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buted to my safety. This acknowledgment, however, is more particularly due to the female part of the nation. In all my wanderings and wretchedness, I have found them uniformly kind and compassionate; and I can truly say, as my predecessor, Mr. Ledyard, has eloquently said before me, To a Negroe woman I never addressed myself in the language of decency and friendship without receiving a decent and friendly answer. If I was hungry and thirsty, wet or sick, they did not hesitate, like the men, to perform a generous action. In so free and kind a manner did they contribute to my relief, that if I was dry, I drank the sweetest draught, and if hungry I eat the coarsest morsel, with a double relish."

These are the people whose progressive improvement will, I hope, ere long, vindicate the prophetic strain of one of our most beautiful and devotional poets:

But his mother's eye
That gazes on him from her warmest sky,
Sees in his flexile limbs untutored grace,
Power on his forehead, beauty in his face;
Sees in his breast where lawless passions rove,
The heart of friendship, and the home of love;
Sees in his mind, where desolation reigns,
Fierce as his clime, uncultured as his plains,
A soil where virtue's fairest flowers might shoot,
And trees of science bend with glorious fruit;
Sees in his soul involved in thickest night,
An emanation of eternal light,
Ordained midst sinking worlds his dust to fire,
And shine for ever when the stars expire.

But I must lay down my pen for the present; though I have much more to say on the subject, and shall resume it before I leave this place. I am, &c.

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of which the ancient writing had been obliterated, though not completely, to furnish vellum for the transcription of other productions. Some further discoveries of a similar kind in the Vatican Library were noticed in the Christian Observer for 1820, p. 129. But the most interesting of these discoveries are large portions of the Gothic version of the Scriptures. The particulars are detailed by Signor Maï, and his colleague Signor Castillionæi, in a work lately published at Milan, entitled, "Ulphilæ partium ineditarum, in Ambrosi anis palimpsestis, repertarum, specimen, &c." This publication is in Latin, and necessarily expensive; and very few copies have found their way to this country. Your readers, therefore, may not be displeased to see the following abridged account of this part of its contents taken from Mr. Horne's valuable "Supplementary Pages" to the third edition of his "Introduction to the Critical Study of the Scriptures," just published. Mr. Horne has accompanied his description by a very interesting and well-executed fac-simile of one of these codices rescripti.

The researches of M. Maï and his colleague have been rewarded with the discovery of five Codices Rescripti, containing portions of the Gothic version. They are as follow.

1. The first of these Gothic manuscripts consists of 204 pages, quarto, on vellum. The latter writing contains the Homilies of Gregory the Great on the Propheracter must have been executed cies of Ezekiel, and from the chabefore the eighth century. Beneath this, in a more ancient Gothic hand, are contained the following Epistles of St. Paul: Romans, 1st and 2d of Corinthians, Ephesians, Philippians, Colossians, 1st and 2d of Timothy, Titus, and Philemon; with a fragment of the Gothic calendar. Several of these Epistles are entire; of others only

fragments remain. The manuscript is apparently written by two different copyists; one of whom wrote more beautifully and correctly than the other; and various readings, in a smaller hand, may occasionally be traced in the margin. Entire leaves have been turned upside down by the re-transcriber.

2. The second manuscript, also quarto vellum, contains 156 pages. The Latin writing on it is of the eighth or ninth century, and comprises Jerome's exposition of Isaiah. Under this has been discovered, though with difficulty, on account of the thickness of the Latin characters and the blackness of the ink, the Gothic version of the Corinthians, 1st and 2d Galatians, Ephesians, Philippians, Colossians, Thessalonians (1st and 2d), and Titus.

3. The third manuscript is a quarto Latin volume, containing the comedies of Plautus, and Seneca's tragedies of Medea and Edipus. Under these Signor Maï has discovered fragments of the two books of the Kings, Ezra, and Nehemiah. This discovery is the more valuable, not only because not the smallest portion of the Gothic version of the Old Testament was known to be in existence; but because it refutes an idle tale repeated by Gibbon after preceding writers; namely, that Ulphilas suppressed the four books of Kings, lest they should tend to excite the fierce and sanguinary temper of his countrymen.

4. The fourth specimen is a single sheet, small quarto, containing four pages of St. John's Gospel, in Latin; under which are found the very fragments of the 25th, 26th, and 27th chapters of St. Matthew which are wanting in the celebrated manuscript of the Gothic Gospels preserved at Upsal, and usually known by the name of the Codex Argenteus.

5. The fifth is a volume of the proceedings of a council of Chalcedon, under which have been dis

covered fragments of ancient authors, and a fragment of a Gothic Homily, in which several passages of the Gospels are cited, apparently in a translation from some of the Greek fathers. D.

To the Editor of the Christian Observer. THAT prudence is essential to the completeness of the Christian character, will not be denied. He who "the bestowed upon His people spirit of power and of love," was also mercifully pleased to endue them with "a sound mind." And, as the great Apostle was himself preeminently distinguished by "sound wisdom and discretion," so he successfully employed every instru-. ment to conciliate the Jew, and to attract the Gentile.

