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his arts happen to prove unsuccess- joining Bushmen. Mr. Barrow, we recollect, supposes the Damaras, who lie to the north of the Orange River, in about the same latitude as the Marootzee nation, to be a people of Arabian origin. It seems, indeed, by no means improbable, that some colony from the opposite shores of Arabia, may have penetrated thus far into the south of Africa; but circumcision prevails so extensively throughout the whole of Africa, that it is not necessary to resort to this hypothesis in order to account for it.

ful, he has recourse to evasions, for saving his credit, similar to those resorted to by the quacks of more civilized countries. This is almost the only instance of superstitious belief or practice which occurs in Mr. Campbell's account of the people he visited; and it seems to arise from the occasional droughts which occur in that region, and which are greatly dreaded as the prelude to famine. There are, perhaps, hardly any uncultivated nations who have fewer ideas of a religious nature than these tribes of Southern Africa. Mr. Campbell was unable to collect with certainty whether they had any real belief in a Supreme Being, or in the immortality of the soul. Their replies to some of his questions on these subjects, betray the most deplorable ignorance and stupidity, At the same time, they practise no idolatry, and have, to all appearance, no rites or ceremonies of a pagan superstition. How lamentable soever their present state may be, perhaps it may be found, humanly speaking, less unfavourable to the diffusion of sacred truth than the circumstances of some more civilized nations, where the Christian Missionary meets with formidable impediments from the distinctions of cast, and from the influence of long-established institutions and opinions. What real Christian can refrain from pouring forth a prayer that these poor creatures may speedily have their eyes and hearts opened to the reception of that Gospel which has brought life and immortality to light, and which is made the power of God unto salvation to every one that believeth? It is a singular fact that the practice of circumcision prevails among the Bootshuana and Morolong nations; but it is unknown among the Corannas, a tribe in their immediate neighbourhood. Mr. Campbell considers the Corannas to be quite a different race from the Hottentots and the ad

The following are among the strange customs of these nations. The greater part of the Corannas have a joint taken from the little finger, the amputation being made with a sharp stone. When a friendly connexion is formed between two individuals of the Bootshuana tribes, the ceremony is to take each other by the nose*. Mr. Campbell observed five cuts across the left side of one man; an honourable distinction, which marked that he had killed five of his fellow-creatures. This This was probably in war, as assassination does not appear to be common. Some of their customs, however, are dreadfully unnatural; such as putting to death one of the infants, when a woman has twins. An old female was allowed to starve at Lattakoo, for want of food; and an old man, in the same place, was, from total neglect, actually devoured by dogs. "Yet," adds Mr. Campbell," though the Matchappees treat the aged, and those who

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* We are unwilling to withhold from our readers the following very curious and interesting piece of intelligence respecting the children at Lattakoo: "Their infants," observes Mr. Campbell, cry or weep exactly as they do in England; but those, who are above three or four years of age, bawl out, yō-yo-yo-yo-yō, — yō-yŏ-yö-yo-yo." Vol. I. p. 90.-Who would have supposed that the children of South Africa were so skilled in prosody, as to blubber in a regular series of longs and shorts!

are very poor, like brutes, they are friendly to each other, affectionate to their children, and sincerely lament the death of relatives." This may seem surprising; but similar anomalies exist among nations far more advanced in civilization than the Matchappees or Marootzees. The Hindoos, who put to death their aged relations, and the Chinese, who strangle their new-born infants, are examples, no less striking, of the degree of wretched depravity to which hu man nature may be sunk, and of a state of society, comparatively civilized, in which, while many kindly affections are undoubtedly exercised, yet those very indivi. duals whose circumstances most loudly call for pity and assistance, are the marked objects of neglect and cruelty. Nay, it has been our lot to bave known not a few, born and educated in Christian Europe, who have combined an unfeeling perpetration of all the atrocities of the Slave Trade, and the merciless infliction of torture on the slave, with strong attachment to their relations, and with a readiness, from whatever motive, to perform acts of generosity and beneficence towards others. Doubtless the cause of these anomalies is in all cases the same, the want of true Christian principle; and the only effectual cure for them is the diffusion of Christian light, which would put to shame such deeds of darkness, even if it failed of its grand object, the conversion of the heart to God. Its softening and harmonizing tendencies would render that religion a boon and blessing to mankind, even if it opened no certain prospect of immortal happiness beyond the grave.

