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natural history in particular, that I am sure you will thank me for introducing him to your acquaintance. His travels in Europe are intended to inform himself of every thing relative to his professorship, which he can procure an opportunity of seeing. Any advice or civilities you may be so good as to shew him, will be very grateful to the Academy of Sciences here, of which Sir John Sinclair, as well as Mr Peck, are members; to our University at Cambridge, and to men of letters in general in this country, after whom it would be ridiculous to mention, your most obedient and obliged humble servant,





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Mr Jefferson was undoubtedly one of the ablest men that America has produced. Being considered superior to almost any of his countrymen for literary acquirements, he was employed to draw up the declaration of independence, a paper distinguished for its ability *. He was appointed ambassador from America to France, and I had first the pleasure of being introduced to him at the table of the Marquis de la Fayette, with whom I had become acquainted in consequence of an introduction from the celebrated Mirabeau. Mr Jefferson afterwards came to England, where I endeavoured to shew him every attention in my power, of which I received the following flattering acknowledgment:

• A work has been recently published, both in this country and in America, entitled, Memoirs and Private Papers of Thomas Jefferson, late President of the United States, now first published from the original manuscript, and edited by Thomas Jefferson Randolph. This work fully proves the great abilities, and genuine patriotism, of this distinguished character; to which I hope America will do justice, by erecting a monument to his memory. Such monuments are honourable to the dead, and incitements to the living, who are thus induced, by every exertion in their power, to merit the applause of a grateful country.

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No. 1. Mr Jefferson's compliments to Sir John Sinclair, and thanks for the pamphlets he was so kind as to send him. Their author, as well as their subject, interest him in them. He had the honour of calling at Sir John Sinclair's yesterday, to take leave, and to make a thousand acknowledgments for the many attentions and kindnesses he has been pleased to shew him. He begs leave now to do it in writing, and to express the pleasure it will give him should he have an opportunity of proving to Sir John Sinclair, at Paris, how sensible he has been of his goodness. He wishes him every possible felicity.

Tuesday, April 25. 1786.

Mr Jefferson, indeed, said, that there was no other individual in London who had paid him any particular attention, which rendered my civilities to him peculiarly gratifying.

The first letter I received from Mr Jefferson, after his return to America, is interesting, on account of the hint he gives regarding the warehousing of foreign corn, which is really of no use but to the merchant, to whom the interests of the grower is generally sacrificed.

No. 2.

Philadelphia, Aug. 24. 1791. DEAR SIR, I am to acknowledge the receipt of your two favours of December 25. and May 14, with the pamphlets which accompanied them, and to return you my thanks for them. The corn law, I perceive, has not passed in the form you expected. My wishes on that subject were nearer yours than you imagined. We both, in fact, desired the same thing for very different reasons, respecting the interests of our respective countries, and therefore justifiable in both. You wished the bill so moulded as to encourage strongly your national agriculture. The clause for warehousing foreign corn tended to lessen the

confidence of the farmer in the demand for his corn. I wished the clause omitted, that our corn might pass directly to the country of the consumer, and save us the loss of an intermediate deposit, which it can ill bear. That no commercial arrangements between Great Britain and the United States have taken place, as you wish should be done, cannot be imputed to us. The proposition has surely been often enough made; perhaps too often. It is a happy circumstance in human affairs, that evils which are not cured in one way, will eure themselves in some other. We are now under the first impression of the news of the king's flight from Paris, and his recapture. It would be unfortunate were it in the power of any one man to defeat the issue of so beautiful a revolution. I hope and trust it is not; and that, for the good of suffering humanity all over the earth, that revolution will be established and spread through the whole world. I shall always be happy, my Dear Sir, to hear of your health and happiness, being, with sentiments of the most cordial esteem and respect, Dear Sir, your most obedient humble servant,


I afterwards, however, received a communication from him of still greater importance. Though a friend to the revolution in France, as appears from the preceding letter, yet his sentiments on that subject seem to have been materially changed, when he saw the dangerous extent of ambition which Bonaparte exhibited. As Mr Jefferson was supposed to be fixed in his enmity to Great Britain, I could not prevail on our ministers to believe, that he could feel the least wish favourable to the preservation of the prosperity of England.

No. 3.

Washington, June 30. 1803. DEAR SIR, It is so long since I have had the pleasure of writing to you, that it would be vain to look back to dates to connect the old


and the new, yet I ought not to pass over my acknowledg-
ments to you for various publications received from time to
time, and with great satisfaction and thankfulness. I send
you a small one in return, the work of a very unlettered far-
mer, yet valuable, as it relates plain facts, of importance to
farmers. You will discover that Mr Binns is an enthusiast
for the use of gypsum; but there are two facts which prove
he has a right to be so; 1. He began poor, and has made him-
self tolerably rich by his farming alone. 2. The county of
Loudon, in which he lives, had been so exhausted and wasted
by bad husbandry, that it began to depopulate, the inhabitants
going southwardly, in quest of better lands. Binn's success
has stopped that emigration. It is now becoming one of the
most productive counties of the state of Virginia, and the price
given for those lands is multiplied manifold.
We are still uninformed here whether you are again at

Buonaparte has produced such a state of things in Europe, as it would seem difficult for him to relinquish in any sensible degree, and equally dangerous for Great Britain to suffer to go on, especially if accompanied by maritime preparations on his part. The events which have taken place in France have lessened, in the American mind, the motives of interest which it felt in that revolution, and its amity towards that country now rests on its love of


and commerce. We see, at the same time, with great concern, the position in which Great Britain is placed, and should be sincerely afflicted were any disaster to deprive mankind of the benefit of such a bulwark against the torrent which has for some time been bearing down all before it. But her power and prowess at sea seem to render every thing safe in the end. Peace is our passion; and though wrongs might drive us from it, we prefer trying every other just principle of right and safety, before we would recur to war.

I hope your agricultural institution goes on with success. I consider you as the author of all the good it shall do. A better idea has never been carried into practice. Our Agri

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cultural Society has at length formed itself. Like our American Philosophical Society, it is voluntary, and unconnected with the public, and is precisely an execution of the plan I formerly sketched to you. Some State Societies have been formed heretofore; the others will do the same. Each State Society names two of its members of Congress to be their members in the Central Society, which is of course together during the sessions of Congress. They are to select matter from the proceedings of the State Societies, and to publish it, so that their publications may be called, L'Esprit des Societés d'Agriculture, &c. The Central Society was formed the last winter only, so that it will be some time before they get under weigh. Mr Madison, the Secretary of State, was elected their President.

Recollecting, with great satisfaction, our friendly intercourse while I was in Europe, I nourish the hope it still preserves a place in your mind; and, with my salutations, I pray

you to accept assurances of my constant attachment and high - respect


I accidentally found my answer to this important communication, which I beg leave to subjoin :

DEAR SIR, On various accounts I received with much pleasure your obliging letter of the 30th of June last, which only reached me at this place on the 19th of November. I certainly feel highly indebted to Mr Binns, both for the information contained in the pamphlet he has drawn up, and also for his having been the means of inducing you to recommence our correspondence together, for the purpose of transmitting a paper which does credit to the practical farmers of America.

As to the plaster of Paris which Mr Binns so strongly recommends, it is singular that whilst it proves such a source of fertility with you, it is of little avail in any part of the British

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