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and Teeterree, who conciliated the regard of so many persons in this country, the Committee regret that they have not a more favourable report to give. After a sixteen months' campaign, they brought back many prisoners, and many heads of those whom they had killed and eaten they made fearful havock; and they themselves say, that one ortwo more such desolating expeditions will exterminate the tribes which they attacked: such is the advantage which their fire arms give them.
At the date of the last advices, the unsettled state of the natives occasioned the delay of various plans for their benefit. The difficult circumstances of the mission had prevented that attention to 'schools which must prove, under the blessing of God, one of the main instruments of its success. It was, indeed, one of the evil effects of the disturbances, that the people became disinclined to send their children to learn any thing of the settlers. Shunghee declared that he wanted his children to learn to fight, not to read.
Cultivation was prospering, at the close of the year, at both settlements. Mr. W. Hall writes of Rangheehoo" I have a sufficient quantity of wheat growing to serve my house and family the year round, if nothing happens; besides several patches in different parts of the surrounding country among the natives." Mr. Butler says of the cultivation and buildings under his own inmediate care at Kiddeekiddee-" I have seven acres of wheat and six of barley and oats, growing at this time, all looking remarkably well. Our garden is full of a variety of vegetables, with many young fruit-trees, and an excellent bed of hops."
All the settlers concur in representing the field of labour in this mission to be vast indeed; and the prospect, until thus clouded and darkened, to have been highly encouraging. It has been shewn
that great numbers of the natives long earnestly for times of peace, and security, and are bent on availing themselves of the aid of Christians. The Committee are not, therefore, disheartened by present appearances; nor are the good men who have offered themselves to this service. One family has lately embarked from England for this mission under the hope of a favourable change of circumstances; and another is preparing for the same destination. May the blessing of God rest upon their labours!
West-Indies Mission.-The last return of the schools with which the Society is connected in the island of Antigua, states that there are 1625 boys and girls under instruction. In the Barbadoes charity school, the number of children is 44 free boys, 25 free girls, 40 slave boys, and 25 slave girls; making a total of 143: and the managing Committee state, that they have placed to trades and other occupations 56 children, who have completed their education since the establishment of the school.
North-West America Mission.— It has been before mentioned that the Society have established a new mission for the benefit of the Indians of North-West America. It has long been a subject of just anxiety, to better the condition of the inhabitants and native tribes of Indians in Hudson's Bay, and to afford them religious instruction. Some arrangements which have recently taken place, for the regulation of the fur trade, having restored tranquillity to all the country over which the Hudson's Bay Company have trading establisments, extendiug from Canada to the Pacific Ocean, and as far to the north as has hitherto been explored, opportunity is now afforded for every exertion; and all the parties who have influence in that country appear ready to render their cordial co-operation in the plans under consideration, for the extension of
religious instruction, civilization, and education over this immense extent of country. The Rev. Mr. West offered his services to the Society to establish schools; and the sum of 100l. was placed at his disposal for the year 1820, to enable him to make trial of the proposed plan. A letter from Mr. West, dated Red River Colony, June 4, 1821, states, that the Indians were willing to part with their children for the purpose of their being instructed; that he had several children under his care; that a school-house was nearly completed; and that many more children would be consigued to him, when the house was ready for their reception. The expense of provision for the children will every year be diminished, as the garden ground and land are brought into improved cultivation. The greater the number of children, the less will be the proportional expense. A hunter must, in the first instance, be attached to the establishment, in order to procure a supply of provisions. Twelve pounds per annum will be required for each child. A young man was taken out by Mr. West, who appears to have succeeded in his management of the Indian children, and to have reconciled them to civilized life and habits of industry. Mr. Garry, a member of the committee of the Hudson's Bay Company, lately visited the Company's territories in North America; and had the satisfaction of witnessing the improvements which have taken place in the morals of the inhabitants, from the religious instruction which had been afforded; and there is every
reason to believe that the various plans in contemplation can be carried into effect.
Mr. West is now appointed superintendent of the mission; another missionary will be sent to his assistance; the schoolmaster just referred to has been received into the service of the Society; and such a number of Indian children will be maintained and educated as circumstances may allow.
