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tence whatever, make, bake, or expose to sale, any bread or rolls; or bake any meat, puddings, pies, or tarts, or in any other manner exercise the trade of a baker, on the Lord's-day, on pain of forfeiting ten shillings, &c." In this act was however inserted a salutary proviso, that meat, puddings, or pies, might be baked between nine in the morning and one in the afternoon, so as the person requiring the baking thereof carry or send the same to and from the place where baked.
By 50th Geo. III. c. 73, further regulations as to the trade of a baker were imposed; but the penalties are, as usual, too small, and too difficult to be recovered. That act declares, that "no person exercising or employed in the trade of a baker beyond the city of London or the liberties thereof, or beyond the said ten miles of the Royal Exchange, shall, on the Lord's-day, or any part thereof, make or bake any bread or cake of any sort or kind; or shall, on any part of the said day, except between the hours of ten in the forenoon and half past one in the afternoon, on any pretence whatever, sell, or expose to sale, or suffer to be exposed to sale, any bread or cake of any sort or kind; or bake or deliver, or suffer to be baked or delivered, any meat, pudding, pie, or victuals, at any time after half past one in the afternoon of that day; or in any other manner exercise the trade of a baker, save and except so far as may be necessary in setting and superintending the sponge, to prepare the dough for the following day's baking; and that no meat, pudding, pie, &c., shall be brought 10, or taken from, any bakehouse during Divine service in the church of the parish or place where the same is situate, nor within a quarter of an hour of the commencement thereof." Conviction to be before one justice, on view, or oath of one witness, or on confession: penalty, for first offence, five shillings; for a second offence, not exceeding ten
shillings; and for every subsequent one, not exceeding fifteen shillings; with the costs and expenses of prosecution, to be assessed by the justice, &c.
By the 55th Geo. III. c. 99, it it is further provided, that no bakers within the bills of mortality, or ten miles of the Royal Exchange, shall bake bread or rolls on Sundays, nor sell bread nor bake meat, &c., except from nine till two, under the penalty of ten shillings for the first offence; twenty shillings for the second; and forty shillings for the third and every subsequent offence. This statute extends the time of delivering bakings till half past two o'clock; but, unfortunately, in London the time is often extended till five.
Notwithstanding the various statutes which have been thus recapitulated; and notwithstanding the 21st Geo. III. c. 49, which declares that no house, room, or other place, shall, on the Lord's day, be open for public entertainment, or for any debating societies; and notwithstanding the 13th Geo. III. c. 80, sec. 4, which prohibits killing game on that day, it is universally admitted, and by the wise and good it is deeply deplored, that the Lord's day is extensively and openly profaned. And what is the cause? It is very clear, that the true reason is a want of religious principle; and such a defect is only to be remedied by the preaching of the Gospel, the diffusion of knowledge, the circulation of the Scriptures, by Sunday-schools, and by the dispersion of religious tracts: all which means must receive the blessing of God before they can be rendered useful. But is it not in the mean time the duty of the religious public to endeavour to obtain the enactment of a law; not by which persons shall be compelled to assume the appearance of devotion, or to attend against their consciences, or even without their inclination, on Divine worship; but by which the tradesman, the artificer, the
The Evidence and Authority of Divine Revelation: being a View of the Testimony of the Law and the Prophets to the Messiah; with the Subsequent Testimonies. By ROBERT HALDANE. 2 vols. Edinburgh: Waugh and Innes. Price 12s.
THERE is scarcely any more formidable undertaking, of a literary kind, than that in which Mr. Haldane engaged when he entered on the work before us. Subjects connected with the evidences of Christianity have been discussed so frequently, and with so much ability, that it required considerable courage to undertake, and considerable powers to execute, a work of this nature;-a work which, besides having to pass through the ordeal of that criticism which is common to productions of every kind, would have also to stand the test of a comparison with what have long been considered as master-pieces in this line of writing. It is not our design to institute a comparison between Mr. Haldane and his predecessors; but thus much we may confidently affirm, because we are fully borne out in the statement by the work before us, that, in a deep sense of the importance of the subject; in extensive acquaintance with the best authors, both ancient and modern, whose information and reasonings it was important to collect, or whose errors and heresies it might be useful to expose and refute; in powers of discriminating be
tween genuine truth and its counterfeits, and of presenting his matter in a clear and convincing light;-in these qualifications for such an undertaking, (and unquestionably these are in the first class of qualifica' tions,) Mr. Haldane has been surpassed by few of those who have gone before him.
