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arts, la Société d'Agriculture, fut établi en 1793, d'après le plan de M. de Saint Clair, qui en a été le premier President. Il doit en être regardé comme le fondateur; car c'est à son zèle, à sa perseverance, et à ses lumières, qu'on dut l'applanissement de tous les obstacles, et la protection du Gouvernement. Le Parlement approuva l'etablissement de la société, et lui accorda L. 3000 pour ses depenses. L'objet du fondateur de cette société était, conformement aux vues de Bacon, de faire de l'agriculture une science, et d'en rendre les principes populaires. C'est vers ce grand but qu'il a dirigé tous les travaux de la société, et il est generalement reconnu qu'elle a eu la plus heureuse influence. Elle s'est occupé de tous les objets interessans de l'economie rurale, et specialement de ceux sur lesquels la pratique nationale était defectueuse. C'est à elle qu'on doit surtout le perfectionnement des races de moutons qui produisent de belles laines;

Government obtained. The Parliament also approved of the establishment of the Society, and voted it a grant of L.3000 to defray its expenses. The object of the founder of this Society was, in accordance with the views of Bacon, to make agriculture a science, and to render its principles popular. It was to this end that he directed all the efforts of the Society, and it is generally acknowledged to have had the happiest influence. The Society paid attention to all matters connected with rural economy, and especially those in which the national practice was defective. It is to it that we owe, in particular, the perfection of that race of sheep which produces the finest wool; and the custom recently introduced, of cultivating the ground with two instead of four horses, a custom of which kings themselves have set the example, in their estates at Windsor and Fitzhead, &c. The offer of premiums is the mode of encouragement which the Society has adopted. It has been blamed for having published a number of expensive works, which can only be of use to rich farmers, and for having neglected to distribute practical treatises over every corner of the world. But it would seem the Society prefers leaving to private persons the care of making the treatises generally read, reserving to itself to bestow approbation upon those who appear to merit the preference. It is thus the Society has acted in regard to the New Farmer's Calendar, which is now-a-days the manual of every labourer.

Sir John Sinclair being the founder of the Society, one would have thought that he would have always retained the Presidency; but to the great surprise of This all the nation, a successor has been appointed, in the most illiberal manner. is to be attributed to a spirit of paltry revenge on the part of the former Ministry, who expected to find in him a servile instrument of their views, and who could not pardon his political moderation and independence of opinion. Sir John Sinclair is one of the most enlightened political economists which England has produced. His History of the Public Revenue of Great Britain contains a crowd of facts unknown or forgotten, and a great number of useful and profitable views. The Statistical Picture of Scotland will henceforth serve as a model to those who may write upon statistics. The rules there given at once lessen the labour and ensure precision.

l'usage, nouvellement introduit, de labourer les terres avec des bœufs au lieu de chevaux, pratiques dont le roi lui-même a donné l'exemple dans ses fermes de Windsor et de Fitzhead, &c. Les primes sont le mode d'encouragement que la société a adopté. On lui a reproché d'avoir publié nombre d'ouvrages coûteux, qui ne peuvent qu'être à l'usage de fermiers riches, et d'avoir negligé de repandre de traités pratiques à la porte de tout le monde; mais il parait que la société prefère de laisser aux particuliers le soin de faire des traités generaux, en se reservant de donner son approbation à ceux qui lui paraissent meriter la preference. C'est ce qu'elle a fait à l'égard du Nouveau Calendrier du Fermier, qui est aujourd'hui le manuel des laboureurs.

M. de Saint Clair étant le fondateur de la société, on croyait qu'il conserverait toujours la presidence ; mais, à la grande surprise de toute la nation, on lui a donné tout à coup un successeur, de la manière la plus illiberale. Ce fut l'effet d'une basse vengeance des anciens ministres, qui avait cru trouver en lui un instrument servile de leurs vues, et qui ne peuvent lui pardonner sa moderation politique et sa manière de penser independante. M. de Saint Clair est un des hommes les plus eclairés en economie politique qu'ait produit l'Angleterre. Son Histoire du Revenu Publique de la Grande Bretagne contient une foule de faits, inconnus, ou oublies, etun grand nombre de vues utiles, dont a profité; et les tableaux statistiques de l'Ecosse serviront désormais de modele à ceux qui écriront sur la statistique. Les regles qu'il a données, en même temps qu'elles facilitent ce travail, en assurent l'exactitude.

No. VI.

STATISTICAL CORRESPONDENCE.

Paris, le 7th Messidor an 10.

L. J. P. Ballois, Redacteur des Annales de Statistique, à Monsieur
John Sinclair, Chevalier Baronet, et Membre du Parlement de la
Grande Bretagne.

MONSIEUR*,

Vous connaissez l'importance des recherches statistiques, et vos travaux dans cette science utile ont déjà beaucoup contribué aux ses pro

* Translation.

SIR,

Paris, 7th Messidor an. 10. You are aware of the importance of statistical researches, and your labours

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grès. Je puis donc espérer que vous voudrez bien agréer l'hom- . mage que j'ai l'honneur de vous faire des trois premières cahiers d'un ouvrage périodique que je publie à ce sujet sous les auspices de Gouvernement Français. Cet ouvrage est destiné spécialement à presenter le tableau réel de ma patrie, sous tous les rapports qu'embrasse la Statistique. A ce titre, Monsieur, je ne crois point indigne de quelque intérêt ; et le plus ardent de mes vœux seroit que vous en prissiez vousmême une opinion favorable.

