. I am no judge of them that belong to so high a Master; neither have I "two witnesses." And I know it is truly said of Fame, that

"Pariter facta, atque infecta canebat."*

The second occasion of controversies, is the nature and humour of some men. The Church never wanteth a kind of persons which love the salutation of Rabbi, master; not in ceremony or compliment, but in an inward authority which they seek over men's minds, in drawing them to depend upon their opinions, and to seek knowledge at their lips. These men are the true successors of Diotrephes, the lover of preeminence, and not lord bishops. Such spirits do light upon another sort of natures, which do adhere to these men; quorum gloria in obsequio;"† stiff followers and such as zeal mar

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"Things done relates, not done she feigns; and mingles
truth with lies."-Dryden's Fourth Aeneid.
Whose glory is in obedience.

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