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instead of finding him an old bachelor, I should see him with a merry family of twelve or fifteen young people about him. Scenes like these have greatly impressed my mind with the equitable character of the arrangements of Divine Providence as respects soil, climate, and similar allotments, in which good and bad, convenience and inconvenience, are usually blended; and also to reconcile me to the atmosperical vicissitudes of Old England, where, if we have not the bright sky and luscious fruits of some of the south-western parts of the United States, neither have we pine barrens and jungle exhalations winged with fever, and putrescency, and death.
After purchasing a couple of horses for myself and my servant, I left Augusta on the 17th, with the intention of proceeding overland to Mobile or New Orleans. We were a little disconcerted, on rising early that morning, to find the rain falling in torrents. As it cleared up, however, about twelve o'clock, we determined to set out; and with our long-tailed greys, our saddle-bags, our blankets, and our pistols, we made, I assure you, no despicable appearance. After travelling about twenty-eight miles, we stopped for the night at Mrs. Harris's tavern, a small country inn by the way side. Two female Negroes were hand-picking cotton by the kitchen fire, where I took my seat, till I was unexpectedly invited to another room, where a fire had been made for me. The first question my landlady asked me was the price of cotton at Augusta; a question which was eagerly repeated wherever I stopped. Indeed, the fluctuations in this article came home to "the business and bosoms" of the poorest family, since every one is concerned more or less in its cultivation. While
my hostess poured out my coffee, I asked her if there were any schools in the neighbourhood. She said, Oh, yes; that there was an aca
demy to which her daughter went when cotton was thirty cents per pound; that she paid three hundred dollars per annum simply for board, and fifty more for learning the pi-a-no! but that, as cotton had fallen to fifteen cents she could not afford to buy an instrument, and supposed her daughter must forget her music. I could not help thinking of the farmer Mrs. Hannah More mentions in her last work, who said he had "Frenched his daughter, and musicked her, and was now sending her to Paris."
We set off at six o'clock the next morning, and went twelve miles to breakfast. Here, as usual, I found several books on the chimney-piece; among which were a Bible, a Testament, a Hymn-book, a book of Geography, Kett's Elements, Lord Byron's Poems, and the Life of Harriet Newell,-the last of which I found, from a note in a blank page, was a gift from the minister of the neighbourhood to the landlord's wife. I mention these books, as they form a sort of average of those which you generally find lying about in the country inns, and which are frequently merely stragglers from no despicable library in the landlord's bedroom. A pleasing young woman, the innkeeper's wife, sate down to make breakfast for me; and I greatly enjoyed this quiet tête-à-tête in the country, after the promiscuous assemblage of sixty or seventy persons at the taverns in the towns. In stopping to breakfast, however, in the Southern States, you must never calculate on a detention of less than two hours, as your entertainers will prepare dishes of meat or poultry for you, and both make and bake the bread after your arrival.
In the evening, about five o'clock, after travelling thirty-three miles, we arrived at Mr. Shirens's, a neat quiet house, on the Ogechee river. Mr. Shirens is a cotton planter, a miller, a farmer, and an innkeeper. I took a letter of introduction to
him, which secured me a good reception. As the following day was Sunday, I remained with this good John Anderson and his help meet, and their two generations of children, till Monday, but was disappointed to find there would be no service at their church. The minister preaches three Saturdays and Sundays at three churches a few miles distant; but, on the fourth, which was unfortunately the case when I was there, he is beyond their limits. I found out, however, a Negro congregation, who were to assemble in the woods, of which I have already sent an account. In returning from the spot where we had assembled, I passed the church, where, as is usual on those Sundays on which there is no service, there was a meeting of the young persons in the neighbourhood, for the purpose of singing psalms. I did not join them, but counted ninety-five horses under the trees, nearly onehalf of them with side-saddles; and yet the country, in passing through it, seemed by no means thickly settled, our road being on a pine ridge; but the Americans, although enterprising and migratory, have a great aversion to walking.
In the evening three rough back. woodsmen arrived from the Mississippi with a wretched account of the roads; the bridges over the creeks having been almost all washed away, and the swamps being nearly impassable. Their horses were quite exhausted; and they strongly urged me not to attempt the expedition. Had I seen them before I set out, I should probably have been discouraged, as they appeared to be hardy, resolute, and experienced foresters; but I was now determined that, nothing but very formidable obstacles should induce us to return. Heavy rains prevented our proceeding till eight o'clock the following morning; but we arrived at Milledgeville, the capital of Georgia, at half past five o'clock, thirty-six miles, after spending half an hour with Go
vernor --, who has a good house a few miles distant. We found with him two travellers, quite exhausted, who told us that for many days they had to swim their horses over most of the flooded creeks on the road which we were going. The Governor said that the freshes had not been so great since the celebrated Yayoo freshet, more than twenty years ago. From my window at the inn at Milledgeville I saw the remains of a bridge which broke down a fortnight since with a waggon and six horses upon it, all of which were lost. The Oconee is here nearly twice as broad as the Lune uuder Lancaster Bridge.