There is one department of religious prudence, to which the attention of your readers has not, to the best of my recollection, been called by your numerous correspondents. I allude to the recommendation of religious books to persons avowedly hostile to the genuine spirit of (hristianity, or who may be said like Gal. lio,to "care for none of these things." I have myself perceived, in more than one instance, the unhappy effects of furnishing a friend or relation, with a "serious book," without first considering how far it may be calculated, by the blessing of God, to engage his attention, to soften his prejudices, and to "win" his mind to "the excellency of the knowledge of Christ Jesus our Lord." In the cases to which I allude, either the bluntness of the phraseology, the coarseness extravagance of the illustration, or the frequent use of such "experimental" terms (not to mention those which partake of a controversial character) as are wholly unintelligible to any but the established and advanced Christian, have at once repelled the reader, even before he could be said to have had the doctrine, which the well-meaning author intended to


maintain, fairly represented to him. So that it might, perhaps, be justly said, that it was not so much the essential principles of Christianity as the peculiar form which they assumed in an injudicious publication, that proved offensive to the mind of the reader, and defeated the salutary intention of his friend.

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It may be replied, that "the things of the Spirit of God are foolishness to the natural man,' and that this fact will sufficiently explain the circumstances which I have just stated. This proposition I fully admit in its fair scriptural extent; but I cannot assent to the conclusion intended to be derived from it. If of two treatises which develop with equal clearness and fidelity" the truth as it is in Jesus," the one is better calculated than the other to remove prejudices and to excite attention, doubtless an irreligious friend should be presented with that which is the more conciliatory and striking. In general, perhaps, those works which convey the doctrines of the Fallthe Crucifixion Justification by grace through faith-the renovation of the soul by "the power of the Holy Spirit," and, in a word, all that may unite the heart in love and gratitude to the Redeemer through the medium of a biogra

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phical memoir an historical narrative a book of travels, or interesting Christian poetry,—are more likely to gain admittance to the prejudiced or thoughtless mind, than publications which exhibit the same Divine truths in an express didactic form. For instance, the Christian Researches of a Buchanan or Jowett, or the Memoirs of Henry Martyn or Kirke White, are more likely, by the blessing of Him without whom nothing is strong or holy, to engage the affections of the youthful, or to soften the asperities of the prejudiced, mind, than Law's "Serious Call," or "Alleine's Alarm," or many excellent treatises which enter deeply into the spiritual life, warfare, and triumph of the matured Christian. Nor should we forget that even the classical predilections of an irreligious friend may very innocently guide our choice of a religious book to be presented to him.

I will only, in conclusion, recom. mend to the consideration of your readers, in reference to their con duct with worldly relatives and friends, that "He that winneth souls is wise;" together with the practice of an Apostle, "I have fed you with milk, and not with meat." Πισις.


The Conversation of our Saviour with Nicodemus illustrated; a Sermon, preached June 20, 1821, before the Annual Convention of the Protestant Episcopal Church, in the State of Massachusetts; with Notes, and an Appendix on Regeneration. By S. F. JARVIS, D.D. Rector of St. Paul's, Boston. Boston. 1822, pp. 76.

WE should scarcely perhaps be justified in reviewing the discourse

of Dr. Jarvis, if it were not from the great importance of the question which it involves, and our desire of marking from time to time the progress of the controversy respecting it. The sermon itself is not, we think, remarkably striking in its arguments, or clear in its arrangement; but it is followed by an appendix which contains some truly valuable observations, and the whole publication assumes a higher im portance from its expressing, as we

apprehend, the prevailing opinions of our brethren in the American Episcopal Church. It thus affords us the opportunity of observing the sentiments of a body of persons who, with a few unessential variations, subscribe the same articles, use the same formularies, and are subject to the same ecclesiastical polity as ourselves; and who, being unconnected with the parties which unhappily divide our English Church, may be considered in the light of umpires rather than of disputants. An impartial opinion from such a body must always be important, and especially at the present juncture, when the reviving piety and zeal of the clergy of our church, and the growing prevalence of a spirit of charity and brotherly love, afford strong indications of the increasing influence of the Holy Spirit of grace and truth among us.

perance.' When we feel these holy motions, we may be sure that the Spirit of God is breathing upon our hearts." PP 10, 11.

The sermon, as we have already intimated, is the least interesting part of the publication. It attempts to paraphrase the conversation of our Lord with Nicodemus, and then proceeds to offer some practical remarks. The most striking part of the illustrations of our Saviour's discourse, is the following.

