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his view as moral responsibility; light of day, and others he hid in the much less a state of probation for shade; some were continually watered, eternity: we go, it seems, where

and their growth encouraged by richly

manured soil. The harvest, looked for we are led or driven; and it is no

with so much interest, at leogth arrived, fault of ours if we go ever so far

but it was again prickles of varied astray. To prove that we do not forms and dimensions ; and his most exaggerate the monstrous nature sanguine hopes were disappointed. He of Mr. Owen's opioions on these now turned his thoughts to other super. points, we shall quote two passages natural powers, and from each change from the Report before us, by way he anticipated at least some approximaof specimen of the general tendency tion of the prickle towards she grape. of bis sytem.

Seeing, however, after every trial that

the thorns which he planted still yielded . « One of the most general sources of him no fruit, he felt his utmost hope and error and of evil in the world, is the do

expectation exhausted. He concluded tion that infants, children, and mea, are

that the power which created the soil, agents governed by a will formed by had ordained that it should produce themselves, and fashioned after their only prickles, and that the grape would own choice. It is, however, as evident one day or other, and in sone way or as any fact can be made to man, that other, be an after-production from the be does not possess the smallest control

seed of the thorn. Thus, with a per over the formation of any of his own

petual longing for the grape, and with faculties or powers, or over the peculiar

a soil admirably adapted for the cultiand ever-varying manner in which those vation of vines that would produce the powers and faculties, physical and most delicious fruit with a thousandtḥ mental, are combined in each indivi- partof the anxiety, expense, and tropble, dual." Report, p. 41.

which he bad bestowed on the thorn, And again :

he now in a dissatisfied mood endeavoar. “The condnct of mankind may noted to calm his feelings ; and if possible, nnaptly be compared to that of an io. to console himself for the want of predividual, who, possessing an excellent sent enjoyment, with the contemplasoil for the purpose, desired to raise

tion of that distant better fortape wbich grapes, but was ignorant of the plant. he hoped awaited him. Having imbibed a notion which had " This is an accnrate picture of what taken deep root in his mind, that the

human life has hitherto been. Possess. thorn was the vide, he planted the for

ing, in buman nature, a soil capable of mer, watered and cultivated it, but yielding abundantly the product which it produced only prickles. He again

man most desires, we have, in our igno. planted the thorn, varying his mode of rance, planted the thorn instead of the cultivation, yet the resnlt was still the vine. The evil principle, which has same. A third time he planted it, ap. been instilled into all minds from in plying, now, abundance of manure, and

fancy, that the character is formed bestowing increased care on its culti- by the individual,' has produced, and, vation ; but in retom, his thorus only so long as it shall continue to be cheriskproduced him prickles stronger and ed, will ever prodnce, the same unwelsharper than before.

come harvest of evil passions,-batred, "Thus bafied, be blamed the sterility revenge, and all mpcharitableness

, and of the ground, and became convinced

the innumerable crimes and miseries to that human agency alone conld never

which they have given birth; for these raise grapes from such a soil;—but he are the certain and necessary effects had no other. He therefore sought for of the institutions which have arisen supernatural assistance, and prayed among mankind, in consequence of the that the soil might be fertilized. His nniversally received, and long coerced hopes being now revived,' he again belief in this erroneous principle.” planted the thorn-applied himself with Report, pp. 56, 57. redoubled industry to its culture, and

If these doctrines, or any thing anxiously watched the hourly growth of his plants. He varied their training approaching towards them, be true, in every conceivable manner; some he nothing can be more absurd than bent in one direction, and some in the whole scheme of the Gospel. mother: he exposed some to the full So far from “ the depravily of man” being, as Mr. Ramsay scrip: the junction is perfectly natural. turally contends, the source of In the case of Hone, in his parodies, every practical evil,-80 far from for example, a political object was the corruptness of the fruit pro- aimed at, but religion was made to ceeding from a corrupt root, the suffer with a view to its altainment. very contrary is the fact. The tree Aod in like manner, throughout the is, in every instance, good and vigor- whole mass of blasphemous and seous till some blight or canker hap- ditious publications, which lately pening to lay hold of a remote leaf inundated the country, our prinor twig, spreads by degrees its ciples of duty to God, and to civil ravages downward, and contami- rulers, were indiscriminately assailnates the root! We shall not at ed; and the book that inculcates present argue the question with them, was ridiculed and traduced, Mr. Owen, because we have other in order to get rid of both of them matters to hasten 10; besides which, together. True Christians, it was the principal arguments we should soon perceived, could not be disemploy could have no weight with loyal in accordance with their proa writer who holds the opinions fessed principles; and the fact corpromulgated in this Report. We responded with