At Milledgeville there is a very handsome prison or penitentiary, which would do credit even to Gloucester; but the critical situation of the flooded creeks rendered it imprudent to stay to inspect it. And here I recollect that I omitted to mention, that in the Charleston and Savannah jails, besides numerous pirates, there were many slaves in confinement for not giving their masters the wages they had earned. In order that you may understand this, it is necessary to tell you, that when a person has more Negroes than he can employ, he frequently either lets them out on hire, or sends them to seek employment, bringing him a proportion of what they earn. Sometimes he will set them to obtain for him a certain sum per week, and allow them to keep the remainder. You will be surprised to learn, that children who are thus situated, generally prefer chimney sweeping, as they can earn more by this than by any other employment; at least so I was informed at Mr.
-'s plantation, while reading to the ladies after supper the miseries of climbing boys in England, in the last Edinburgh Review,-not indeed to reconcile them to the miseries of slavery, but partly to shew them that we do not expend all our critical castigation on their side of the Atlantic. This choice of the children does not speak much for
slavery, in which chimney-sweep ing is an object of competition, in order, perhaps, to avoid the stripes which would ensue if the required sum was not earned and paid in to the master. Still the system of allowing the Slaves to select their own work, and to look out for employment for themselves, notwithstanding the frequent hardship and injustice attending it, is a great step toward emancipation, and an admirable preparative for it; and may we not regard it as one of the avenues through which the African will ultimately emerge from his degraded condition, and arrive at the full enjoyment of his violated rights. Surely the warmest and most prejudiced advocates of perpetual slavery will not contend that a man who is capable of taking care of his family while compelled to pay his owner a premium for permission to do so, will become less competent to manage his concerns when exonerated from the tax, or that he will relax in his efforts to improve his condition, because a stranger no longer divides with him the fruit of his toil. Experience will doubtless prove that slavery is a state which cannot very long consist with a general diffusion of that consciousness of their own strength with which the habit of self-dependence will inspire the Negroes, and which, when combined with a large numerical superiority, must ensure ultimate success to their struggles for freedom. Earnestly is it to be hoped, that long before the arrival of such a crisis, the humanity and justice, or, if not, the self-interest, of the master will spare all parties the horrors usually attendant on such struggles, by laying the foundation for a safe and beneficial emancipation.
few acres of peach trees in full blossom. The cleared land, however, seldom extended into the forest above a few hundred yards from the road, and occurred but at distant intervals. Towards evening we passed six waggons conveying ninetySlaves belonging to General, from his plantation in Georgia, to his settle- . ment on the Cahawba in Alabama. I mention these little occurrences to put you more familiarly in possession of the habits of the country.
Fort Hawkins is a small quadrangle of wooden buildings, supposed, during the late war, to be of some importance in intimidating the Lower Creek Indians, some of whom took part with the British. The whole tract cleared for the fort and a house of entertainment for travellers, is perhaps half a mile square; and from the fort the eye looks down on an unbroken mass of pine woods which lose themselves on every side in the horizon about twenty miles distant.
We left Milledgeville at eight o'clock on the 21st, and arrived at Fort Hawkins, 32 miles distant, at 4 o'clock in the afternoon. In the course of the day, we passed several settlements, and occasionally our eyes were regaled with a
We left Fort Hawkins at seven o'clock on the 22d, having taken care to secure our breakfast, as we knew that we should not see a habitation till we arrived at our evening quarters. About a mile from Fort Hawkins we crossed the Oakmulgee, and entered the Indian nation of the Creeks. The Oakmulgee in conjunction with the Oconee, forms the Altamaha, and is the last river we crossed which empties itself into the Atlantic. In the course of the day we passed some Indians with their guns and blankets, and several waggons of emigrants from Georgia and Carolina to Alabama. We also saw many gangs of Slaves whom their masters were transporting to Alabama and Mississippi, and met one party returning from New Orleans to Georgia. We were astonished to meet this solitary party going against the stream. Their driver told me that their master had removed them to New Orleans, where they arrived three days before Christmas. In less than a fortnight
he found he did not like the place,
exciting the Indian warrior and Ne gro king to precipitate their nations into the horrors of war; but I en⚫ deavoured to dispel these melancholy feelings by the recollection of our Bible and Missionary Societies, and of that faithful band of veterans who, through evil report and good report, amid occasional success and accumulated disappointment, still continue the undismayed, uncompromising advocates of injured Africa.
