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slaves. In the Dutch department the number attending was 194, of whom about 24 were slaves. The number of those at present attending, is, in the English department, 60, seven of whom are slaves; and, in the Dutch, 235, of whom 36 are slaves, and 199 free. Of these latter, 138 are of the Reformed Church, which is the old established religion of the colony, and 12 are Lutherans. Of the remaining 54, two are Hottentots, seveu the children of Mohammedan parents, and the remainder are generally the children of Slaves who bave obtained their freedom; but,though instructed at the school in the principles of the Christian religion, none of the latter have been baptized."
SOCIETY FOR PROMOTING CHRISTIAN KNOWLEDGE. To the particulars in our Number for May, from the Society's last Report, we add the following relative to its proceed. ings in India.
At Calcutta, a translation into Hindostanuee, of "Sellon's Abridgment of the Holy Scriptures," was advancing under the superintendance and revision of the Rev. D. Corrie. The Committee auticipate the means of very extensive good in the department of translating and printing from the Mission College, The circle to the southward of Calcutta has been completed by the addition of two schools, one at Russapugly, and the other at Ballygunge; both were filled almost as soon as opened; and the attendance of the children has continued undiminished. Other schools are in contemplation.
The District Committee at Madras continue to promote the designs of the Society. The establishment of local deposits of books at the principal stations of this presidency, under the superintendance of the resident Chaplain, has been attended with success; and the distribution of Bibles, Prayer-books, and religious Tracts, has increased. The
Vipery Mission Press has been success. fully re established; and various works approved by the Society, have lately issued from it.
The District Committee at Bombay, since their last report, have distributed 170 Bibles, 360 Testaments and Psalters, 1391 Prayer-books, and 5536 books and tracts; with 22 copies of the Family Bible, and 22 copies of the Arabic Bible; forming a total of 9679 books and tracts dispersed in three years since the institution of the Committee. Considerable progress has been made in translating and printing tracts, both for the use of schools and for general distribution among the Natives.
In Ceylon, the stock of Prayer-books and elementary works received from the Society was almost immediately dispos ed of, and the most useful tracts have been translated into the native languages.
SOCIETY FOR BUILDING AND
The last Report of this Society states, that during the year the aid of the Society has been applied for in sixty-eight cases, several of which are under consideration. Fifty-four grants have been made, and by the assistance of this institution, church-room has been provided for 16,891 persons. The increased accommodation furnishes 12,764 free and unappropriated sittings, being about three fourths of the whole number. The grants by the Society have amounted to 13,5517.; and there now remain in hand 11,830. Since the year 1819 the total number of applications has been 473, of which 262 are under consideration, and three were not within the rules; the remaining 208 have been favourably received, and grants made to them to the amount of 53,6331. The Report concludes by stating that the Society has contributed to furnish, in different churches and chapels, upwards of 66,000 additional seats, of which nearly 50,000 are free and unappropriated.
VIEW OF PUBLIC AFFAIRS.
FRANCE. The French papers have been chiefly occupied with the details and discussions arising out of the
trial of General Berton and his alleged accomplices in the conspiracy at Saumur. Nineteen persons, including the General, were accused; and four
members of the Chamber of Deputies were extra-judicially alluded to by the Attorney-General of Poictiers as indirectly implicated. The charge against the Deputies was indignantly repelled by them in the Chamber, in a debate of great warmth. The trials are of little interest, except as they evince the still-existing dislike to the Bourbons, which lurks every where in France. The particulars of the accusations are strangely incoherent, and the evidence full of contradictions. The most remarkable feature in these trials is the revolting partiality of the Judge, who seems to act as counsel against the prisoners, and who, on this account, seems to lose all respect with them.
