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paid great deference to his opinion on all subjects connected with his calling, he freely communicated to me his superior knowledge, and did not scruple to allow of my being present at his interview with Tornga, or his patron spirit. In consequence of this, I took an early opportunity of requesting my friend to exhibit his skill in my cabin. His old wife was with him, and by much flattery, and an accidental display of a glittering knife and some beads, she assisted me in obtaining my request. All light excluded, our sorcerer began chanting to his wife with great vehemence, and she, in return, answered by singing the Amna-aya, which was not discontinued during the whole ceremony.

As far as I could hear, he afterwards began turning himself rapidly round, and, in a loud powerful voice, vociferated for Tornga with great impatience, at the same time blowing and snorting like a Walrus. His noise, impatience, and agitation, increased every moment, and he at length seated himself on the deck, varying his tones and making a rustling with his clothes.

“ Suddenly the voice seemed smothered, and was so managed as to sound as if retreating beneath the deck, each moment becoming more distant, and ultimately giving the idea of being many feet below the cabin, when it ceased entirely. His wife now, in answer to my queries, informed me very seriously, that he had dived, and that he would send up Tornga. Accordingly, in about half a minute, a distant blowing was heard very slowly approaching, and a voice, which differed from that we at first had heard, was at times mingled with the blowing, until at length both sounds became distinct, and the old woman informed me that Tornga was come to answer my questions. I accordingly asked several questions of the sagacious spirit, to each of which inquiries I received an answer by two loud slaps on the deck, which I was given to understand was favorable. A very hollow, yet powerful voice, certainly much different from the tones of Toolemak, now chanted for some time, and a strange jumble of hisses, groans, shouts, and gabblings like a turkey, succeeded in rapid order. The old woman sang with increased energy; and, as I took it for grant

ed that this was all intended to astonish the Kabloona, I cried repeatedly that I was very much afraid. This, as I expected, added fuel to the fire, until the poor immortal, exhausted by its own might, asked leave to retire. The voice gradually sunk from our hearing, as at first, and a very indistinct hissing succeeded ; in its advance, it sounded like the_tone produced by the wind on the base chord of an Eolian harp; this was soon changed to a rapid hiss like that of a rocket, and Toolemak, with a yell, announced his return. I had held my breath at the first distant hissing, and twice exhausted myself, yet our conjuror did not once respire, and even his returning and powerful yell was uttered without a previous stop or inspiration of air.” *

What follows is a farther proof of the extent and versatility of the imitative powers possessed by some of . these savages.

“ Ohotook, and his intelligent wife Iligliak, paid me a visit, and from them I obtained the names of many birds and animals, by showing specimens and drawings. Their little boy, an ugly and stupid-looking young glutton, astonished me by the aptitude with which he imitated the cries of each creature as it was exhibited. The young ducks answering the distant call of their mother, had all the effect of ventriloquism : indeed, every sound, from the angry growl of a bear, to the sharp hum of a muskitoe, was given in a wonderful manner by this boy." +

* Captain Lyon's Private Journal, pp. 359, 360. † Ibid. pp. 149, 150.

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ELEMENTS

OF THE

PHILOSOPHY OF THE HUMAN MIND,

PART THIRD.

CHAPTER FIRST.

THE VARIETIES OF INTELLECTUAL CHARACTER.

SECTION I.

General Observations.

HITHERTO we have been employed in analyzing the Human Understanding into those simple faculties from which our various intellectual operations result. The analysis is, after all, probably far from being complete ; but I hope it is sufficiently distinct and comprehensive to afford an explanation of the most important phenomena, and to illustrate the method by which the science may be farther advanced by future inquirers.

Of the Faculties which have passed under review in the fornier parts of this work, some traces are to be found in the minds of all men. Even Abstraction, that faculty which, more than any other, requires cultivation for its developement, is exercised, on many occasions, by children and savages, although in a very inferior degree to that of which speculative minds are capable. These faculties, therefore, may be considered as essential capacities of the human understanding, and as characteristical endowments of our species.

From the various possible combinations and modifica

tions of these faculties result all the varieties of genius and of intellectual character among men.

What are the original disparities in their capacities, it is impossible for us to ascertain; but, from the analogy of the body, it is presumable that such disparities exist, notwithstanding what has been so ingeniously advanced to the contrary by Helvetius and his followers. I confess, for my own part, that I never was an admirer of this philosophy, so fashionable, about forty years ago, on the continent; but I do not mean to dispute its principles at present. That the different situations into which men are thrown by the accidents of life, would produce great diversities in their talents, even on the supposition that their original capacities were the same, is undoubtedly true;.

but it is surely pushing the conclusion too far to affirm, that no original inequalities exist; when no proof from the fact can be produced of such an assertion, and when 'so strong an analogy as that of the natural disparities among men, in point of bodily advantages, leads to an opposite opinion. A farther argument for this, may, I think, be deduced from the art of Physiognomy, which, notwithstanding the exaggerated and absurd pretensions of some of its professors, seems to have a real foundation in the principles of Human Nature. That there are native varieties in the form of the head, and in the cast of the features, will not be disputed; and, if these are at all significant of the intellectual operations, they would lead us to infer a corresponding variety in our mental gifts. It is not a little curious, that this theory of the original equality of minds should forma part of the same system which refers all the phenomena of thought to a mechanical organization of the particles of matter. *

At the same time, it must be acknowledged, that, supposing two minds to be originally equal in all respects, the most trifling external circumstances may create between them the most important differences in the result. Ipsi animi, magni refert, quali in corpore locati sint:

* The observations of physicians on the indications of character, to be collected from the bodily temperaments of individuals, afford another presumption, equally strong, against the theory of Helvetius.

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