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manufacturer of such as you would recommend; also the price and manufacturer's place of residence.
I am happy to say that we have had an uncommonly-productive season this
Our wheat and Indian corn crops are very fine; and although the Hessian fly made great ravages in the wheat this spring, the favourable weather seemed to counteract its effects. But I am sorry to say that our wheat is generally more filthy, or contains more darnel, than was ever known before ; which has led many to suppose that, from being cut by the fly, or some other cause, it degenerates into darnel.
Pray, Sir, have you any information on this subject, or do you believe it possible that such a change can take place?
If I can at any time be of service to you, or give you any information of the state of agriculture in Maryland, which will be of use to you, I shall be very happy to do so. I am, Sir, very respectfully, your obedient humble servant,
No. 21.-Letter from John S. Skinner, Esq. Secretary to the Maryland Agricultural Society.
Office of the American Farmer,
7th November 1828. I have it in my charge from the Maryland Agricultural Society, incorporated by an act of the General Assembly of this state, to acquaint you with your having been unanimously elected a member of this association. I beg you to be persuaded, that I derive peculiar gratification from the performance of a duty so congenial with my own feelings.
The great and everlasting services you have rendered the cause of agriculture, and the high sense of their value to our own country, are but feebly indicated by this token from the Maryland Agricultural Society; but the sincerity with which it is offered will insure for it a just appreciation, in forwarding their diploma, as an evidence of membership, and of the high consideration of the society. I beg to add the assurance, that in personal veneration and esteem for one, who has so ably devoted his life to the most important concerns and best interests of the human race, no one can exceed your
faithful friend and obedient servant,
J. S. SKINNER, Cor. Sec. Md. Ag. Soc.
No. 22.—Letter from Mr Eliphalet Pearson, Secretary to the
Cambridge Academy of New England. SIR, Your favour of 5th June last, accompanying two of your statistical pamphlets, destined for our Academy, was received 15th October; and at the next meeting of the society, which was yesterday, they were communicated. The members present were highly gratified by receiving the outlines of a work, the execution of which must have required immense labour and invincible perseverance,-a work, which, while it gratifies the laudable curiosity of the inquisitive, is directly calculated to meliorate the condition of tenants and labourers, to advance the real interest of proprietors, and to furnish government a rich fund of necessary and important information, a work not necessarily confined in its operation to one kingdom, but serving as a model for the imitation and consequent advantage of every kingdom and nation of the earth. For this token of your regard, be pleased, Sir, to accept the thanks of the Academy, which I am directed to present you. In reply to your suggestion, permit me to echo the sentiment, and to say, it would be very important, if, animated by your example and success, and by the patriotic zeal of the enlightened clergy of Scotland, our Academy and clergy could be induced to engage in a similar inquiry. But that jealousy, which is characteristic of a republic, will, I fear, long obstruct and discourage the execution of so noble a plan in this country.
plan in this country. Something however might, and I hope will be, attempted with success.
With sentiments of profound respect, permit me to subscribe myself, Sir, your most obliged and most obedient humble servant,
Cambridge, 15th November 1798.
It is impossible for any one, who is at all acquainted with the history of the United States, not to respect a country that has possessed so many distinguished characters as America has done; and far less is it possible for an individual like myself, not to wish prosperity to a country that has produced so many personal friends and well-wishers. Were 'it possible, after completing the literary labours I have undertaken, to visit that country in person, what delight would I not feel in seeing a new empire, which, from the advantages it possesses, is likely to rise pre-eminent over every other which the world has hitherto witnessed ! But, as a personal visit is so unlikely, I am tempted to embrace this opportunity of stating a few points, which, with great deference, I beg to submit to the consideration of the people of that interesting country.
1. I rejoice to find that the foundation of the prosperity of America will be founded on agriculture. Nothing can be more just than the doctrine inculcated by the celebrated Dr Franklin, that there are only three ways by which wealth can be acquired by a nation : The first by war, as the Romans did, by plundering their conquered neighbours; that is, by robbery: The second by commerce, which is generally cheating : The third by agriculture, the only honest way; for man thus receives, by a kind of continued miracle, wrought by the hand of God in his behalf, the increase of seed thrown into the ground, as a reward for his innocent life, and virtuous industry.
2. A cordial friendship between Great Britain and America, is the next point to which I wish to call the attention of both countries. They can do each other endless mischief; but they ought to consider, that a mutual friendship would contribute most essentially to the permanent happiness of both. What good can America derive from any other country, compared to the benefit which a perpetual connexion with Great Britain would secure? What state or confederacy could venture to attack either country if they were united ? In that case, the prosperity of the one would increase the happiness of the other, and we should really feel a reciprocity of interest.
3. The unburdened revenue which America must soon possess, will enable it to accomplish many objects, which no other country has hitherto been able to reach. A universal system of education ought to be considered as the best foundation of national prosperity. A human being cannot be properly called “ a man,” unless his faculties have been brought to all that perfection of which they are respectively capable. Even the new plan of infant schools ought not to be neglected *; and if universities were established on a great scale, many able men from Europe would be induced to accept of appointments in them, with very moderate encouragement.
• In regard to infant schools, they are brought to such a degree of improve. ment by Mr Wilderspin, who resides at Cheltenham in Gloucestershire, as to excite the astonishment of all who have seen them. It would be well worth while for the American government, to send some promising young men to be taught by him the whole process.
“ Prudent caution, needful to avert
4. The best means of obtaining an abundant revenue, is by the establishment of a judicious system of circulation. This subject, which is by far the most important branch of the science of political economy, is at last beginning to be understood ; and the absurdity of making the whole wealth and happiness of a country to depend upon the possession of a certain quantity of gold and silver, (of which a nation may be plundered in the course of its commercial transactions), will soon be generally recognised. A judicious system of banking, therefore, such as that established in Scotland, with some improvements, of which it is susceptible, would greatly promote the happiness, and secure the prosperity of America, and cannot be too strongly recommended to the attention of the government of that country
5. It is with much diffidence that I venture to touch upon a subject, respecting which there is a great diversity of opinion. I mean the propriety of having a religious establishment in the several states.
From various circumstances, unnecessary here to detail, a great diversity of sects prevail in the new empire of America, and even in the same state. It is not possible, therefore, to expect, that any one religious system can become universally prevalent. Nor is it desirable ; for there can be no doubt, that the existence of different sects is rather favourable than otherwise to the progress of religion, and tends to promote the purity of conduct in those who profess it. The one sect proves a check upon the other; and both the clergy and laity are more strict in their conduct than if they were cordially united. But though different sects may advantageously prevail in the same state, yet this ought not to prevent one of them from being considered as the religion of the state, and to be partly paid at the public expense, the other
* Ricardo, whose authority in such questions stands so high, strongly recommends a paper circulation exclusively, convertible, not into coin, but into bullion, at a fair price. See Correspondence, vol. i. p. 370.