Several circumstances, related in a debate in the Chamber of Deputies on the grant for public education, prove the increasing power of the priests, and the pertinacity of their efforts to suppress the system of mutual instruction, or at least to get the management of its machinery into their own hands. We should rejoice at their so doing, if we could venture to think they really wished to enlighten and benefit their countrymen, and not to perpetuate a monopoly of ignorance, both spiritual and secular. Wholly to prevent the circulation of the Scriptures, is, we trust, now be yond their power, as well as to restrict the ability to profit by their Divine instructions. In short, the general conduct of the present ministry seems little calculated to ensure the permanent tranquillity of the king dom. On their part especially, considering the strength of the popular prejudice entertained against them, it was highly important that, in carrying the measures which they might deem expedient for the stability of the throne and the altar, they should proceed in a spirit of conciliation. Their tone, however, has in general been outrageously opposed to conciliation; and the insults and indignities which, in the Chamber of Deputies, conscious of their numerical superiority, they take every opportunity of pouring on the popular orators, have produced an extraordinary effervescence in the minds of the latter, which shews itself in a corresponding violence of speech and manner. The feelings on either side are sometimes exasperated to such a degree as to produce almost universal clamour and tumult, during which the most unmeasured epithets of abuse
are launched against each other. And as the ministerial party exceeds its opponents in the proportion of three or four to one, the whole proceedings are thus made to wear the appearance, in the eyes of the public, of an attempt, by power, to crush the popular party, or, at least, to shackle the freedom of debate, and to prevent the voice of reason and patriotism from being heard. It cannot be that these transactions should not tend to aggravate the rooted aversion of the French population to an ultra-royalist ministry, and to increase the fears which, right or wrong, they have all along entertained of the fixed intentions of that party gradually to restore the ancient regime.
The debate on the Slave Trade has recently been renewed in the Chamber of Deputies, and ministers were called upon to explain the causes why, notwithstanding their repeated and solemn pledges, this nefarious traffic continued to be carried on so extensively by French subjects; and why the French cruizers on the African coast had been so remiss in the performance of their duty. The reply of the Minister of Marine was to this effect:-Government participates in the horror with which this infamous traffic is justly regarded; but in the case of this, as of other crimes, the repression is attended with difficulty. It has, however, done all that is in its power to prevent the infraction of the laws.-This declaration of the mi.. nister had been uttered only a few days, when there arrived in this country three French slave-ships, captured in the River Bonny, on the coast of, Africa, by Commodore Sir Robert Mends. On the approach of the boats of his Majesty's squadron, these miscreants ranged themselves in order of battle, along with three Spanish slaveships, to oppose the search and capture of the latter; fired on the boats, and killed two men, wounding several others. This, however, served only to give an impulse to the advancing party, who pushed forwards, and in a few minutes had boarded and carried the whole of the slave-ships, with about 2000 slaves on board. The slaves have been landed at Sierra Leone. The Spanish ships were condemned there, under our treaties with Spain; and the French ships were sent to England, to abide the decision of our Government. The part which France may take on this occasion will be some
test of the professions of the French ministers. These ships have been caught in flagrante delicto. Their piratical attack on our boats gave us a right of seizure and detention. Their owners, and officers, and crew are known. Will the government of France complain of this as an outrage on her flag, and demand reparation? or will she renounce these profligate contemners of her own laws, and of all law human and divine, and leave them to endure all the consequences of their crimes? We wait with some anxiety the solution of this problem. SPAIN. A new ministry has been appointed, consisting of persons favourable to the new constitution. The King, however reluctantly, is obliged to sanction all their measures, even to distributing honorary medals to those who had any share in the honour of defeating the royal guards on the 7th of July. The new ministry are directing their first efforts to reform the royal household, and, which is a matter of no small difficulty in the present circumstances of Spain, to recruit the treasury. So far from being able to raise a loan at home, even the ordinary revenue is with difficulty collected, especially in those parts of the country in which the royalists are in any force; and with respect to procuring loans from abroad, the risk of a counter-revolution, and the known sentiments of the Holy Alliance, are unfavourable to the investment of property on Spanish security. If, however, the moderate party, now in power, can maintain their ground, we inay hope that all idea of foreign interference will be discouraged. At the same time, it is evident that Russia, Austria, and France are strongly inclined, if they could attempt it with safety to themselves, to produce in Spain and Portugal the same counterrevolution which has been effected in Naples. Probably one of the objects of the approaching Congress at Vienna is to deliberate on the course to he pursued with respect to the Peninsula. We trust that England will there be found most strenuously opposed to every species of aggression on the rights of independent nations.
TURKEY.-The victory over the Turkish fleet, and the death of the
Since the above was written, these Vessels have been given up to the French.