The progress of the Matchappees and Marootzees in the art of cookery, will, probably, be not a little undervalued by our European gourmands, whom, however, they clearly excel in their capacity of eating; for "their stomachs being capable of receiving almost any

quantity, they never consider a meal to be finished till all be eaten up." The following is a specimen of their culinary skill.

“The legs and feet of the rhinoceros, being of a huge size, require to be cooked in an oven, and the following curious method is adopted for the purpose:-The ants' nests are composed of hard clay, shaped like a baker's oven, and are from two to three feet in height Several of these were excavated by the

people early in the morning, and their innumerable population destroyed. The space thus obtained was filled with lighted fuel, till the bottom and sides became red hot within. The embers of the wood were then removed, the leg or foot of the rhinoceros introduced, and the door closed up with heated clay and embers. Fire was also made on the outside over the nests, and the flesh

was allowed to remain in it for several hours. Food cooked in this way is

highly relished by all the tribes." Vol. I.

p. 205.

Cookery, however, is not the only art in which the Marootzees

have made considerable attainments.

"The Marootzees are confidently reported by other nations to smelt cop. per: they profess the same themselves, and they abound in copper articles more than the other nations. They asserted also that copper furnaces were behind the houses of some of their captains, but we never could obtain a sight of them. They did not flatly refuse, but put it off from time to time. Perhaps they acted thus on the principle of the Birmingham and Sheffield manufacturers, being jealous lest others should obtain a knowledge of the art.

"Moeelway married one of his father's widows, who is a clever, goodlooking woman, about ten or twelve years older than himself*.

"The following articles of trade are manufactured at Kurreechane: - Of Iron-Pick-axes, adzes, battle-axes, knives, assagais, razors, awls, drillbores, or bits, smith-tongs, hammers,

• We were somewhat surprised at the introduction of this important article of intelligence at this particular place; nor can we, after much reflection, discover the relation which it bears to the manufactures of Kurreechane,

rings, beads. Of Ivory-Knife-handles, His claws are so firmly fixed, that the flying and terrified anioral seldom succeeds in freeing himself from his rider, till the lion himself chooses to dismount." We cannot well conceive a more uncomfort

whistles, arm and leg rings. Of Copper -Neck, arm, leg, and ear rings, beads. Of Rushes-Baskets, bonnets. Of Lea ther-Cloaks, caps, sandals, shields. Of Wood-Various kinds of dishes, spoons. Of Clay, &c.-Various sizes and patterns of pots, jars, goblets. Of StonePipes.

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They grow much tobacco, both for their own consumption and as an article of trade. In preparing it they boil the leaves, which greatly reduces its strength, and renders it insipid to those accustomed to tobacco otherwise

prepared; yet such is the power of habit that they preferred it greatly to ours, though much stronger.

"They have iron, found to be equal to any steel. A cutler at Kurreechane would be able to support the mission almost without any expense to the Society, if a disinterested man. Every knife he manufactured, though without being made to shut, would be worth a sheep, and many of these he could make in a day. He would instantly find cns. tomers among the inhabitants of the town, and those from other nations. A rough-made axe is worth an ox." Vol. I. pp. 275-277,

South Africa is rich in wild animals. The lion, the tiger, the buf. falo, the rhinoceros, the guacha, or wild ass, striped like the zebra, the cameleopard, the jackall, and the ostrich, with many other varieties of natural history, seem to abound in these countries; though the gradual introduction of firearms among the natives, will doubtless soon reduce their number. Twenty-eight lions were killed, upon a single farm, at the northern extremity of the colony, in one month. The guachas travel in flocks, of several hundreds at a time, and those who hunt them generally endeavour first to kill their leader, which throws all the rest into confusion. A very curious account is given of the lion and the cameleopard, "The lion can seldom kill this animal, owing to the thickness of his skin. He has been known to jump upon the back of the cameleopard, and to be carried a distance of twenty miles.

