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the after development of the Roman Catholic Church, found the Latin language adapted to their ambitious purposes. Consequently when in after years their deep-laid plans were endangered by Vernacular versions of the Holy Scriptures, they erected their Latin barriers around both Bible and Church, and pronounced it heresy to translate or read the Bible save in the Latin tongue now chosen and ordained to be the sacred language of the Church. Pagan Rome failed in carrying out her ideal of Universal Empire, but Papal Rome, clothed with the same imperial language and inspired with the same imperial ideal, hoped to succeed. She still has faith in her destiny notwithstanding serious checks upon her power. The first of these checks was in the domain of language through Vernacular Versions of the Bible, which marks the rise and progress of Protestantism in its struggle with Romanism.

Intimately connected with the religious stands the literary element in this conflict of languages. At the period of the Norman Conquest the Saxon tongue had a hard struggle for mere existence. It was driven from the court and palace, but it took refuge around the firesides of the peasantry. The Latin tongue even down to the Elizabethan age was the literary language. But during this same period the English language had become a power, and by its inherent vitality was already the giant that succeeding centuries have proved it to be. And prominent among the causes which lie at the foundation of this victory of the English over the Latin tongue we must recognize the fact of early translations of the Scriptures into the language of the people. The design of the following chapters was not to treat this subject at large, but in giving an account of the several translations to note incidentally the literary influence of these versions.

In order to bring down the history of English translations to the present time, an extended account will be found in the following pages, of various public and private attempts towards translations and revisions since that of King James' Bible, 1611. The great majority of these efforts were by private individuals and consequently of no special importance. There were other attempts made by public authority, and hence of greater significance. By far the most important of these, is the Anglo-American revision undertaken by the authority of the Convocation of Canterbury and with the express design of superseding King James” version. Whether it will accomplish this design must remain, for the present at least, an open question. It must be confessed, however, that in the history of English translations no versión ever attracted so wide-spread expectation. And then it carries with it the recommendation of the most profound English and American scholarship-a scholarship in every way competent to deal with original authorities and to make the best use of all critical helps. While this is true of the New Testament revisers whose labors have just closed, it is equally true of the Old Testament revisers whose labors will not be completed for some three years to come.

At the expense of burdening the page with foot-notes, care has been taken to give credit to all authorities quoted-an honest though laborious mode of acknowledging indebtedness. The historic field of English Bible translations has been sadly neglected by Church historians. Fox, the martyrologist, is

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an honorable exception. The early Black Letter editions of his “ Acts and Monuments,” are mines of wealth in the rich mass of facts he has brought together including original documents bearing upon the external history of the English Bible. Rev. John Lewis was the original pioneer in this special field; and in every bibliographical list, chronologically, his work must stand first. Lewis' “History of English Translations of the Bible” was first published as an introduction to Wycliffe’s “ Translation of the New Testament,” 1731. The work was issued separately in 1739. He crowded so much into so small a space, to the general reader his account seems heavy ; but to the searcher for facts his work, though not reliable in every particular, is most invaluable. Anderson's “ Annals of the Bible” have been severely criticised, and yet they render most acceptable service in honoring the memory of the ever-memorable William Tyndale. The work was first published in 1845, in two octavo volumes. The earliest editions were burdened with extended sketches of the civil history of the times, which interfered seriously with the simple narrative. These sketches were afterwards omitted in the revised edition put forth by his nephew in 1862. “A General View of the History of the English Bible," by Canon Westcott, published in 1868 and 1872, together with the two noble volumes by Dr. Eadie, entitled, “The English Bible; an External and Critical History of the Various English Translations of the Scriptures,” 1876, leave scarcely anything to be desired in the way of an extensive and critical account of English translations of the Holy Scriptures.

My thanks are hereby extended to the Librarians of the following Libraries-Boston Public, Boston Athenæum, Harvard College, Watkinson, Wabash College, and Lane Seminary, for special favors. My personal acknowledgments are also due to many friends for aid and encouragement, but to none more than to my friend and former teacher, Prof. George E. Day, D.D., of New Haven, Conn.

BLACKFORD CONDIT.

TERRE HAUTE, Nov., 1881.

CONTENTS.

BIRTH OF JOHN DE WYCLIFFE.-His EDUCATION.-CIVIL AND CANON LAW.-Mo-

NASTIC ORDERS.–WYCLIFFE'S ATTACK UPON THE MENDICANTS.-CHURCH AND
STATE.-WYCLIFFE DEFENDS THE PARLIAMENT.-WYCLIFFE AT BRUGES.-His
LECTURES ON DIVINITY.-WYCLIFFE BEFORE THE COUNCIL.-His DEFENSE.-
JOHN BALL AND WAT TYLER. -WYCLIFFE AS A REFORMER. AT LUTTER-
WORTH.-HE TRANSLATES THE BIBLE.- LATIN LANGUAGE AND ROMAN CATHOLIC
CHURCH.-ROMISI HATRED OF THE ENGLISH BIBLE. - EARLIER AND LATER
TEXTS OF THE WYCLIFFITE VERSIONS.- WYCLIFFE AND HEREFORD.-SPECI-
MENS OF THE EARLIER TEXT. JOHN PURVEY. THE AUTHOR OF THE
LATER TEXT.-"WYCLIFFE's GLOSSER."--SPECIMENS OF THE LATER TEXT.
- FORSHALL AND MADDEN'S WYCLIFFITE VERSIONS, 1850. — THE BISHOP's

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