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64. The two copies of rolls for paymaster will not embrace the names of persons previously dropped from the rolls.
OF JUSTERING A REGIMENT OR OTHER FORCE INTO SERVICE.
82. An officer who is appointed to make a muster of any force into the service of the United States, on arriving at the place designated in his instructions, will, if the name of the commander and captains be not given in his order, ascertain from the proper authority who the commanders of the regiment and companies are to be; this information is generally obtained from the Executive of the State.' And he must be satisfied that the whole number of companies for the designated command are present, or on their way there, with organization complete, unless otherwise directed, before he commences the muster.
83. The organization of a regiment, by existing laws, is ten companies.
84. Each company of foot to consist of a captain, a first lieutenant, two second lieutenants, four sergeants, four corporals, a drummer, a fifer, and not less than eighty privates. A mounted company will have the same commissioned officers, sergeants, corporals, and privates, with two buglers, and a farrier and blacksmith.
85. The field and staff to consist of a colonel, lieutenant-colonel, major, adjutant (one of the company lieutenants if of foot, an extra lieutenant if of mounted), assistant quartermaster, assistant commissary (both with rank of captain), surgeon, assistant surgeon (the last four to be appointed by the President-see paragraph 25), sergeantmajor, quartermaster-sergeant, and, if of foot, two principal musicians, one of whom should be a bugler; if of mounted, one principal musician and two chief buglers.*
86. Sometimes the colonel and other field officers are not appointed till the prescribed number of companies are mustered into service, and then elected. In such case dates of enrollment, or official commencement of the term, as field officers, will be the dates of such elections. If they were appointed before, the dates of enrollment will be the days of their arrival, respectively, under legal orders, at the general rendezvous and commencement of duty there in commanding the companies as they arrive, and with allowance for travel according to distance. The dates of enrollment of such of the staff as may be appointed by the colonel—all excepting those commissioned by the President-will be the days on which they were, respectively, appointed, under the same rules as apply to the field officers. (See paragraphs 22, 25.)
87. If there be no medical officers, duly appointed, present, the mustering officer, on consultation with the colonel or other gentlemen of respectability, will select and engage the services of one or more physi. ciats, having diplomas, and of well-established capacities and character, to assist him in inspecting the officers and men to be mustered, and to attend upon and accompany the troops on their march till relieved by others regularly appointed. They will be borne on the muster-roll
* Amended April 16, 1861-see p. 76. 61 R R-SERIES III, VOL I
of field and staff as acting surgeon and assistant surgeon, not embraced in recapitulation, with dates and place of commencement of service, and, in the column of remarks, say “Engaged at [Baltimore, July 25), by mustering officer, with approval of the colonel, to serve as acting surgeon (or assistant surgeon) in the regiment, temporarily, and provisionally mustered, at the rate of pay and allowances of that grade while serving and for the distance from place of discharge, or relieved, home, the place of general rendezvous."
88. Captains will have a roll or list of their companies in the order of rank in every grade, the privates alphabetically by the surname), and all of the same name together, as Smith, John, Smith, John R., &c., written in a plain hand, the first Christian name at full length, and every name accurately spelled; and they will form the company in the same order from right to left in two ranks, if it be foot, the commissioned officers on the right, then the sergeants, next the corporals, the musicians, privates, with an interval of a pace between the different grades, so that they may be easily distinguished and the number in each counted.
89. The mustering officer, accompanied by the captain and surgeon, will make a cursory examination from right to left, and verify the numbers; and there should always be an excess of privates to supply the place of men rejected.
94. Volunteers and militia are not to be less than eighteen nor more than forty-five years of age. Some exceptions may be admissible for over age in commissioned officers, provided they be physically robust and active and in all other respects well qualified; but in this the mustering officer must exercise a sound and rigid judgment.
95. If there be any doubt about the age of a person, ask any of the following questions: “How old are you? Are you eighteen? (or) Are you under forty-five? How do you know your age? In what year were you born? Did you ever see the register of your birth, and in what and when? Who told you the year of your birth, and when were you told? Will you take an oath that, to the best of your knowledge and belief, you are eighteen, or not over forty-five years old ?”—and then administer the oath accordingly: “You swear that, to the best of your kuowledge and belief, you are eighteen (or, not over forty-five) years old, so help you God."
96. All officers and inen must be sound and active, free from all malformation, defects of sight, hearing, ulcers, piles, rupture, fracture, dislocation, and disease of any kind.' But the lack of, or defect in, the left eye, or slight injury of the left hand, will not reject the man. Foreigners and stammerers must not be received, unless they can understand and speak readily. But all men who are enrolled and have performed duty in the organized militia will be received.
97. The company, being in line, will be faced to the right. The mustering officer, accompanied by the surgeon, after inspecting and accepting the captain and lieutenants, will place himself about a dozen paces from, and nearly in front of, the first sergeant, with the captain near him on his right, to call the names. One of the second lieutenants will place himself by the left of the first sergeant, with directions to keep the right, now front, file of the company (not called) closed up to his front, and to see that each man, when his name is called, answers “Here,” in a tone to be heard distinctly by the mustering officer. And every man must be called by, and answer personally to, his legal name; any other will vitiate his title to land and pension.