In the nine missions of the Society which have now been surveyed, there are about forty stations, with a number of schools dependent on them. These stations are occupied by about ninety Europeans, who have been sent sent out from this country to the different missions: of these thirty-two are ordained missionaries; twenty-four are the wives of missionaries; and the rest are teachers and settlers, male and female. Of native labourers, there are about one hundred and sixty; two of whom are ordained missionaries, and the others are readers, catechists, teachers, and assistants. The number of scholars, adults and children, caunot be exactly ascertained; but it appears, from the last returus, to be about ten thousand five hundred. "In various places," adds the Report, "churches have been built; and every year, converts are added to the Lord. The work is in truth, as yet, still but a work of preparation-except indeed in a few favoured spots, where the gracious out-pouring of the Holy Spirit has most strikingly shewn what blessed effects will follow wherever the arm of the Lord shall be revealed."
PRISON DISCIPLINE SOCIETY.
THE Society for the Improvement of Prison Discipline introduce their Fourth Report with some interesting explanatory remarks, to the following effect.
The Society is not constituted for the amendment of the criminal code; nor have its labours been, iu
any single instance, directed to this end. The Committee have hitherto scrupulously confined their exertions to the real objects of the Society-the improvement of prisondiscipline, and the reformation of juvenile offenders. Their attention has been occupied, not in a revi
sion of the law, but in the attempt
No charge can be more mistaken and unfounded, than that the plans recommended by this institution are calculated to introduce comfort into gaols. It is the conviction of the Committee, that the security and welfare of society demand the uniform punishment of crime, and that nothing less than penal inflictions will ensure public protection; but the measure of the punishment must be regulated by the character of the offence, the feelings of humanity, and the spirit of religion. The Committee recommend hard labour, and regular employment; and a system in which spare diet, occasional solitary confinement, habits of order and silence, seclusion from vicious associates, constant control, personal inspection, religious instruction, and moral restraint are steadily enforced. Such a discipline is calculated to deter, as well as to reform. It habituates to thought and industry; it breaks up old, and creates new, associations: and experience proves that this discipline is regarded with perfect abhorrence by criminals of every description.
Religious instruction, the Committee consider, forms an indispensable branch of prison discipline. Without reformation, the object of prison discipline cannot be attained: without religious impressions, reformation is utterly hopeless. The prevention of crime will never be effected by the influence of fear alone. In no Christian or civilized country has unmixed severity at tained this object. The criminal thus treated, be his offence what it may, experiences a feeling of injury; resentment is excited in his bosom, and the energies of his mind are exerted to resist coercion.
Others emulate his fortitude, instead of avoiding his crimes. This is the natural effect of severity on minds and uninfluenced by restraint. unimpressed with a sense of duty,
progress of improvement in prisons
than four thousand six hundred
hundred and seventy prisoners
bath Fields, the extensive machineIn the house of correction in Coldry for the employment of the pricompleted. Upwards of three hunsoners by the tread wheel is now dred prisoners may be kept in regular employment. This prison is over full. The state of the female prisoners calls earnestly for of nearly all descriptions of bad immediate attention: they consist characters convicted by the magistrates of the metropolis. The crowded state of the prison does not admit of their being classed: they have no matron, nor any female officers to attend them. Three thousand three hundred and seventy-nine prisoners were committed to this prison in the course of the year 1821.
at Abingdon, the prisoners are emIn the county house of correction ployed in the manufacture of sacking in all its branches, tarpaulins, and matting; for which a ready sale is invariably found. The use of irons, except in cases of refractory prisoners, has been discontinued at this and many other prisons.
At the Cambridge county gaol, operation during the last six months. a discipline mill has been in full The male prisoners work in two
compartments, and the period of labour is ten hours per day. There has not been one instance of a recommittal since the erection of the mill; before, returns were frequent. The house of correction at Winchester continues to be distinguished for good order and industry: the mills have been in active operation. The total amount of saving to the county, from the labour of the prisoners, for the last two years and three quarters, has been 20491. 4s. 6d. A school is attended daily, under the direction of the chaplain.
In the county gaol at Maidstone, a building is enlarging for the separate confinement of female prisoners: they will be placed under officers and attendants of their own sex; a plan which, it is trusted, will be generally followed throughout the country. In this prison, great attention is paid to the moral instruction of the prisoners. Schools for the adult as well as juvenile prisoners are formed in several of the wards, under the direction of the chaplain.
At the gaol at Rochester, debtors, felons, and misdemeanants, are indiscriminately confined together; and proofs are not wanting of the evils resulting from this neglect of classification and discipline. A and discipline. A young man, the son of honest parents, and whose moral character had hitherto been unsullied, was confined for a small debt. He had not been liberated longer than a month, before he was again committed as a criminal; and his ruin may be directly traced to the corrupt association to which he was exposed during his confinement. Two men were lately apprehended for robbing their master: one of whom, on his entrance, was admitted as king's evidence. He associated indiscriminately with the other prisoners; and when the trial came on, he refused to recapitulate his testimony: his accomplice escaped, and justice was defeated.
