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tence whatever, make, bake, or ex: shillings; and for every subsequent pose to sale, any bread or rolls; or one, not exceeding fifteen sbillings; bake any meat, puddings, pies, or with the costs and expenses of tarts, or in any other manner exer- prosecution, to be assessed by the cise the trade of a baker, on the justice, &c. Lord's-day, on pain of forfeiting By the 55th Geo. III. c. 99, it ten shillings, &c.” In this act was it is further provided, tbat no bakers however inserted a salutary proviso,. within the bills of mortality, or ten that meat, puddings, or pies, might miles of the Royal Exchange, shall be baked between nine in the morn- bake bread or rolls on Sundays, ing and one in the afternoon, so as nor sell bread oor bake meat, &c., the person requiring the baking except from pine tilt two, under thereof carry or send the same to the penalty of ten shillings for the and from the place where baked. first offence; twenty shillings for
By 5011 Geo. IIL. c. 73, fur- the second ; and foriy shillings for ther regulations as to the trade of the third and every subsequent a baker were imposed; but the pe- offence. This statute extends nalties are, as usual, too small, and the time of delivering bakings till too difficult to be recovered. That half past two o'clock; but, unfortuact declares, that “no person ex- nately, in London the time is often ercising or employed in the trade extended till five. of a baker beyond the city of Lon- Notwithstanding the various stadon or the liberties thereof, or be- tutes which have been thus recayond the said ten miles of the Royal pitulated ; and notwithstanding the Exchange, shall, on the Lord's-day, 21st Geo. III. c. 49, which deor any part thereof, make or bake clares that no house, raom, or other aoy bread or cake of any sort or place, shall, on the Lord's day, be kind; or shall, on any part of the open for public entertainment, or said day, except between the hours for any debating societies ; and notof ten in the forenoon and half withstanding the 13th Geo. 111. past one in the afternoon, on any c. 80, sec. 4, which prohibits killpretence whiatever, sell, or expose ing game on that day, it is univerto sale, or suffer to be exposed to sally admitted, and by the wise and sale, any bread or cake of any sort good it is deeply deplored, that the or kind; or bake or deliver, or suf. Lord's-day is extensively and openly fer to be baked or delivered, any profaned. And what is the cause? meat, pudding, pie, or victuals, at It is very clear, that the true reason any time after half past one in the is a want of religious principle ; and afternoon of that day; or in any such a defect is only to be remeother manner exercise the trade of died by the preaching of the Goa baker, save and except so far as spel, the diffusion of knowledge, may be necessary in setting and the circulation of the Scriptures, superimending the sponge, to pre- by Sunday-schools, and by the dispare the dough for the following persion of religious tracts: all which day's baking; and that no meat, means must receive the blessing of pudding, pie, &c., shall be brought God before they can be rendered 10, or taken from, any bakehouse useful. But is it not in the mean during Divine service in the church time the duty of the religious pubof the parish or place wbere the lic to endeavour to obtain the enactsame is situate, nor within a quarter ment of a law; not by wbich perof an hour of the commencement sons shall be compelled to assume thereof." Conviction to be before the appearance of devotion, or to one justice, on view, or oath of one attend against their consciences, witness, or on confession : penally, or even witbout their inclingtion, for first offence, five shillings ; for on Divine worship; but by which i second offence, not exceeding ten the tradesman, ilie artificer, the shopkeeper, the stage-coach pro- as a season of abstinence from seprietor, and other public offend. cular business, and of attention to ers, shall be prevented from selling those higher duties which, besides the laws of their country at de- their spiritual and eternal importfiance, and from trading on a day ance, best fit men for encountering which the dictates of humanity, the the fatigues and supporting the usage of ages, and the commands cares of this mortal life? of God, require to be observed
The Evidence and Authority of Di- tween genuine truth and its coun
vine Revelation : being a View of terfeits, and of presenting his matter the Testimony of the Law and in a clear and convincing light;-in the Prophets to the Messiah ; with these qualifications for such an underthe Subsequent Testimonies. By taking, and unquestionably these ROBERT HALDANE. 2 vols.