the theory,--for the are, however, anxious to present a bettors of disloyalty found the the subject to the serious consi- religious poor proof against all deration of many professedly or- their artifices; so that there remainthodox Christians, who, for want ed no other means to render them of duly considering the assertions tumultuary and seditious, but to of Scripture respecting the extent sap those scriptural principles of human depravity and original sin, which taught them to fear God, to unconsciously fall into much the bonour the king, and to meddle not same system, and who virtually neu- with them that are given to change. Iralize, though they do not expresso Christianity, as our author ap. ly reject, the docirine in question. propriately remarks, bas, from iis Earnestly do we wish that it were first promulgation been encounadequately felt by all our clergy tered by those who, from wickedin particular, how essentially ne- ness, or prejudice, or vanity, were cessary is a knowledge of the ex- led to oppose its progress. But of tent of man's natural corruption, late years this opposition has been to the right inculcation even of the of a peculiarly injurious character; most common moral virtues. Every it has not been confined to men of evil being thus traced to its true education, but bas sought to bring source, the value and appropriate. over the passions of tbe populace, ness of the remedies prescribed in and to make up by numbers and Scripture would be more fully felt; outcry what it wanted in argument: aod as it is with the heart ibat The anti-Christian efforts of the man believeth unto righteousness," infidel party in France, prior to with the heart would every teacher the Revolution, are too familiar to of religion begin, both in urging need recapitulation. From France, the truth of Christianity and in the fame spread to Germany, and enforcing its spirit.

other parts of the continent; and Mr. Ramsay's next specification plays, novels, scientific journals, applies tnore closely to the imme- periodical publications, and even diale object of his argument. He the books of children, were put traces the infidelity of the present in requisition to disseminate the times, as a second cause, to the ex. principles of infidelity. Our own lensive circulation of irreligious country did not escape ; from Paine and seditious publications. The 10 Carlile, sedition and irreligion writer is quite correct in ibus liak- have had their sworn champions ; ing irreligion and sedition together; and though we are unwilling to be. lieve that anti-Christjan principles the paths of error, and to maintain have taken such extensive root as

consciences void of offence towards God is by many persons supposed to be and towards man. It should never be

forgotten, that the less ons of religion, to tbe fact, it is quite clear that the

be taught successfully, must first be failure has noi originated in any written in the lives of the teachers in deficiency of zeal or obstinacy on characters of efficient holiness, and that the part of their abettors.

the language of inspiration is too seriUnder this second head of his ous, and 100 awful, to be made use of argument, Mr. Ramsay has thought for the parpose of mirth or entertain it his duty to pass a strong censure

ment. If the higher ranks wish to upon the popular writer of the make the poor better, they should endeaWaverley Novels. As we intend, wise their wishes will be fruitless, and

vour to become better themselves; otherbefore long, to lay before our

all their labours will terminate in disapreaders our ideas at large upon pointment. Theyshould never forget that this subject, we shall give place for religion is the great learning of the poor; the present to our author, whose a learning not to be committed to the mesentiments are as follow:

mory only, but to be vitallyimpressed on

the heart and conduct." pp. 14, 15. « And here I cannot help taking no.