The house of correction at Brix
ton has been completed. Six treadwheels are here kept in constant operation; and the hard labour, and spare diet, combined with judicious regulations for the exclusion of the friends of the prisoners, have already rendered the name of Brixton a terror to offenders in the vicinity.
At the house of correction at Northallerton, the stepping-mill has produced a great effect. Such has been the diminution in the number of committals, that at times the mill is but half employed, from the want of prisoners to work it.
In many prisons, the practice still continues of using irons in ordinary cases, with a view of insuring the safe custody of the prisoners. The Committee are inclined to think that the security which irons afford has been greatly overrated. The use of fetters bas a tendency to relax the vigilance of prison officers; and probably, if the circumstances were examined, it would be found, that in a large proportion of cases in which the escape of prisoners has been effected, irons have actually been used. The custom of ironing prisoners was formerly very general. It is satisfactory to observe the gradual discontinuance of this practice, which is likely before long to be altogether exploded. At Newgate, at no very distant period, fetters were used in every yard: no irons are now to be seen, with the exception of those on capital convicts, who wear them not for security, but as a distinctive punishment. Few gaols in England are less secure than the Bridewell in Tothill Fields, where fetters were long deemed absolutely necessary; but even bere they are now altogether dispensed with; and it is to be regretted that they are not disused at several large prisons, which, in other respects, are well conducted, and where their discontinuance might reasonably have been expected. In the prisons to which the Committee refer, the practice is not confined to convicted prisoners: persons committed even
for trial, are also subjected to this unmerited mark of personal degradation. Blackstone remarks, "The law will not justify gaolers in fettering a prisoner, unless where he is unruly, or has attempted his escape;" and Lord Chief Justice King answered those who advocated the use of fetters as a security, "that they might build their walls bigher."-But if ironing a convicted prisoner be unwarrantable, how much more strongly is the custom to be condemned, when the untried are fettered? a practice not only contrary to law, but repugnant to every principle of justice and humanity.
Experience has fully confirmed the efficacy of the discipline treadmill; and the Committee feel assured that the labour which it ordinarily enforces, so far from being injurious, is highly beneficial to health. It induces moderate and uniform exertion in the open air, in an erect and unconstrained position of the body; weight, not force, being requisite in the operation. These salutary machines are now introduced into a considerable number of gaols, and are intended to be erected in many others.
In a late session of Parliament, a bill was passed for providing for the more effectual punishment by hard labour, in various cases of aggravated misdemeanors, and crimes below the degree of felony. It authorizes the courts of justice to unite hard labour with imprisonment.
The Commitee strongly recommend affording assistance to prisoners, who on their liberation are destitute,and whose conduct, during confinement, has been satisfactory. The period of discharge is one of great difficulty to the criminal, when a small sum is much needed, and is often essential to preserve him from want or crime.
At Newgate, the Ladies' Association for the improvement of the female prisoners, persevere in their arduous and important labours. Constant work is provided, and the
prisoners are uniformly instructed in religious and moral duty. The schools are in excellent order. A prison-dress has been recently allowed by the magistrates, at the suggestion of the Committee. The ladies have still to regret that the crowded state of the wards renders it impossible to confer on the prisoners the benefits which result from proper classification and inspection; increasing order and decorum prevail in the general demeanour of the prisoners; and there have been many encouraging instances of females, who, on their liberation, have fully proved that the kindness which they have experienced has not been lost, nor the instruction which has been imparted to them forgotten.
For the last twenty months, the ladies have kept an account of the number of convicted women, who, on being placed under their care, were found to have received some degree of education. From this register it appears that of 119 prisoners-being the whole number who were able to read-not one had attended a school on the British system, and one only had entered a national school: in this last case, the individual confessed that she had remained there but two weeks, so that it may fairly be excluded from the account. It also appears that but three had been in the habit of attending at Sunday schools. These simple facts speak volumes, and furnish incontestable proof of the supreme importance of religious instruction. When it is considered that the schools in question have been in extensive operation in the metropolis for many years; and that by far the greater proportion of the female convicts who enter Newgate are under twenty-five years of age, these circumstances are peculiarly deserving of notice, and strikingly evince the great value of these institutions.
The cordial disposition of the magistracy throughout the coun