are in the first class of qualifica, Edinburgh : Waugh and Innes. 'tious,) Mr. Haldane has been surPrice 12s.
passed by few of those who have
gone before him. THERE is scarcely any more for- It must indeed be acknowledged, midable undertaking, of a literary that, after the labours of those com kind, than that in which Mr. Hal- manding genuises who have didane engaged when he entered on rected their mighty powers to this the work before us. Subjects con- subject, it would be idle to expect nected with the evidences of Chris- much of novelty, either in fact or tianity have been discussed so fre- argument or arrangement. Mr. quently, and with so much ability, Haldane lays claim to no merit of that it required considerable cou- this kind. But his work possesses rage to undertake, and consider- this excellence, that while it preable powers to execute, a work of sents the various parts of the evithis nature;
a work which, besides dence of Christianity in such a light having to pass through the ordeal as to render the ultimate effect of of that criticism which is common it most impressive, it, at the same to productions of every kind, would time, exhibits the most distinct view have also to stand the test of a of the Gospel itself, as to its grand comparison with what have long fundamental principles and docbeen considered as master-pieces trines. In this particular respect in this line of writing. It is not Mr. Haldane's work has a decided our design to institute a compari- superiority over those of the most son between Mr. Haldane and his renowned of his predecessors. Of predecessors; but thus much we some of them it may be said, that may confidently affirm, because we it did not fall within their plan fully are fully borne out in the statement and distinctly to develop the geby the work before us, that, in a nius and doctrines of Christianity; deep sense of the importance of the while others of them, from having subject; in extensive acquaintance themselves defective if not erronewith the best authors, both ancient ous views of its nature as the Goand modern, whose information and spel of salvation, have obscured, rareasonings it was important to col- ther than illustrated, those branches lect, or whose errors and heresies of the subject. Even Dr. Chalmers it might be useful to expose and re- (whose competency to do them fute; in powers of discriminating be- ample justice his other works have 80 decidedly evinced) was turned than the avowed infidel, stake their aside from it by the plan be had all against the truth of Christianilaid down for himself,—that of ap- ty. If the Bible be not a fiction, plying the principles of the experi- although they may gain the world, mental philosophy exclusively to they will lose their souls. the external evidences of Christiani. The work contains, besides the ty. Mr. Haldane, on the contrary, Introduction and a Conclusion, ninehas so constructed his plan as to teen chapters, of which the followadmit a full and clear exposition of ing are the subjects, in their proChristianity itself; so that the per order :reader has before him, at once, a convincing demonstration of its Di. Persecuting Spirit of Pagans ; Credibi
“ Necessity of a Divine Revelation; vine origin, and a lucid statement Jity of Miracles ; Genuineness and Auof its nature and peculiar character. thenticity of the Holy Scriptures; InThus, while he sees that it has the spiration of the Scriptures ; History of stamp of infallible truth, be per- the Old Testament; Miracles of the ceives, also that it furnishes the Old Testament; Types of the Old Tes. provision and remedy devised by a tament; Prophecies of the Old Testamerciful God for the guilt and ment;. General Expectation of the misery of a fallen world.
Messiah; Appearance of the Messiah; The Introduction presents some
Testimony of the Apostles to the Mes.
siah; Testimony of the first Christians striking remarks on the little atten
to the Messiah; that the Testimony of tion that is paid to the concerns of the
Apostles and first Christians is not a future world. This, as our author opposed by any contrary Testimony; shews, does not arise from indiffer- Testimony to the Facts of the Gospel ence to futurity itself. On the con. History, from the Admissions of those trary, we are all much alive to every who professedly opposed or wrote thing which relates to the future against Christianity; Testimony to Facts scenes of this present world. But recorded in the Gospel History, and to as to a state of existence beyond and Heathen Historians
, and by the
the Progress of the Gospel, by Jewish the graye, our notion of it is so ge- Public Edicts of the Roman Governneral and undefined, as to be easily ment; Testimony to the Messiah from the overborne by sceptical reasonings, Success of the Gospel; that Facts reby, the business and pleasures of corded in the earlier Parts of the Scriplife, or by surrounding example. ture History cannot be disproved, and are Thus many are brought to the con- corroborated by Tradition; Testimony clusion that nothing certain can be to the Messiah from Prophecies that Ķnown respecting it. They resolve, are at present fulfilling in the World; therefore, to make the most of the Conclusion--viz. Testimonies to the Mesa present life, and to take their chance siah; Salvation of the Gospel; Persons of another along with many whose receive the Gospel.”