Mr. Ramsay's third specification tice of the work of an ingenious author,

relates to the mode in which eduwho stands unrivalled in fictitious nar

cation is now conducted. He states, rative. The author of one of those publications lately so much read and speaking we presume of Scotland, admired, may probably be well affected where his pamphlet was published, to the government of the country, both that in the higher classes, children civil and ecclesiastical, and may be dis- are trained up in the fear of God; posed, ou all proper occasions, to lend and that good morals, and an abhis aid in maintaining peace and good horrence of impiety and a revoluorder. He may speak too with indig. tionary spirit, are diligently incolpation of the attempts which the de.

cated ;- that is, at home, for at the sigoing and the profligate are making to

Scotch colleges and higher semiexcite discontent among the people,

naries of education, there has been and to urge them to acts of violence and rebellion; but it would not be easy to

often, of late years, great negligence, discriminate between the real character

to say the very least, in instilling of Mr. Hone's publications, and the per true Christian principles among the petual use made, in the work alluded to, students. In the case of the poor, of some of the finest passages of the the author considers the changes book of inspiration, to assist the delinea- in education to have been entirely tion of one of his characters, and to

for the worse. He remarks: serve as the medium of his ill-timed and unhallowed ridicule.

" But it is chiefly in conducting the “ It would be endless to attempt to education of the lower orders that we point out, and characterize the different find religious instruction neglected, and publications of an irreligions, an im. the progress of infidelity promoted. moral, or seditions tendency, that have Formerly, the great object of educalately issued from the press. Our coun. tion among the poor was to make their try is full of them : they are in every children religious, virtuous, and induslibrary, and I may say in almost every

trions; to teach them to read the Bible, house. And it becomes those wlio oc- that thereby they miglit know the will casy high official situations, and those of God, and become acquainted with who are the guardians of religion, to see the means of obtaining everlasting life. that the means which have been em- To the attainment of this object, the ployed to enable the whole mass of the attention of both parents and teachers community to read and understand the was directed. They both laboured to Bible, be Dut perverted to the purposes impress the young with religious sentiof impiety, sedition, and disorder. It is ments, and to put them in possession of not enough that the people be taught to that treasure of Divine truth and knowread; they should be taught to fear God ledge which the volume of inspiration and keep his commandments, to shun contains. The books which were put

CHRIST, OBSERV, No. 242. 0

into their hands were chiefly the Scripë far removed from a humble and intures, and the Shorter Catechism of our genuous reception of the principles church. And though by no means the

and precepts of the Gospel, as the most proper, when viewed' merely as

actual rules of faith and practice. Tu books of elementary instruction, yet iruth, we may remark of most large the advantages resulting from the perusal of them more than compensated

for schools, whether for rich or poor, all the disadvantages with which the that religious knowledge, rather than use of them was attended. The busi- religious duty, is the object of soliciness of our schools was always conduct: tude. This subject is one of great ed with prayer; and in almost every moment, especially at a time when cottage family worship was maintained.

so large and increasing a portion Thus pnblic and private education

of the population of these kingunited to promote one great object, doms is under the process of the religions improvement of the yonng, education; for on the character tbe good effects of all which have for ages been remarked in the character of of the education thus widely bethe peasantry of Scotland, and have ex. stowed, will depend its good or cited the envy and admiration of sur.

bad effects. For the poor to be surrounding nations.

able universally to read, will not “ But the education of the poor is now necessarily be a benefit either to on a different footing. They are tanght themselves or to others. The reto read more according to rule and

sult will dépend upon

the way

in method, and go through such branches

which their knowledge is acquired; of education as are necessary to fit the principles inculcated, and the tbem for the situations which they may

habiis formed during its acquirebe called to occupy. But there is too great a want of the sacred unction of meni; and the ends to which it is religion. In many of our schools, till directed.

To know, as a mere very lately, when the Church was ob- fact, who was Jesus Christ, will do liged to interfere, the Scriptures were more moralize or christianize the excluded, and the Assembly's Shorter húman soul, than to know who was Catechism completely set aside. In Pharaoh or Nebuchadnezzar. A country parishes, care is generally religious education what the taken that the intention of the legis- exigence of these times, and indeed lature with regard to the religious edu.

of all times, demands; and hence, cation of the young shall not be entirely frustrated ; and many of the teachers among other reasons, the high opiare not wanting in their endeavours to vion we have always entertained of promote this important object.

