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nian, and not friendly to the established government of this kingdom. Mr. Hey was steadily attached to the Church of England, by affection and principle; his religious tenets were strictly consonant with the Articles, Homilies, and Liturgy of the Established Church; and he was a warm and unvarying advocate for the constitution in church and state. Dr. Priestley, who was zealous in propogating his peculiar religious opinions, to effect his purpose more certainly and extensively, printed and distributed little tracts, without his name, on the most important doctrines of Christianity, written with a plainness and simplicity which were calculated to engage the attention of the middle and lower classes of the population. Mr. Hey was deeply impressed with a persuasion of the great importance of those doctrines to the eternal interests of mankind, which his friend was controverting and labouring to overthrow. Being dissatisfied with the replies which were published, and having given much attention to the subjects in debate, he wrote a small tract, in Defence of the Divinity of Christ, and a second, as a Short Defence of
the Doctrine of the Atonement.'
may be justified, and whether Mr. Hey, in the later periods of his life, would have formed it, is a question on which his friends may possibly differ."
"Whatever difference in opinion, on this subject," Mr. Pearson observes, may have existed among the friends of Mr. Hey, or may still exist, a doubt may be suggested, whether it be a question on which it is, at this time, absolutely necessary to decide. When nothing is determined, explicitly, by laws Divine or human, the decision of the casuist may be an undertaking of great delicacy and difficulty. Where the reality of the fact asserted is sufficiently attested, it is necessary to be acquainted with the several circamstances connected with the dubious action, with the motives of the party con cerned, and with the confirmed, habi̟tual principles by which his general conduct in life is regulated. When these requisites have been duly adjusted, modesty and charity, twin vir tues, may be admitted to a hearing, and they will probably suggest, that it is always wise and safe to suspend our judgment, where there is danger of concluding erroneously, and to leave doubtful cases to the sentence of that Omniscient Being, who may have reserved them for his own tribunal." Professional Life, p.45.
"Dr. John Hey, Norrisian Professor of Divinity in the University of Cambridge, was accustomed to notice this tract on the Divinity of Christ,' in his public lectures on divinity. The following extracts from the printed lectures will exhibit the Professor's opinion of this production of his brother's pen. As we cannot undertake to In proving the divinity of Christ, I follow the course of the history in will beg leave to make use of a small due order, this may be the place pamphlet, printed in 1782, at Leeds, for offering a remark upon a statewhich seems to me to give the argument of Dr. Priestley concerning ments or proofs in a good form. The title is, A Short Defence of the Doctrine of the Divinity of Christ:"the author's idea of the manner of proving any Being to be Divine, agrees in a good measure with that which I have already mentioned as my own. Several years after I first used it, I asked and received permission to mention his name." Professional Life, pp. 41, 42.
Mr. Pearson's observations on this intercourse between persons of different religious persuasions, are, like all others which proceed from him, the result of a strong and well-matured judgment, and worthy of the greatest attention. They are introduced in answer to the remark that, "How far this intimacy
his friend: "He was a zealous Methodist," says Dr. Priestley, " and wrote answers to some of my theological tracts:" whereas Mr. Pearson avers Mr. Hey's steady attachment to the Church of England, &c. particularly as manifested by an overt act, recorded in Part II. The fact is, (though perhaps Dr.Priestley might use the term Methodist only in its vague popular sense, for a man who paid great attention to the concerns of religion,) that Mr. Hey was once a Methodist, in close connexion with Mr. Wesley, though he was still by affection and principle attached to the Church. Religious persons had inducements in Mr.
Hey's early days for such a religious association as Mr. Wesley then proposed, which perhaps in our own days can scarcely be conceived. There was a deadness and formality at that time almost universally prevalent, both within and without the Established Church: and it was not to seduce people from its pale, but to make them lively and devout Christians within it, that was Mr. Wesley's first and purest object; an object in which Mr. Hey most cordially joined. But Mr. Hey's subsequent resolution and conduct proved how much either his own opinions or the principles of Mr. Wesley had changed; for, in the Second Part of the work, we find a very significant detail of his reasons for quitting the Methodist society, in which he had imbibed so many of his early principles, and enjoyed so many blessings in his more advanced life. We shall extract a passage, for the benefit as well as entertainment of our read. ers, from Part II. ch. ii, entitled "The general Spirit and Conduct of Mr. Hey, in his Domestic and Social Relations."