J'ai inséré dans le dernier nombre votre Essai sur la Longévité, dont vous avez adressé des exemplaires au Ministre de l'Interieur. Cet écrit, qui seul suffiroit à l'eloge de votre cœur et de votre esprit, provoque des réponses justes et precises de la part des personnes qui s'occupent de la matière que vous traitez. Permettrez-vous, Monsieur, que ses réponses soient publiées par la voie de mon journal ? Trouverez-vous bon qu'il s'ouvre entre vous et moi une correspondance suivie à ce sujet ? 11 me semble que de telles communications peuvent conduire à des resultats eminemment utiles à l'humanité; et l'accord de la

in the cause of this useful science have already greatly contributed to its progress. I am therefore disposed to believe that you will receive with pleasure the three first sheets of a periodical work which I now do myself the honour of sending to you, and which I publish upon this subject under the auspices of the French Government. This work is especially intended to represent the real condition of this country, in every thing connected with statistics. In this respect, Sir, I do not think it undeserving of some attention; and my most ardent desire is, that you should form a favourable opinion of it.

I have inserted in the last number your Essay on Longevity, of which you sent copies to the Minister of the Interior. This production, which alone would justify the highest opinion both of your head and heart, has called forth candid and distinct answers from the persons acquainted with the matter of which you treat. Will you permit me, Sir, to publish these answers through the medium of my Journal? Will it be agreeable to you, that you and I should open a correspondence upon this subject? It appears to me that such communications would conduct to results eminently useful to mankind; and the union of philanthropy and patriotism ought always to form the honourable distinction of generous and liberal minds.

I take this opportunity of inclosing a letter written by the Minister, in answer to yours of the 24th of May. I also add some copies of your work, drawn up separately by order of the Minister, and circulated through every department of the republic. I am sincerely rejoiced at having it thus in my power to prove to you the esteem and veneration with which you have inspired my countrymen ; and for myself in particular, I beg you will believe how deeply I am impressed with these sentiments.

L. J. S. BALLOIS.

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philantropie et du patriotisme doit faire toujours l'honorable distinction des ames genereuses et liberales.

Je vous remets ci-joint, Monsieur, une lettre que vous écrit le Ministre, en réponse à la vôtre du 24 Mai. J'ajoute à cet envoi quelques exemplaires de votre ouvrage tire separément par ordre du Ministre, et répandu dans tous les departmens de la république. Je me felicite bien sincerement de l'heureuse occasion que j'ai rencontrée de vous offrir quelque preuve de l'estime et de la veneration que vous inspirez à mes compatriotes, et à moi en particulier, Monsieur, je vous supplie d'en être persuadé.

L. J. P. BALLOIS.

No. VII.

Sir John Sinclair's Letter to Mr Ballois, dated 31st January 1803.

To Monsieur L. J. P. Ballois, Redacteur des Annales de Statistique,
Membre de l'Academie de Legislation, Quai de Horloge de Palais,
No. 42, à Paris.

SIR,

During the course of last summer and autumn, my time was entirely dedicated to the carrying on a variety of agricultural improvements on my estates, which are situated in the most northern county or district in Scotland, within sight even of the Orkney Islands: But having now returned to this metropolis, with the view of again directing my attention to public business, and to literary pursuits, I take the earliest opportunity in my power, of acknowledging the receipt of your obliging letters of the 7th Messidor, and 7th Fructidor, and also the other communications with which you have favoured me.

After the very flattering reception which my works have met with in France, it is impossible for me not to embrace the first opportunity that lies in my power of visiting that country, and of thanking in person, not only such distinguished literary characters, as have honoured me with their good wishes, but also that respectable statesman who, with an unexampled spirit of liberality, has, in his official situation, as a Minister of the Interior, had the goodness to place my political inquiries under his immediate protection. Indeed, a visit to France is indispensably necessary for my pursuits; for if Germany may be called the literary stomach or digestive organ, France and England may be justly accounted the two scientific breasts, of Europe.

In these two countries, almost the whole knowledge of the world is centered. Hence it is impossible to be thoroughly master of any subject, without being well acquainted with all the information which each can furnish, comparing the results together, and discussing each topic with the many intelligent men they respectively produce.

The particular subjects of inquiry, which I shall have in view in the excursion I hope it will be in my power to take to your great metropolis, are four, namely, Agriculture, Finance, Statistics, and Longevity.

1. Agriculture.—I consider agriculture, to so great a degree, the true basis of political society, that it is a duty incumbent on every government to place it on the most respectable footing, and to ascertain the true means of rendering it as perfect as possible. Without food, even a single individual cannot long exist. How is it possible then, for great communities, which are composed of multitudes of individuals, to prosper, unless that sine qua non, or essential requisite, can be procured in quantities sufficient to supply every necessary demand? How fortunate were it, if the great rivalship between France and England, in future, were to be, which of them should best cultivate the soil, and feed a numerous and happy body of people, with abundance of wholesome articles.

2. Finance.—Both the power and the happiness of every nation must, in a great measure, depend on the system of finance it has established. Its power must arise, from the quantum of treasure brought into its exchequer, either for carrying on war, or promoting the improvements of peace; and its happiness must depend on the public treasury, not being replenished or enriched by oppressive and vexatious taxes, which have occasioned more revolutions than almost any other circumstance that can be mentioned. With the view of laying the foundation for understanding that important subject, I wrote the History of the Public Revenue of the British Empire, tracing our financial system from the remotest antiquity to the present era; a translation of which, I understand, is printing in the French language, accompanied with eulogiums, which I am afraid the work itself will not be found to merit. I wish now, however, in addition to that history, to give a general view of all the sources of public revenue, and have already collected a great mass of materials for that important undertaking. I subjoin a table of the contents; and I already anticipate the advantage I shall derive, from discussing the topics therein mentioned, with the many intelligent men whom France possesses, in that, as well as in every other department of science.

3. Statistics.-What shall I say regarding this favourite topic, which embraces every object of real utility to man as a social being,

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