98. At the instant of answering the man will step off briskly in a natural gait, his hands, without gloves on, hanging in an easy, traveling position, to, and in front of, the mustering officer and surgeon, who will, in most cases, be able to discover, while the man is approaching and passing, whether he is sound and suitable for service. If the man be accepted, he will pass on and join the first lieutenant, who will form the company in the same order as before, see that the rear rank men cover those in front, and intervals preserved between the grades, so that the number in each may be easily distinguished and counted.
99. If the mustering officer and surgeon are not satisfied to receive nor reject a man by his appearance and movement in walking past, they will direct him to stop for a more critical examination, and, if necessary, require him to strip at some convenient place, when the others shall have been called. Those rejected will be turned off and their names marked out of the list, and they must not be suffered to join any other company.
101. By this manner of inspecting a company may be examined in about half an hour, and the officers will be able to judge with great accuracy by the close observance of a man's size, figure, motions, hands, eyes, and general appearance—all which must be scrutinizedwhether he will pass muster.
The examination of a company naked, with the inconvenience generally felt at such places by the want of suitable buildings, would require two or three hours.
102. The captain and other officers, and, indeed, every man, are obligated to inform each other and the inspecting officers when making up the company and at the muster of any concealed or known lameness, breach, defect, or disease in any one of the company, and the officers wlio enrolled the company will be held to refund the amount of pay and clothing furnished to any man who may be discharged or found to be unfit for service within three months from the muster into service in consequence of any rupture, defect, or disease, unless he can show to the commanding general that the cause of uufitness occurred after the muster, not before.
103. When all the men have been called and accepted, the mustering officer, accompanied by the captain, will count the number in each grade and see that they correspond with the number of names on the list and agreeing with the prescribed organization,
104. The mustering officer will then recommend to the company to take the oath of allegiance contained in the tenth article of the Rules and Articles of War, this being proper to insure subordination and faithful service on the part of the men who have, by enrollment and muster as volunteers, enlisted in the service of the United States; and it may have etfect in securing the benefit of land bounty and pension. It is not absolutely necessary, but proper, reciprocally, that the oath be administered, yet the men are fully bound to the service by the act of mustering. The substance of the oath may be mentioned beforehand if required. He will direct the company, officers included, to uncover their heads and hold up their right hands, and then, in a loud and very distinct, impressive manner, administer the following (see also article 97):
105. “ All and each of you do solemnly swear (or affirm, as the case may be) that you will bear true allegiance to the United States of America, and that you will serve them honestly and faithfully against all their enemies or opposers whatsoever, and observe and obey the orders of the President of the United States and the orders of the offi. cers appointed over you according to the Rules and Articles for the government of the armies of the United States; so help you God."
106. The Rules and Articles of War will then be read to the company by the captain, or under his superintendence, as also paragraph 844 of Army Regulations, and read again, in like manner semi-annually, on the last days of December and June, and on the muster-rolls of which, and that of muster into service, the captain will certify that the Rules have been read as here directed.
Washington, October 10, 1861.
Principal officials of the War Department and its bureaus from November 1, 1860, to
March 31, 1862.
[Compiled from official records.] SECRETARY OF WAR.
COMMISSARY-GENERAL OF SUBSISTENCE.
John B. Floyd, resigned December 29, Col. George Gibson, died September 29, 1860.
1861. Joseph Holt, ad interim, December 31, Col. Joseph P. Taylor, September 29, 1861.
1860. (Appointed and confirmed January 18, 1861.)
SURGEON-GENERAL. Sinon Cameron, March 5, 1861. Edwin M. Stanton, January 15, 1862. Col. Thomas Lawson, died May 15, 1861.
Col. Clement A. Finley, May 15, 1861. ASSISTANT SECRETARY OF WAR.
Col. Benjamin F. Larned.
CHIEF OF ENGINEERS.
Col. Joseph G. Totten.
1861. Col. Lorenzo Thomas, March 7, 1861. Col. John J. Abert, retired September 9, (Appointed brigadier-general August
1861. 3, 1861.)
Col. Stephen H. Long, September 9, 1861.
CHIEF OF ORDNANCE. Col. Sylvester Churchill, retired Septem- Col. Henry K. Craig, relieved April 23, ber 25, 1861.
1861. Col. Randolph B. Marcy, August 9, 1861. Col. James W. Ripley, April 23, 1861.
(Promoted brigadier-general August 3, QUARTERMASTER-GENERAL.
Bvt. Maj. John F. Lee.
SIGNAL OFFICER. Brig. Gen. Montgomery C. Meigs, May 15, 1861.
Maj. Albert J. Myer. * The extracts (here omitted) comprise pages 159–240, inclusive, of the Revised Arny Regulations of 1861.
ALTERNATE DESIGN A TIONS
ORGANIZATIONS MENTIONED IN THIS VOLUME.
Alternate designation in black-faced type, the official designation, reference, or State to which
organization belongs follows in italics.
Adams' (J W.) Inf., 67th N Y.
Birge's (J. W.) Inf., Missouri.