"About the year 1781," (that is, when about forty-five years of age,) “Mr. Hey, after a long and serious consideration, finally determined on the expediency of withdrawing himself from the Society of the Methodists.
firm attachment to the doctrines and discipline of the Church of England as they are exhibited in her Articles, Homilies, and Liturgy, were [was] the principal motives [motive] by which he was induced to dissolve his connexion with this body of Christians. He was the decided friend of episcopal govern ment; he studied the subject with diligence and impartiality; and, after much careful and serious inquiry, he concluded that it was most agreeable to the records and examples contained in the New Testament. The doctrines of the Church of England were regarded by him as a form of sound words, con. sonant with the declarations of the Holy Scriptures; and he valued her Liturgy as à service admirably calculated to excite and maintain a devotional spirit in those who frequented the solemnities
of her public worship. There was likewise a further and weighty consideration which confirmed Mr. Hey in his adherence to the National Church. the very imperfection and infirmity of “As all human institutions are, from our nature, liable to injury and decline, exposed to the operation of causes which impair or debase their original integrity, especially such as result from the ignorance, or error, of those who have the direction of them; Mr. Hey remarked this invaluable excellence to exist in departure from sound principles in a our Establishment, that no occasional few clerical individuals could be productive of a permanent deviation from orthodoxy in their congregations, while the Articles, Homilies, and Liturgy of the Church remained unaltered." Moral and Social Life, pp. 82, 83.
After a series of very important reasonings to the same general point, Mr. Pearson proceeds more particularly.
"When Mr. Hey first became a member of Mr. Wesley's Society, the Methodists, in general, were in union with the Established Church. Mr. John Wesley and Mr. Charles Wesley, his brother, being at that time sincerely attached to the Church of England, they were desirous of retaining the members of their society in her communion. That their regard for the ecclesiastical establishment in this kingdom was unaffect ed and genuine, is abundantly evident from various passages which stand recorded in Mr. Wesley's journals, and in the minutes of the Conference. A disposition to separate and form an independent body, appeared, however, too soon among some of the preachers and members of their congregations on different occasions: but this spirit of disunion was controlled and suppressed by the personal influence of Mr. Wesley and his brother, during the early periods of Methodism. The propensity to a separation from the Church, although kept down and restrained, was not wholly extinguished: within the last twenty years of Mr. Wesley's life, it grew bolder and more importunate; and as the infirmities of age increased upon him, his powers of resistance be. came more feeble, and he was gradually induced to engage in measures which severed those ties by which the members of his society were united to the Na
tional Establishment, and though they never assumed the name, yet they were finally reduced to the state of Dis senters. Mr. Hey had long foreseen, that the measures which were successively adopted and introduced by the Methodists, would lead finally to a secession from the Church of England; but the several canses which contributed to accomplish the separation, operated in so gradual and imperceptible a manner, that a large proportion of the members of that body were not aware of their tendency; and had it been intimated to them, that they would open their chapels during the hours of public service in the church, administer the sacraments, bury the dead, and proceed even to ordain presbyters, and consecrate bishops, they would have repelled the prediction as a rash and im probable calumny. Subsequent events have fully justified that sagacity which conducted Mr. Hey to the determination of withdrawing from them; and since that period, the Methodist Society has sustained no inconsiderable loss of its members, both in England and Ireland, which have seceded upon principles wearly allied to those by which Mr. Hey was influenced.
"Mr. Wesley was endowed with the talents of a legislator in no common degree, and the executive power which he held, by an acknowledged right, was administered with judgment, vigour, and promptitude. His political sagacity in adapting means to their ends; his wise combination of inflexi. bility with condescension; his dexterity in managing a large mass of heteroge neous materials, so as to render every variety of capacity and attainment, every shade of temper and disposition, subservient to his great purposes, cannot be viewed without a mixture of suprise and admiration. When the ready submission which was generally yielded to his paternal authority by the various members of his societies in the several quarters of the world, is also contemplated, he may be pronounced to have been not less remarkable as a consummate statesman, than eminent as the founder of a new establishment of Christians. Mr. Hey knew well how to appreciate the great and useful qualities of this laborious and distinguished character; they were, likewise, united in the bonds of a long and tender friendship; but no considerations of a personal nature could induce Mr. Hey to
concur in what he regarded as an unnecessary dereliction of first principles, involving in its consequences a rupture of those cords of union by which the Methodists were originally connected with the Established Church.