who pervert, abuse, neglect, oppose, or judgment, and character they respect. To this they add some gene, In treating of the Necessity of a ral maxims,-that they are not worse Divine Revelation, Mr. Haldane than others, perhaps in many things goes on the principle that it is only more correct; that God is merciful; from Revelation itself that the urand that he never could have formed gency of that necessity can be fully creatures to be finally condemned known. In this sentiment we en and rendered miserable.
tirely concur. It is true, indeed, Such scepticism as this is lodged that a few of the more deep-thinkin the minds of numbers, and in- ing and acute among the Heathen fiaences their practice in life, with philosophers of antiquity expressed qut their ever having expressed it to their conviction of the necessity of others in words, or perhaps even an instructor sent from the gods, suspected it themselves. How fear. to extricate them from the labyful is this condition! They, no less rintb of conjecture and uncertaiuty in which they were sensible of being nature of what Mr. Gibbon, the involved. But their desire of Di- historian, styles “ the cheerful derine illumination sprang rather from votion" of the Pagans, and “ the that insatiable curiosity which so elegant mythology of the Greeks." strongly characterized them, than It consisted, he says, of the vilest ftum any deep and settled convic- and most detestable rites. Human tion of its essential importance to sacrifices were frequently offered on the present happiness and future their altars. Many of their temples safety of man. They were sensible were places of avowed prostitution. . of their ignorance on some points. Strabo relates, that the temple of on which knowledge was desirable, Venus at Corinth was exceedingly and of uncertainty on others; but rich, so as to have in property more they felt not, that, having by sin than a thousand harlots, the slaves incurred God's wrath, nothing but: or ministers of the temple, donaa Divine communication could in- . tions made to the goddess by perstruct them how to recover his sons of both sexes. Hence, says favvur. Mr. Haldane has set this he, the city was crowded, and be. subject in so clear a light, and his came wealthy. Such a system as view of it is so striking and just, that this, so far from giving any aid to: we shall present it in his own words. virtue, had not the slightest connec-:
tion with it: nay, it could not but “As soon as man rebelled against God, that relation in which he formerly votaries: accordingly, they were
greatly corrupt the manners of its stood, when holy and obedient, was necessarily at an end. His dependence on wholly dissolute. Mr. Haldane prohis Creator, however, was not dissolved ceeds to give a melancholy, but by sid. From that dependence it was faithful, detail of the practices impossible he could set himself free. which prevailed among the most God had declared to him, that punish- polished of the Heathen nations; ment should be the consequence of describing their unrestrained sensutransgression, and the condemnation ality and debauchery, their eruelty threatened he had now incurred. If,
to children and slaves, and especithen, through mercy, the sentence pronounced ou him was to be suspended or
ally as displayed in the shows of mitigated, and punishment warded off the gladiators, and the ferocity with the situation in which man' wonld in
which their wars were conducted. that case be placed, must be made
In the remainder of the chapter known to bim. On what grouod this' our author shews that philosophy new state of things should be jutro- could do nothing to stem this torduced, and on what footing the re- rent : on the contrary, that it was newed intercourse with bis Creator when philosophy was most cultishonld afterwards be maintained, no vated, and had arrived at the highcreated intelligence could discover. A Divine revelation was therefore ab
est point which it appears to bave solutely necessary, and this revelatiou been capable of attaining, that these was graciously vouchsafed.” Vol. I. p.7,
enormous evils prevailed most. The
ignorance of philosophers themMr. Haldane then adverts to the selves, on subjects connected with first promise of a Saviour, given im- religion, its worship, its sanctions, mediately after the Fall, and to the the immortality of the soul, and a occurreuces at the Deluge, and also future state, incapacitated them for to the calling of Abraham, and the being instructors of mankind; while promises given to him. But these their no less erroneous notions rerays of celestial light were soon specting morals, disqualified them extinguished, and idolatry, in va- for discharging the office of reformrious forms, prevailed over all the ers. But the Heathen philosophers earth. Mr. Haldane traces its pro- were destitute not only of the power gress and general prevalence, and to enlighten the people, but also of strikingly exhibits the genius and the inclination.