able place for any rider, than the back of a cameleopard.-Mr.Camp. bell has given a drawing of the head of an animal he calls a unicorn, which appears to differ considerably from the common rhinoceros. It has a horn, nearly straight, springing about ten inches above the tip of the nose, and projecting upwards to the length of three feet. Behind tuis is a very short horn, hardly visible at a distance. The artifice of the jackall is worth relating, under this head of observation. mouse, when pursued by this aniThe field mal, escapes to his hiding-place, which is a cell under ground, with two holes or openings. In order to secure his prey, the jackall strikes with his tail against one hole, to frighten the little animal, and watches the other with open mouth, to devour him, on his exit.

stead of being the lion's provider, The jackall, it seems, infeasts upon the remains of carcases which the lion has abandoned.

The following description of a salt lake, situate in the country of the wild Bushmen, about 20 miles south of the Orange River, and 120 miles north of the present boundary of the colony, is curious and interesting.

of three or four miles circumference, "At five P. M. the bed of a salt lake, suddenly presented itself to our view, covered with a thick crust of salt, but destitute of water. Our waggons descended, and travelled along its side to a small spring of fresh water, near its southern extremity, during which we walked upon the hard surface of the salt, The whole resembled a large level field of deep snow, where a fall of rain had

extraordinary animal is preserved in the Museum of the London Missionary Society, in the Old Jewry.

The skeleton of the head of this

been succeeded by a sharp frost. On digging into it, at different parts, we found the depth of solid salt to be three and four inches, under which were mud

and water; so that we were actually borne up by the salt, as on ice during the winter of a northern climate. The whole plain of salt, in consequence of the bright sunshine, sparkled as if strewed with diamonds of the first lustre, appearing like enchanted ground.

Therm. 72.

"This noble work of the Creator stands solitary in the wilderness, seldom viewed by admiring eyes. Of so little value is it considered by the Bushmen in whose district it is, that probably they would sell it for a single ox; but when the population shall increase, this lake may become more valuable than a mine of gold or silver." Vol. II. pp. 285, 286.

There is some curious matter in the Appendix to these volumes: but the Bootshuana tales, which are the essence of juvenile absurdity, are without point or moral that we can discover; and Mr. Campbell's memorials of some of the natives, which he terms their lives, are, unquestionably, the most wretched specimens of biography that were ever published. They afford little information, to be depended on, respecting the adjacent countries, and consist of a tiresome succession of predatory expeditions, or hair-breadth escapes from buffaloes and lions.

We shall next advert to what occurs, in the course of Mr. Campbell's volumes, to shew the effect which Christianity has produced, or may be expected to produce, among the degraded population of Southern Africa. At Lattakoo, it appears that the natives have abandoned the system of going on commandoes, or predatory expeditions, against the neighbouring tribes, for the purpose of carrying off their cattle; and this happy change the King Mateebe attributed expressly to the advice of the Missionaries stationed there. "The Word, he saw, was peaceable. He had been told, that if he received the Missionaries, they

would make him and his people slaves; but it was good that they came: all were pleased with the Word; and now they disapproved of bad things, of commandoes." Their readiness to listen to the preaching of the Gospel, considering their very low state of intellectual culture, is remarkable. At the time of evening worship the call to come together was vociferated, some calling out, "Come and hear the news of the Son of God." This was of their own accord; and numbers usually attended, listening with great stillness to the preacher. Nor was the preaching without some effect. We find some of the young Matchappees giving an intelligible account of what they had heard, and expressing a wish that God would give them a heart to understand his word, for they found it very difficult; and one of their chiefs, the uncle of the king, lamented "that though his nation had been the first to hear the word of God on that land, and that though he had assisted by this journey to carry the Gospel to other nations, he himself should neither have ears nor heart to understand it." We were particularly struck with the language of a poor female Matchappee, named Manyena.