"The mode in which Mr. Hey conducted his separation from Mr. Wesley was frank, open, and candid, without any marked hostility, or breach of Christian charity. He intimated to Mr. Wesley his desire of addressing the Conference, and offering some sugges tions and advice to them; declaring, at the same time, that if they rejected his proposals, he could no longer remain a member of the Methodist Society. Mr. Wesley granted him permission to read his paper in full Conference; they listened with patient attention during the discussion of the first and second heads, which related, chiefly, to the importance of the Established Church, and the original principles of the Methodists: but when Mr. Hey was proceeding to shew how they had departed from those principles, some indications of uneasiness appeared among the preachers, and Mr. Wesley remarked, 'that as there was much other business before them, Brother Hey must defer reading the remainder of his paper to another opportunity;' this opportunity, however, never arrived; hence Mr. Hey was accustomed to say, that he did not leave the Methodists-they left him.'” Moral and Social Life, pp. 89–93.
The whole is followed by a docament, purporting to be the Heads of a Discourse prepared for this solemn occasion. Of these, we must say, that, if their length had been the only objection to their delivery, the time and "other business" of the Conference must have been of a very pressing nature indeed. But perhaps some weightier objections arose to reading a paper which reminded them of a period when it was a principle of their own, that" to be the leader of a sect was to be deprecated as hellfire." And, without quoting from be bold to say, that more wise, disthis most admirable paper, we must interested, and conclusive statements, than those which occur in this and the several reasonings before mentioned, are scarcely to
be found. They embrace some of the most important practical points at issue between the three several classes of Churchmen, Dissenters, and Methodists.
Finding ourselves now in Part II. of this interesting memoir, that part which details, as we have seen, the moral and social life of Mr. Hey, we cannot perhaps do better than pass back a few pages, to make our readers still more intimately acquainted with the character of Mr. Hey under circumstances not unknown to them; we mean, under affliction from repeated domestic losses. We think the following extract, exhibiting Mr. Hey just after the loss of his eighth child, and on the morning of the funeral, will be read with deep interest, by every one who has a heart to feel and to respond to the purest and most sublime sentiments. If Christianity be such as it here appears, can we have a better illustration of the assertion, that "The Christian is the highest style of man?"
"These afflicting dispensations of the Divine Providence were sharp and severe exercises of the faith and patience of Mr. Hey. He experienced all that a parent could naturally feel under these successive disappointments of his hopes and expectations, on being thus bereaved of his children at the time when they were just entering upon the active duties of life, with the fair promise of becoming eminently useful in their stations, and adding to the comfort of all their connexions. But the mind of Mr. Hey did not sink into dejection under these mournful visitations He endeavoured to improve the inroads which death made in his family, by contemplating more deeply the vanity of earthly things, the fugitive nature of all human enjoyments, and the narrow interval which separates time from eternity. Unlike those who are in haste to abandon the mortal remains of their relatives, he saw nothing frightful, or revolting, in the dead bodies of his children; he contemplated each of them, when placed in its coffin, as consigned to sleep peacefully till the morning of the resurrection, while his soul was cheered and refreshed by the perBuasion, that to them might be ap
plied those consoling words heard from heaven by the writer of the Apocalypse;
'Blessed are the dead that die in the Lord.'
"On the morning of the funeral he was accustomed to withdraw into the room where the corpse of his beloved child was placed; there, in holy acts of devotion he solemnly resigned to God the gift which had been recalled; and expressed unfeigned gratitude to his heavenly Father for the comfort he had so long enjoyed whilst exercising the trust reposed in him. Above all, he gave thanks that the child was delivered from the vanities and miseries of this evil world, and, through the mercy and grace of the Redeemer, was admitted to partake of the heavenly glory and blesseduess. Mr. Hey was wont to say on the death of his children, that his ultimate end respecting them was answered, inasmuch as he had trained them up to become inhabitants of that kingdom into which he trusted they had been mercifully received.' "On the grave stone of John, are inscribed these words; 'O death! where is thy sting?' On that of Robert, O grave! where is thy victory?'
"The following Memorial, composed in the morning of the day on which the remains of his son, Robert Hey, were committed to the tomb, presents a striking and affecting view of the state of Mr. Hey's mind under that affliction, and is a fine exhibition of his character as a parent and a Christian.