Turkish admiral, appear to have in spired the Greeks with fresh spirit, notwithstanding the compromise between Turkey and Russia. The intelligence from Thessaly, Albania, and Epirus is also generally favourable to the Greek arms. Confiding in their cause, they have proclaimed all the coasts in the possession of their enemies in a state of blockade;-a measure which has been strongly remon→ strated against, by Austria in particular, on the ground that the Greek government has not been regularly acknowledged by any of the powers of Europe. In the House of Commons, however, we were happy to hear it declared by the Minister of the Crown, that instructions had been given to all our public functionaries to maintain a perfect neutrality between the belligerent parties. In this case, our ships of war will of course be as ready to respect a blockade of the Greeks as a blockade of the Turks.
Parliament closed on the 6th of
August. The concluding business of the session related chiefly to the con summation of measures previously before the House, and which have been already noticed in our pages. Among the new motions was an important proposition of Mr. Wilberforce, for an address to his Majesty, to prevent the extension of the Slave Trade and Slavery in our colonies in South Africa, where, there seemed reason to fear, that, unless Parliament interposed, slavery might be indefinitely extended. The proposed address was carried unanimously, and we trust will be the means of preventing the occurrence of those evils, of which, at the close of our Review of Mr. Campbell's Travels, we took occasion to express our strong apprehensions *. A full report of the debate which took place on this occasion has been printed in a separate pamphlet, and may be had at Hatchard's. It is worthy of the attention of all who take an interest in the amelioration and ultimate extinction of the opprobrious state of slavery throughout the British domi
The Speech from the Throne was more than usually brief and barren of precise information. It merely states in substance the continuance of peace with foreign powers; the probable adjust
* See Number for May, p. 310.
ment of differences between Russia and Turkey; his Majesty's thanks for the supplies; an allusion to the wisdom manifested in reducing the interest of the Five per Cents.; and the expression of his grief at the distress in Ireland, accompanied with anassurance that the benevolence and sympathy manifested in this country on the occasion are just ly appreciated in the sister kingdom, and will doubtless promote "brotherly love and affection among all classes and descriptions of his subjects." We confess that we were somewhat dis appointed at the slight texture of this official summary. We had been hop ing, that at the close of an unusually long and busy session, when so many important subjects, foreign and do mestic, had been under public discussion, and great anxiety was felt both at home and abroad respecting the views and policy of this country, the Royal Speech would have dis closed something of the sentiments and intentions of Government. The British public have been accustomed to look to the speeches at the opening and closing of Parliament as official landmarks, by which their own opi nions are to be guided, and the general views of the executive to be judged of; a feeling of disappointment, there fore, is excited whenever they dwindle down to mere formal prologues and epilogues to the session, with little ex plicit information either as to the past or the future. Whether, under the circumstances of this country, these periodical statements should be as minute and expository as those of the United States of America, may fairly be questioned; but, still, a government, depending as much as ours does on public opinion, and requiring to maintain the confidence and conciliate the affections of the people, may justly be expected not to omit so fair an opportunity of officially stating their views on points of the highest interest to all classes of the community. No allusion is made to the state of Portugal, Spain, or South America. Nothing is said of those plans of international policy which have led to the appoint ment of the approaching congress at Vienna. Nothing is said of Greece or Turkey, except that the cause of the former seems to have been aban doned by Russia. Nothing is said even of our own agriculture or commerce, or of any measures being in contemplation for the permanent relief of the acknowledged distress in
Ireland, and for the general amelioration of her wretched condition.
At the same time, we admit, that, though fewer measures of general policy have been matured than we had hoped for at its commencement, the last session of Parliament has produced no small benefit to the public. Taxation has been considerably reduced; Ireland has been assisted for the moment; some partial measures for her benefit have also been adopted; and the whole of the system of that part of our empire has been fully discussed, so as, we trust, to clear the way for adopting radical and not very distant remedies for her wretchedness and depression. The principles which govern our agricultural and commercial relations have also been examined with attention; and we have little doubt that the public mind has been much enlightened on the subject, and prepared for the introduction, at no very distant period, of a better system-a system of general and unrestricted freedoni.-The great inconveniences and evils of some fundamental provisions of the Marriage Act have been generally at length acknowledged, and a law has been passed to remedy them; though, unhappily, it has been so much patched and altered in its progress through the House of Lords, that it retains few features of its original character, and has become liable to very serious objections, as we intend to shew at large in our next number. We had prepared an abstract of the Act for insertion this month, but our remarks upon its provisions having swelled beyond our expectation, we found ourselves obliged to defer them. The new law takes effect from the 1st of September.