"She called and told me," says Mr. Campbell, "that when she first heard of the Bible she did not think it was true; but when she found it describe her heart so exactly, she could not but believe what it said. She was determined, she added, always to live near some place where the word of God was preached, where she might hear about a crucified Saviour, though she should starve. Jesus died for sinners, and she

would not leave the Word. She prayed that I might be carried back safe to

the Cape and to England.” Vol. II.

p. 170.

The Mission, however, to Lattakoo, is very recent. Among the Griquas, who live to the south of that place, near the banks of the Orange River, the benefits of

Christian instruction have been enjoyed for a longer time, and are more signally displayed. The following extract will illustrate this fact.

"After dinner we removed to Berend's kraal, about two miles distant, where a considerable number of people assembled in the evening to worship. It was a motley meeting, being composed of Griquas, Namaquas, Damaras, Bootshuanas, Bushmen, &c. No congregation could have sat more still, both without and within the tent, though there was a cold wind blowing, accompanied with darkness, thunder, lightning, and rain.

"There was one circumstance in this meeting of a very affecting nature. I saw before me, at this moment, worshipping under the same tent, and receiving the glad tidings of the Gospel with much feeling, the noted Africaner, and Berend the Griqua captain. Till their conversion they were mortal ene. mies to each other. Berend was brought to feel the power of Divine truth several years before Africaner. When the Namaqua chief was converted, he sent a message to the Griqua chiefs, confessing the injuries he had done them, and soliciting them at the same time to unite with him in promoting universal peace, and the improvement of the people.

"Africaner and Berend are both

judicious, excellent Christians; and their own feelings must have been strongly excited upon the present occasion. These patriarchal men are now kings, fathers, and priests, in their domestic connexions. They instruct their families, preside among the people in the absence of missionaries, and breathe nothing but peace on earth and good will to men. Thus when God blesses his people, he makes them blessings to others. With all the particulars relating to these chiefs in view, what would Infidelity have said on contemplating so interesting a scene? To what agency would she have ascribed this marvellous change in the characters of these men ? Could her favourite system have exhibited such fruits, she would have called upon all men to fall down and worship her!

"The subject of address was-' The invitation of God to the ends of the earth to look to Him, and to Him alone, for salvation.' Berend,` on this occasion,

engaged in prayer, and Africaner knelt at his side. Twenty-four years before this time they and their respective adherents fought for five days against each other on the banks of the Great Orange River. Africaner had now some intention of leaving the west side of Africa, and of taking up his residence in the vicinity of Berend, for the remainder of his days." Vol. II. pp.

237-239.

We sions to the south of the Orange say nothing here of the misRiver, and within the bounds of the colony of the Cape of Good Hope. Our former volumes contain such ample details, of the successful labours both of the Moravian Brethren and of the London Missionary Society, as to render rather to collect, from the account this unnecessary. We are anxious given us of those newer and more re. mote missions attempted to the north of the Orange River, such facts as are calculated to encourage the hope of introducing the Gospel, with all its attendant blessings, among those barbarous tribes which have now for the first time been brought to least been smoothed and prepared. our knowledge. The road has at The kind reception which has been given to the missionaries by some of the native chiefs, and the actual or projected establishment, with the fullest consent of the chiefs and people, of missionary settlements so far up in the interior, are favourable omens of ultimate success. We see little danger for those establishments, provided the missionaries, and future travellers into the same quarter, conduct themselves in the peaceable and prudent manner which has distinguished all Mr. Campbell's proceedings; and, should these settlements flourish, they will, in no long time, send out the neighbouring districts. shoots and branches to overspread impression has been made upon the minds of several of the chiefs, that the missionaries are harmless, friendly, and disinterested men, travelling into the interior for the pur

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