"Leeds, Monday, May 17, 1802. "O most holy and glorious Lord God, who hast declared thyself gracious. and merciful, long-suffering, abundant in goodness and truth, permit thy guilty creature to approach thee, through the mediation of thy beloved Son, Jesus Christ!
"When I consider myself, I can draw near unto thee with no other language than that of the Publican, God, be merciful to me, a sinner!' and with no other plea, than that Jesus hath died for my sins, and is risen again for my justification.
"Yet thou hast graciously encouraged and commanded me to draw near to the throne of grace with humble boldness, that I may obtain mercy, and find grace to help in time of need. Thou hast permitted me to enter into covenant with thee by the endearing name of Father. I thank Thee, O Lord, for
thy rich grace; and bless thy name for thine unspeakable condescension. I desire to renew again my baptismal covenant with Thee, which I have so often renewed in private, and at the holy table. I humbly pray that Thou wouldest seal me for thine own, and give me to rejoice in the well-founded hope, that I am thy child, ransomed by the blood of my Redeemer, and renewed by the gracious influences of thy Holy Spirit.
"Suffer me not to deceive myself; but shew me if there be any allowed wickedness in me, and deliver me from the power of every evil.
"I look back with astonishment and gratitude at the abundant mercies which Thou hast shewn towards me. Thou didst call me in my youth to the knowledge of Thyself, and hast delivered me from numberless snares into which I might have fallen. Thou hast given me a help meet for me, and hast favoured me with a numerous offspring. Blessings, more than I can reckon up, have crowded upon me in quick suc cession. I desire to praise Thee for them all.
"But, at this time, I would offer my most hearty and solemn thanksgiving for the mercies shewn to my dear children. Four of them thou wast pleased to call ont of this dangerous and sinful world during the state of infancy. I surrendered them unto thee in thy holy ordinance of baptism, and committed them to thy disposal. Thou didst remove them ere the pollutions of this world had led their corrupt hearts astray; and, I humbly hope, thou didst receive them to thy glory.
"Concerning other four whom Thou hast called hence in adult age, Thon hast graciously given me the most solid hopes. Though by nature children of wrath, even as others, Thou wast pleased
to awaken them to a sense of the odious nature of sin, and to grant them true repentance. They were early taught by thy grace to flee for refuge to the Friend of sinners; and Thou didst prolong their lives till they had given clear proofs of a sound conversion. Though prepared, as I hoped, to glorify Thee on earth, thou didst dispense with their services, and didst remove them hence in the beginning of their usefulness. But thy grace was with them. In their sickness, and at the approach of death, they were enabled to rejoice in thy sal vation. The last of thein I am this day
about to commit to the silent grave, but in sure and certain hope of a joyful resurrection to eternal life. What shall I render to Thee for all thy mercies! O that my future life might more abun dantly shew forth thy praise!
"I commit those of my children who yet remain, to thy fatherly care. O Lord, watch over them, and preserve them from the evil that is in the world! Enable them to glorify Thee in the midst of a crooked and perverse generation. And whenever they shall be called hence, may they join their deceased brothers and sisters in the world of holiness and bliss, there to magnify the wonders of redeeming love for ever!
"O Lord, accept graciously the renewed offering of myself to Thee! Protect me in all the trials and temptations that are yet before me! Increase my love to Thee and all mankind. Quicken my zeal; and enable me to look forwards with holy and earnest expectation of that bliss which Thou hast prepared for thine elect! And, whenever I am called to pass through the valley of the shadow of death, look then with pity on thy languishing and dying child; support me with the consolations of thy Holy Spirit, and receive me to thine eternal glory, through the merit and mediation of Jesus Christ my Redeemer! Amen.
Moral and Social Life, pp. 45–51.
After the solemn impressions necessarily excited by the perusal of such sentiments, it would seem almost a profanation to return to sphere, and to delineate this exthe ordinary circle of this diurnal cellent man in the exercise of his secular functions. We must, however, just state, that his conduct in an office to which he had been called as early as 1786, when he was elected an alderman of the borough of Leeds, forms a very interesting chapter in his Moral and Social Life. In his conduct motto, as in all things else, seems as a magistrate and a patriot, his to have been, " Through evil report and good report." The cleansing of the Augean stables of an immense population, closely condensed in a large manufacturing borough, may be easily conceived