We bade adieu to the Indian nation on the evening of the 28th, crossing Lime Creek, the western boundary, in a boat. We had travelled that day about 40 miles, and had passed as usual many large parties of emigrants, from South Carolina and Georgia, and many gangs of slaves. Indeed,at the edges of the creeks and on the banks of the rivers, we usually found a curious collection of sans soucis, sulkies, carts, Jersey waggons, heavy waggons, little planters, Indians, Negro horses, mules, and oxen; the women and little children sitting down frequently for one, two, or three, and sometimes for five or six hours, to work or play, while the men were engaged in the almost hopeless task of dragging or swimming their vehicles and baggage to the opposite side. Often a light carriage with a sallow planter and his lady would bring up the rear of a long cavalcade, and indicate the removal of a family of some wealth, who allured by the rich lands of Alabama or the sugar plantations on the Mississippi, had bidden adieu to the scenes of their youth, and undertaken a long and painful pilgrimage through the wilderness.
We left Lime Creek early on the 29th, and, after riding a few miles, arrived at Point Comfort; a fine cotton plantation, whose populous neighbourhood, and highly cultivated fields, reminded us that we were no longer travelling through a nation of hunters. Indeed, the appearance of oaks in the place of our pine woods, was indicative of a ma
terial change in the soil; and we soon opened on some of the beautiful prairies which you have frequently seen described, and which, as they were not large,reminded me of our meadows in the well wooded parts of England. As travellers, however, we paid dearly for the advantages offered to the landholders by the rich soil over which we were passing. Our road, which Our road, which had hitherto been generally excellent for travelling on horseback, became as wretchedly bad; and we passed through three swamps, which I feared would ruin our horses. They were about a mile long each; but we estimated the fatigue of crossing any of them as equivalent to at least 15 or 20 miles of common travelling. They were overshadowed with beautiful but entangling trees, without any regular tract through the verdure which covered the thick clay in which our horses frequently stuck, as much at a loss where to take the next step, as how to extricate themselves from the last. Sometimes they had to scramble out of the deep mire upon the trunk of a fallen tree, from which they could not descend without again sinking on the other side. Sometimes we were so completely entangled in the vines, that we were compelled to dismount to cut our way out of the vegetable meshes in which we seemed to be entrapped. These swamps are ten times more formidable than even the flooded creeks, over two of which, in less than three miles, we had this day to have our horses swum by Indians, whose agility in the water is beautiful. The traveller himself is either conveyed over in a boat, or, if the creek is very narrow, crosses it on a large tree, which has been so dexterously felled as to fall across and form a tolerable bridge. We slept that night at a poor cabin just erect ed, and setting off early on the 30th, and passing by Pine Barren Spring, and two very bad swamps, stopped to breakfast at a solitary house, where our host's talkative daughter made
breakfast for us. She could not refrain the expression of her surprize at the sight of a White servant, having never seen one before, and was much more astonished when I told her that the White and Black servants in my country eat at the same table.
We arrived in the evening at a few palings which have dignified the place with the appellation of Fort Dale, where travellers are accommodated tolerably on a flourishing plantation. Our landlord was an intelligent man; and among his books I saw the Bible, the koran, a hymn book, Nicholson's Encyclopedia, Sterne, Burns, Cowper, Cœlebs, Camilla,and the Acts of the Alabama Legislature, of which he was a member. The next morning we breakfasted at a retired house 20 miles distant, kept by one of three families who came out of Georgia two years since to settle and to protect each other. The husband of one of the party has since been shot by the Indians in the woods. He died in three hours after he was found weltering in his blood, and was attended by the woman who gave me the account. The wife of another of the party was murdered by the Indians a few days afterward when on a visit to some friends fifteen miles distant, where five women and four children were butchered and scalped; and the house of the narrator was soon afterwards burnt to the ground bythe same enemy, provoked probably by some injury or insult offered by travellers through their nation, which they would retaliate on the Whites whenever they had an opportunity. We passed in the afternoon by "Indian Path;" and about twilight arrived at Murder Creek, at deep glen, where we took up our abode for the night. The name sounded rather terrific, after the dismal stories we had heard in the day; but as the man and his wife, my servant, two travellers in a bed, and three in their blankets on the floor, all slept in the same room as myself, a single glance in any direction was suffi