the importance of Sunday Schools ; “ It is, however, a melancholy fact, a topic on which we forbear to that in many instances religion is very enlarge, as we mean to devote a little attended to either in our schools paper expressly to it in our préor academies.” Inquiry, pp. 17-19. sent Number. We have, however,

placed at the head of this article In England, the state of facts is a little publication on that topic somewbat different from this de

from the press of the sister kingscription of affairs in Scotland; dom of Ireland, which we recomfor among us the education of the mend our readers to consult, in poor, as respects religiou, is often order to see how the friends of better conducted than that of education there, as well as in Engthe rich. Very few of the sons land and Scotland, think on this of our nobility and gentry, at our vital point. The work abounds in great academical institutions,could valuable suggestions, and does successfully contend with the chil- great bonour to its compilers. dren of their father's tenants and Happy indeed should we be to hear labourers, at a well conducted that the children of the misguided national school. The “ romantic peasantry of that country were gefondness” acquired for our civil or perally under a course of educaecclesiastical establishments at the tion upon the principles exhibited public seminaries of the land is often in this publication; and far from

thinking, with some persons, that have we always found there the Bible ihere has been too great precipi- in the hands of the learner ; or a pions tation in the benevolent friends of Christian in the person of the teacher? Ireland, either here or on the other If pot, and if we have often visited side of the Channel, in under that writing, and accounts, and read.

such places, we must have observed taking the great work that lies being for reading's sake-compounding fore ibem, our chief cause of grief letters, syllables, and words of empty and alarm is, that it has been so sound, or worse than empty sound, from long neglected, and so inadequate- Whatever book the learner bappens to ly commenced. Let the enemies be possessed of, form 100 frequently of Sunday Schools, whether in Ire. the course of stndy in snch schools. land or elsewbere, consider well Then why bid the young peasant seek the following statements :

no other principles than these-no in.

struction but there? But wbither, in “ The design of Sunday-schools is, to fine, should we send him? Should we, teach the lower orders, what they have indeed, leave him any louger without too often no other, or no regular, op. resource; destitute of all means and portunity of learning,—and what facts opportunity of learning those princiand experience prove that they have ples of right, for whose violation we not hitherto in general learned,

the may afterwards, as magistrates or jurors, great truths and precepts of Christiani. condemn him to the gallows-of whose ty; to train them up in early principles violation we ourselves may bereafter be of religiou, habits of regularity, pro- the victims? To provide a practical priety, and cleanliness; to enlighten answer to these questions, and an effectheir understandings, ameliorate their qual remedy for this melancholy, long morals, and soften and civilize their felt, and long adınitted want,-10 teach manners.

the simple truths and duties of religion " This object, it is evident, must be to the poor of every persuasion,-ibis equally desirable in all places,-town, is the object of Sunday.schools, village, or country; where there are

“And now, if it be asked, what are day schools, or where there are none;

the effects to be expected from these where there are manufactories, or where schools, and from tbis system altogether; there are none.

we reply, that from such a system, “ Whether a child has been idling made general, the benefits to be exthroughout the week, or employed at à pected, both here and hereafter, to inday-school, or at a manufactory, or individuals, as well as to society at large, the field, it is equally important that he are in every point of view incalculable. should be preserved from early babits

But without indulging in future specuof wasting, as well as of more openly lations, many of which canuot, perhaps, profaning, the Sabbath-day. Whether be duly appreciated on ibis side of eterhe bas been, during six days, learning pity, let us turn to facts, and consult to play, or to dig, or to weave, or to read past and present experience. The beit is equally important that he should nefits which have resulted, wherever on one day learn to read his Bible; the system has been properly supported, to know his duty, and his prospects, and persevered in, are practically such as a man and as a Christian; and to as it might appear exaggeration to de. understand those principles, which are

scribe. The testimony of those who to be his guide in after-life.

are resident in such places—and there “ Where there is no Sunday-school, are some even of the bigliest orders in what means bas he, in fact, of learning this country who can bear such testi. these principles and truths ? Is it froin mooy-is the best answer which can be his parents ? Alas! they know but little given to the question; and upon that of the state of Ireland who would send testimony the claim of Sunday-schools the children of our poor to their parents

to public encouragement may safely for instruction. Whither should we send them, then? To the neighbouring day.

“ The Sabbath, no longer wasted or school? Have we ever visited the place, profaned as the day for idle sports or inquired, or examined, what is taught and petty depredations, but becomingthere? Have we fouud religious instruc- ly appropriated to its inteuded objecttion in common spelling-books; or on the acquisition of religious knowledge, the writing-master's copper-plates? Or and the enjoyment of devotional fool



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