"The wind," said he, " bloweth where it listeth, and thou hearest the sound thereof, but canst not tell whence it cometh, and whither it goeth: so is every one that is born of the Spirit. In our language, the illustration loses much of that beauty and force, which it has in the original, where the same word denotes both wind and spirit. The wind

is invisible, and superior to our control. We know nothing of its existence and its operations but by its effects. We see the clouds driven by its force; we hear it sighing among the leaves of the forest; we feel its refreshing coolness. Sometimes it seems to be suspended, and we should almost doubt of its exist ence, if we did not perceive the thistle's down to be floating gently along its current. It is so with the operations of the Spirit of God upon the soul of man. We know its presence by its effects. We are told that the fruit of the Spirit is love, joy, peace, long-suffering, gentleness, goodness, faith, meekness, tem

But this passage is followed by a sentence which we fear may lead to a spiritual indifference and selfconfidence, which the respected author would without doubt be among the first to deprecate.

"And even," says he," when the corrupting pleasures and occupations of the world have deadened its influence, and all that is holy seems to be expiring gentle, undulating motion, some solitary in the soul, there may still be some and some slight act of goodness, which will shew that the divine principle of life is not wholly spent, that the sinner may yet revive, and be saved from ever

lasting death." p. 11.

and Appendix, which mark a care We now proceed to the Notes tain several critical observations ful and diligent student, and .con" which throw much light on the great question to which they refer.

The first note to which our ap probation is drawn, is that which gives a summary (pp. 24-26) of the evidence for the practice of baptizing proselytes amongst the Jews. It is not original, but it is clear and perspicuous. The fourth note (p. 27.) also, on the various senses in which the words flesh and spirit are used in the New Testament, is learned, candid, and in the main satisfactory.

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Notes, forms the largest division of The Appendix, which follows the the pamphlet. It begins by a discussion of the precise import of the word Regeneration: it then endeavours to ascertain the meaning of the word Resurrection, and its connexion with

and it lastly shews the affinity of the preceding; several other expressions in the New Testament which relate to this subject, with the two words previously illustrated.

1. The exact import of the word madɩyyɛvɛoía, regeneration, is to be ascertained, according to our author, by determining what was the

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ordinary sense attached to it in the age and country in which the sacred writers lived; by examining the passages of the New Testament in which it occurs; and by consulting the ancient and modern commentators. This course is pursued with much patience and accuracy. The result of the investigation we give in our author's words.

"We have now examined the meaning of the term παλιγγενεσία, regeneration, as used by the sacred writers, according to the three rules of interpretation mentioned at the beginning of this dissertation. We have seen that as a term of Grecian philosophy it denoted in its proper sense the re-union, or state of re-union, of the same soul and the same body, after they had been separated by death; that in like manner it was employed by the Grecian Jews, according to their juster sentiments concerning the future state, to denote the final resurrection of the body, and its re-union with the soul; that in a metaphorical sense it was used by them to denote the renewed existence of things in this world, such as the state of the world after the deluge, or the state of the Jewish nation after they had been re. stored, as a body politic, at the termi nation of the Babylonish captivity. We have seen that there are two passages only in which the term occurs in the New Testament; that in one of these, it appears from the scope and design of the author, to be used in the metaphorical sense; that in the other, judging also from the context, it is somewhat doubtful whether it is in the metaphorical or the proper sense; but that in both, its general meaning is obviously the same as that in which it was understood by the Jews in general. And by an examination of many eminent commentators, ancient and modern, the learned of different nations, different ages, and different communions, we find that such has been the generally received interpretation of the universal church." pp. 58, 59.

It will be seen by this extract, that our author conceives the


per meaning of the word regeneration, to be the admission or translation into the state of glory which will take place at the resurrection of the righteous; and its metapho

rical sense to be the admission or translation into the state of grace which takes place, as he judges, at baptism, when rightly received. In each sense he limits the meaning to a change of state, and omits, or nearly so, that change of nature which our English divines have very generally included in their definition of it. We confess we prefer, in this view, Dr. Hammond's observation, as quoted by our author.

mond maintains, properly signifies a "The word aλıyyenesia, Dr. Hamnew or second state, which he supports by reference to the definitions of the Greek grammarians, and the use of the term by the Pythagoreans. In sacred resurrection, whether that of the future writers it is used,' he observes,' for the Christ is pleased to make preparative to being of body and soul, or that which it, the spiritual proselytism expressed and renovation of the soul and affecby that phrase, Titus iii. 5, the change of that work of Christ's, it is used for tions in this life, and as a token and sign baptism, that being born of water and the Holy Ghost, John iii.'” pp. 55, 56.

This seems to us to embrace the whole range of this vast subject, without weakening what is in fact the foundation of the entire fabric, the spiritual change of the heart and affections from sin and the world, to God. It is with sincere pleasure that we proceed to state, that Dr. Jarvis does not consider the grace of the Holy Spirit as invariably accompanying the outward act of baptism with water. His admissions on this point are so important, as to have formed one of our chief motives for noticing his publication.

"The question has been asked and discussed with considerable warmth, whether the Holy Spirit always accompanies the outward act of baptism with water. But it is one of those unprofitable questions, my brethren, which the that they do gender strifes. Is it not Apostle cautions us to avoid, knowing enough for us to know that in receiving the outward and visible sign' we receive the promise of the inward and ..spiritual grace;' and that nothing will

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