We are grieved to add, that another long and laborious session has closed without any legislative measures respecting those great and often discussed questions which relate to the moral and religious interests of the population, such as the wider diffusion of Christian education; the removal of the existing impediments to the multiplication of places of worship; the reform, or rather the abolition, of our present system of Poor Laws; the mitigation of that unchristian state of bondage in which so many thousands of our fellow-subjects are still held; to say nothing of the evils of gin-shops, lotteries, Sunday newspapers, and other violations of the Sabbath. One encouraging exception
ought not to be overlooked the been promulged, we deem it our House of Commons has pledged itself duty thus pointedly to notice and to in the next session to take into early reprehend the sentiment. consideration the state of our criminal. laws and prison discipline, and we look forward with hope to the result of its deliberations.
It is now with feelings of the deepest humiliation and pain that we have to record, that, before Parliament had been prorogued a week, the man who had borne the most prominent part in all its deliberations, and who for some years past may be considered as regulating the course both of our foreign and domestic policy, has sud deuly been removed, by a self-inflicted death, from the scene in which he occupied so large a space, and has ap peared, unsummoned, at the tribunal of his Creator and Judge, to give an account of the deeds done in the body. The particulars respecting the death of the Marquis of Londonderry are now so well known, and have excited so much of intense feeling throughout the country, that it would be superfluous for us to state them. Suffice it to say, on this afflicting subject, that there seems no room to question the propriety of that verdict of insanity which was returned by the coroner's inquest, however short may have been the continuance of his mental de rangement, and however opposed to the calmness and courage, and to the evenness of temper, which had always marked his character, and which had not undergone any perceptible change, as far as respected his public demea nour, down to the very moment of the prorogation of Parliament, was the act which terminated his life. We cannot, however, quit this part of the subject, without expressing our extreme surprise and regret at the general doctrine said to be enounced on this occasion by the coroner. He is said to have laid it down as his decided judgment, that the act of suicide was, in all cases, of itself a proof of insanity; in other words, that a verdict of felo de se must in all cases be an unjust verdict. A dictum so in jurious in its tendency, so decidedly opposed to the express letter of the law of the land and to innumerable previous decisions of inquests, and so much at variance with the opinions of the ablest legal commentators among others, of Blackstone-we hardly expected would have been deliberately uttered by a judge on so grave and solemn an occasion, But having
The frequent occurrence of self-destruction of late among our public men, induces us to make a few remarks on the subject, which, had the present unhappy instance stood alone, we might have spared. But, on considering several of them attentively, we are inclined to think, that, among the chief pre-disposing causes to that state of mind in which our great enemy finds us most accessible to his temptations, is the neglect of the Sabbath as a day of repose from the pressure of secular business. Without dwelling on the protection which religion, with all its attendant blessings
of the fear and love of God, of peace and holy resignation, of superiority to the world, of patience, and hope, and joy would afford against those undue cares, and overweening anxieties, and agitating apprehensions, which enfeeble the mental energies, and leave the mind open to the delusions of a morbid fancy, or to the artifices of the devil, we shall confine ourselves to this single point, the employment of the Sabbath-day. It was mer cifully given to us by the Almighty, among its many other beneficial purposes, as a day of rest; and in none of his appointments are his wisdom and goodness more apparent, whether we regard the advantages arising from its strict observance, or the many evils which accompany its neglect. What would be the miserable condi tion of our peasantry, without this interruption of their unvarying toil? Not merely brutal ignorance, and recklessness of all that lies beyond the present life, but bodies early worn down with labour, premature old age, and rapidly wasting lives. See this exemplified in the case of our WestIndian bondsmen. Multitudes of them, after toiling under the lash of the driver through the week, are compelled to employ the Sabbath in cultivating the ground for their own subsistence, for the food which is to sustain them, while working for their masters' benefit, during the other six days. What is the consequence? Let the stationary or decreasing population of one and all of our sugar colonies, even at the present moment, after all the vaunted ameliorations of which so much has been said, furnish the reply. While, in this country, the population increases with a rapidity which asto