“ They proceeded," as Mr. Haldane plete as it was imperfect and erroneous, justly remarks, on the systematic and their knowledge of a future state exclusion of the body of the people as clear as it was defective and perplex. from all the means of moral and ed, they would still have been blind religious instruction. Instead of at. guides, and totally unfit for the office tempting to enlighten the multitude, all of religious iustructors." . Vol. I. p. 32. the influence which they derived from their knowledge was employed to rivet
In the second chapter, entitled on their minds the authority of the most “ The persecuting Spirit of Pagans," degrading superstitions. The vulgar our author combats and disproves and oplearned, they contended, had no the statements of the two great right to truth. All of them, without champions of infidelity, Gibbon and distinction, held it as a fixed maxim, Hume, on this subject. Mr. Gibthat no alteration was to be made either bon descants on * the mild spirit in the established faith or worship. of polytheism ;” and Mr. Hume This was the express doctrine of Py. thagoras, Socrates, Plato, Cicero, Epic. says, “ So sociable is polytheism, tetus, Seneca, and all the other great that the utmost fierceness and avernames of antiquity. Philosophers, sion it meets with in an opposite statesinen, magistrates, and every one religion is scarce able to disgust remarkable, whether for office or sta- and keep it at a distance." Nay, tion, worshipped the gods, in cominon he goes further, and, in the face of with the people, according to the esta fact and history, and regardless blished mode.-Their want of integrity, alike, in his malignity against reliand of any settled good principle, is strikingly manifest in this temporizing gion, of his own character and of conduet. Convinced of the folly and truth, ventures to assert, that “ the falsehood of the vulgar superstitions, intolerance of almost all religions they not only conformed to them themwhich have maintained the unity of selves, but taught their disciples to do God, is as remarkable as the conthe same. Thus they made bypocrisy trary spirit of polytheists.” Mr. and dissimulation, in so important a Haldane demonstrates the falsehood matter, an essential part of their in. of this statement as it respects Pastructions, confirmed them by their ganism, and its calumny as it reexample, and perpetuated the most stu.
spects Christianity. pid idolatry, connected with the most
It is notorious that the most ample abominable vices." Vol. I. pp. 30, 31.
provision was made for the exercise Io the conclusion of his remarks of intolerance both in Greece and on this subject, Mr. Haldane reverts Rome. By the laws of Athens, no to the position with which he had strange god was admitted, or foreign commenced the chapter; namely, the worship allowed, until approved by ignorance which prevailed among the court of Areopagus. The Rophilosophers, in common with all mans had a law to the same effect. others, concerning the way of man's Livy mentions it as an established acceptance with God, now that sin principle of the early ages of the has entered into the world. On commonwealth, to guard against wbat terms God, who cannot“ look the introduction of foreign ceremoon iniquity," will hold intercourse nies of religion. He says, that the with a fallen creature, who daily prohibiting all foreign religions, and sins and comes short even of his the abolishing every mode of sacri. own convictions of duty, none, fice that differed from the Roman neither philosophers nor others, mode, were a business frequently could possibly discover. Nay, this entrusted by their ancestors to the was a subject which the philoso- care of the proper magistrates ; for phers never took into their consi. nothing, he observes, could contri. deration.
bute so effectually to the ruin of re“ Had then their lives," says Mr. ligion, as sacrificing after a foreign Haldane,“ been as pure as they were
rite, and not after the manner instiprofligate, their moral system as com- tuted by their fathers. At an early