It must indeed be acknowledged, that, after the labours of those com. manding genuises who have directed their mighty powers to this subject, it would be idle to expect much of novelty, either in fact or argument or arrangement. Mr. Haldane lays claim to no merit of this kind. But his work possesses this excellence, that while it presents the various parts of the evidence of Christianity in such a light as to render the ultimate effect of it most impressive, it, at the same time, exhibits the most distinct view of the Gospel itself, as to its grand fundamental principles and doc. trines. In this particular respect Mr. Haldane's work has a decided superiority over those of the most renowned of his predecessors. Of some of them it may be said, that it did not fall within their plan fully and distinctly to develop the genius and doctrines of Christianity; while others of them, from having themselves defective if not erroneous views of its nature as the Gospel of salvation, have obscured, rather than illustrated, those branches of the subject. Even Dr. Chalmers (whose competency to do them ample justice his other works have
so decidedly evinced) was turned aside from it by the plan he had laid down for himself,-that of applying the principles of the experimental philosophy exclusively to the external evidences of Christianity. Mr. Haldane, on the contrary, has so constructed his plan as to admit a full and clear exposition of Christianity itself; so that the reader has before him, at once, a convincing demonstration of its Divine origin, and a lucid statement of its nature and peculiar character. Thus, while he sees that it has the stamp of infallible truth, he perceives also that it furnishes the provision and remedy devised by a merciful God for the guilt and misery of a fallen world.
The Introduction presents some striking remarks on the little attention that is paid to the concerns of a future world. This, as our author shews, does not arise from indifference to futurity itself. On the contrary, we are all much alive to every thing which relates to the future scenes of this present world. But as to a state of existence beyond the grave, our notion of it is so general and undefined, as to be easily overborne by sceptical reasonings, by the business and pleasures of life, or by surrounding example. Thus many are brought to the conclusion that nothing certain can be known respecting it. They resolve, therefore, to make the most of the present life, and to take their chance of another along with many whose judgment, and character they respect. To this they add some general maxims, that they are not worse than others, perhaps in many things more correct; that God is merciful; and that he never could have formed creatures to be finally condemned and rendered miserable.
Such scepticism as this is lodged in the minds of numbers, and influences their practice in life, with out their ever having expressed it to others in words, or perhaps even suspected it themselves. How fearful is this condition! They, no less
than the avowed infidel, stake their all against the truth of Christianity. If the Bible be not a fiction, although they may gain the world, they will lose their souls.
The work contains, besides the Introduction and a Conclusion,nineteen chapters, of which the following are the subjects, in their proper order :
"Necessity of a Divine Revelation; lity of Miracles; Genuineness and AuPersecuting Spirit of Pagans; Credibithenticity of the Holy Scriptures; Inspiration of the Scriptures; History of the Old Testament; Miracles of the Old Testament; Types of the Old Tes tament; Prophecies of the Old Testament; General Expectation of the Messiah; Appearance of the Messiah; Testimony of the Apostles to the Messiah; Testimony of the first Christians to the Messiah; that the Testimony of the Apostles and first Christians is not opposed by any contrary Testimony; Testimony to the Facts of the Gospel History, from the Admissions of those who professedly opposed or wrote against Christianity; Testimony to Facts recorded in the Gospel History, and to and Heathen Historians, and by the the Progress of the Gospel, by Jewish Public Edicts of the Roman Government; Testimony to the Messiah from the Success of the Gospel; that Facts recorded in the earlier Parts of the Scripture History cannot be disproved, and are corroborated by Tradition; Testimony to the Messiah from Prophecies that are at present fulfilling in the World; Conclusion-viz. Testimonies to the Messiah; Salvation of the Gospel; Persons who pervert, abuse, neglect, oppose, or receive the Gospel."
In treating of the Necessity of a Divine Revelation, Mr. Haldane goes on the principle that it is only from Revelation itself that the urgency of that necessity can be fully known. In this sentiment we entirely concur. It is true, indeed, that a few of the more deep-thinking and acute among the Heathen philosophers of antiquity expressed their conviction of the necessity of an instructor sent from the gods, to extricate them from the labyrinth of conjecture and uncertainty
in which they were sensible of being involved. But their desire of Divine illumination sprang rather from that insatiable curiosity which so strongly characterized them, than from any deep and settled conviction of its essential importance to the present happiness and future safety of man. They were sensible of their ignorance on some points. on which knowledge was desirable, and of uncertainty on others; but they felt not, that, having by sin incurred God's wrath, nothing but a Divine communication could instruct them how to recover his favour. Mr. Haldane has set this subject in so clear a light, and his view of it is so striking and just, that we shall present it in his own words.
"As soon as man rebelled against God, that relation in which he formerly stood, when holy and obedient, was ne
cessarily at an end. His dependence on
his Creator, however, was not dissolved by sin. From that dependence it was impossible he could set himself free. God had declared to him, that punishment should be the consequence of transgression, and the condemnation threatened he had now incurred. If, then, through mercy, the sentence pronounced on him was to be suspended or mitigated, and punishment warded off, the situation in which man would in that case be placed, must be made known to him. On what ground this new state of things should be introduced, and on what footing the renewed intercourse with his Creator should afterwards be maintained, no created intelligence could discover. A Divine revelation was therefore absolutely necessary, and this revelation was graciously vouchsafed." Vol. I. p. 7.
