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every part thereof, as well as in this parish, there are names derived from them, and their achievements. The whole Highlands might justly be called Duthaich nam mor Bheann, or country of high bills; but a Highlander never gives that name to this parish, but calls it A mhor-earran.

“The principal antiquity is the ruin of a castle, at a farm called Ardterinish (possibly the Inishtore of Ossian), on the sound of Mull, where Macdonald of the Isles resided, and held his courts and parliaments

. Vide Abercrombie's Life of James II.

“ In different parts of the parish, especially along the coast of the sound of Mull, on elevated places, there are several circular buildings, commonly called druidical temples, or cairns. They are generally formed of large whinstones, inclosing a small spot of ground, of different diameters, none of them exceeding eight yards. The language principally spoken in the parish, is Gaelic; but of late years, by the advantages derived from schools, and the more general communication with the low country, the English language is more universally understood throughout the parish than formerly. Many names of places in this parish are of unknown, or uncertain derivations; others plainly of Gaelic or Celtic original. Thus, Innismore is the great brae; Port a baat, the boat creek; Fiunary, Fingal's shieling; Dunien, Fingal's fort or hill; Kemin, Fiogal's steps or stairs. Dunien is a curious round rock, of considerable height, partly covered on the sides with a green sward, but of no easy ascent. On the top is an area of about one-eighth of an acre, which evidently appears to have been encircled with a wall; very few vestiges of which now remain, owing partly to the injuries of time, and partly to want of taste in the tenants formerly occupying the farm, who pulled down the stones, for domestic purposes, to save the trouble of quarrying.

“ The den itself commands an extensive view, and was well chosen for a place of defence against a flying party : it lies on the farm of Fiunary, and is now part of the glebe. There is a water running by the foot of the hill, of a romantic appearance, on account of its high banks and the number of its pools and cascades.

“ The sloping braes on each side of this water, were formerly covered with a fine natural wood of oak and ash; of which nothing now remains but a little brushwood, a nuisance rather than a beauty to the place. Kemin, is steps in the form of a natural stair, pretty regular, in a rock, towards the top of a hill called Bein-eiden, mentioned in an old poem

ascribed to Ossian; but whether this, or another of that name in Ireland, be the hill therein referred to, it is not pretended to say ; Drimnin, the ridges, Ullin, the elbow, Stron, the nose; Achaharn, the field of cairns, Arginish, the shieling of good bedding for cattle, names of places very descriptive of their appearance or properties. The principal place of worship, and where the oldest church stands, is called Cill-collumkill, or cell of the famous Columbus of Iona. The other place of worship is Kiliunik, or cell of Winifred. Though the church is now removed to a little distance from it; at each of these there is a churchyard, or burying-ground, but now without any fence, though anciently their precincts were distinctly marked, and considered as sanctuaries.”

Probable Conjectures respecting the Burial-places of

FINGAL and Ossian. Thomas Newte, Esq. in his Prospects and Observations on a Tour in England and Scotland, * speaking of that part of Glen Almon, which is next to Crief and the low country, accords with the description given by Daniel de Foe in his Tour, who says that the hollow through which the road passes from Crief to Inverness, is so narrow, and the mountains on each side so high, that the sun is seen but two or three hours in the longest day. Mr. Newte then continues to make the following interesting observations. “In that awful part of Glen Almon already mentioned, where lofty and impending cliffs, on either hand, make a solemn and almost perpetual gloom, is found Clachan-Ossian, or monumental stone of Ossian. It is of uncommon size, measuring seven feet and a hall in length, and five feet in breadth. About fifty years ago, certain soldiers employed under General Wade, in making the military road from Stirling to Inverness, through the Highlands, raised the stone by large engines, and discovered under it a coffin full of burnt bones. This coffin consisted of four grey stones, which still remain, such as are mentioned in Ossian's Poems. Ossian's stone, with the four grey stones in which his bones are said

* Edition in quarto, published in 1791, p. 228.

to have been deposited, are surrounded by a circular dyke, two hundred feet in circumference, and three feet in height. The military road passes through its centre.

“ That this was in reality the burying-place and the monument of Ossian, is rendered highly probable by many other circumstances, besides immemorial and uniform tradition. The frontier between Caledonia, and that part of Great Britain that was subdued by the Romans, very naturally became the theatre of action and glory to the contending nations. Nor is there any thing more natural than to suppose that Fingal and his warriors might have often fixed their residence in the neighbourhood of those mountains, in order to watch the movements

of the enemy.

“Many of the ancient Gaelic poems make mention of Ossian having resided upon the water of Bran, which flows in a parallel direction, at the distance of only three or four miles from the Almon, and falls into the Tay near Dunkeld. And, at the head of Glen Turret, which touches on Glen Almon, in the parish of Monivaird, there is a shealing, or summer cottage, called Renna Cardich, or the Smith's sheal, where is to be seen the foundation-stones of houses, and what are said to be large heaps of ashes; and some of the old Gaelic poems of the country inform us, that there was an iron work here, and that the swords and arms for Fingal's army were made at Lochenlour, four miles in the valley below. That the iron was brought from this place, is further confirmed from the peats cast in that part of the country. These burnt in kiln-pots leave a plate of yetlin amongst the ashes, which the country people call adander. A tradition also prevails, that Ossian was proprietor of part of Monivaird, a place that must, in ancient times, have been famous for bards, as that term in Gaelic signifies the Bard's Hill.

“About the middle of Glen-Almon, and about three miles distant from Clach-Ossian, in a glen named Corriviarlich, or the Glen of Thieves, is a cave known by the name of Fian, Fingal's Cave, though afterwards possessed by a race of thieves. The entry to this cave is five feet in height, and four feet in breadth; the road in the middle is about eighteen or twenty feet high, and the length about thirty feet. This cave is overtopped by a high rock or hill; and on the left side of the door or entry, is a large flat stone, which is said to have been drawn by the Fians, or Fingalians, to the mouth of this cave, as a defence from the cold or from wild beasts. Before the cave is a fine green plain, and a high pine tree, three feet in diameter. The glen is


for pasture, and may be about one mile long, and two broad.

“There is another high hill or rock, in Glen-Almon, that overtops all the rest, with a proud extended crest, known by the name of Sron na huath Bhidh, or the Nose of the Cave: there is a great hollow under ground, where it is said a giant once resided, who entertained a malicious grudge against Fingal, when he dwelt at Fion Theach.

“Great many of the poems, translated by Mr. Macpherson, chiefly relate to Fingal's exploits in Ireland,

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