Mr. Haldane then adverts to the first promise of a Saviour, given immediately after the Fall, and to the occurrences at the Deluge, and also to the calling of Abraham, and the promises given to him. But these rays of celestial light were soon extinguished, and idolatry, in various forms, prevailed over all the earth. Mr. Haldane traces its progress and general prevalence, and strikingly exhibits the genius and
nature of what Mr. Gibbon, the historian, styles" the cheerful devotion" of the Pagans, and "the elegant mythology of the Greeks." It consisted, he says, of the vilest and most detestable rites. Human sacrifices were frequently offered on their altars. Many of their temples were places of avowed prostitution. Strabo relates, that the temple of Venus at Corinth was exceedingly rich, so as to have in property more than a thousand harlots, the slaves or ministers of the temple, dona-" tions made to the goddess by persons of both sexes. Hence, says he, the city was crowded, and be-' came wealthy. Such a system as this, so far from giving any aid to virtue, had not the slightest connecgreatly corrupt the manners of its tion with it: nay, it could not but votaries: accordingly, they were wholly dissolute. Mr. Haldane proceeds to give a melancholy, but faithful, detail of the practices which prevailed among the most polished of the Heathen nations; describing their unrestrained sensuto children and slaves, and especi ality and debauchery, their cruelty ally as displayed in the shows of the gladiators, and the ferocity with which their wars were conducted.
In the remainder of the chapter our author shews that philosophy could do nothing to stem this torrent on the contrary, that it was when philosophy was most cultivated, and had arrived at the highest point which it appears to have been capable of attaining, that these enormous evils prevailed most. The ignorance of philosophers themselves, on subjects connected with religion, its worship, its sanctions, the immortality of the soul, and a future state, incapacitated them for being instructors of mankind; while their no less erroneous notions respecting morals, disqualified them for discharging the office of reformers.-But the Heathen philosophers were destitute not only of the power to enlighten the people, but also of the inclination.
"They proceeded," as Mr. Haldane justly remarks, on the systematic exclusion of the body of the people from all the means of moral and religious instruction. Instead of attempting to enlighten the multitude, all the influence which they derived from their knowledge was employed to rivet on their minds the authority of the most degrading superstitions. The vulgar and unlearned, they contended, had no right to truth. All of them, without distinction, held it as a fixed maxim, that no alteration was to be made either in the established faith or worship. This was the express doctrine of Pythagoras, Socrates, Plato, Cicero, Epictetus, Seneca, and all the other great names of antiquity. Philosophers, statesinen, magistrates, and every one remarkable, whether for office or station, worshipped the gods, in common with the people, according to the esta blished mode. Their want of integrity, and of any settled good principle, is strikingly manifest in this temporizing conduct. Convinced of the folly and falsehood of the vulgar superstitions, they not only conformed to them them. selves, but taught their disciples to do the same. Thus they made hypocrisy and dissimulation, in so important a matter, an essential part of their instructions, confirmed them by their example, and perpetuated the most stupid idolatry, connected with the most abominable vices." Vol. I. pp. 30, 31.
In the conclusion of his remarks on this subject, Mr. Haldane reverts to the position with which he had commenced the chapter; namely, the ignorance which prevailed among philosophers, in common with all others, concerning the way of man's acceptance with God, now that sin has entered into the world. On what terms God, who cannot "look on iniquity," will hold intercourse with a fallen creature, who daily sins and comes short even of his own convictions of duty, none, neither philosophers nor others, could possibly discover. Nay, this was a subject which the philosophers never took into their consideration.
"Had then their lives," says Mr. Haldane, "been as pure as they were profligate, their moral system as com
plete as it was imperfect and erroneous, and their knowledge of a future state as clear as it was defective and perplexed, they would still have been blind guides, and totally unfit for the office of religious instructors." Vol. I. p. 32.
In the second chapter, entitled "The persecuting Spirit of Pagans," our author combats and disproves the statements of the two great champions of infidelity, Gibbon and Hume, on this subject. Mr. Gibbon descants on "the mild spirit of polytheism;" and Mr. Hume says,
So sociable is polytheism,
that the utmost fierceness and aversion it meets with in an opposite religion is scarce able to disgust and keep it at a distance." Nay, he goes further, and, in the face of fact and history, and regardless alike, in his malignity against religion, of his own character and of truth, ventures to assert, that "the intolerance of almost all religions which have maintained the unity of God, is as remarkable as the contrary spirit of polytheists." Mr. Haldane demonstrates the falsehood of this statement as it respects Paganism, and its calumny as it respects Christianity.
It is notorious that the most ample provision was made for the exercise of intolerance both in Greece and Rome. By the laws of Athens, no strange god was admitted, or foreign worship allowed, until approved by the court of Areopagus. The Romans had a law to the same effect. Livy mentions it as an established principle of the early ages of the commonwealth, to guard against the introduction of foreign ceremonies of religion. He says, that the prohibiting all foreign religions, and the abolishing every mode of sacri fice that differed from the Roman mode, were a business frequently entrusted by their ancestors to the care of the proper magistrates; for nothing, he observes, could contribute so effectually to the ruin of religion, as sacrificing after a foreign rite, and not after the manner instituted by their fathers. At an early