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for inclosing the following circum-
Extract from the Preface to Dr.
"Notwithstanding the Doctor's non-conformity, he had some friends among the bishops, particularly Dr. Wilkins, bishop of Chester, who was very cordial to him; and Dr. Barlow, bishop of Lincoln, for merly his tutor, who yet, on a special occasion, failed him, when he might have expected the service of his professed friendship.
"The case was this:-Mr. John Bunyan had been confined to a gaol twelve years, upon an excommunication for non-conformity. Now there was a law, that if any two persons will go to the bishop of the diocese, and offer a cautionary bond that the prisoner shall con
form in half a year, the bishop may release him upon that bond; whereupon a friend of this poor man desired Dr. Owen to give his letter to the bishop on his behalf, which he readily granted. The bishop, having read it, told the person who delivered it, that he had a particular kindness for Dr. Owen, and would deny him nothing he could legally do. Nay, saith he, with my service to him, I will strain a point to serve him. (This was his very expression). But, says he, this being a new thing to me, I desire a little time to consider of it; and if I can do it, you may be assured of my readiness. He was waited upon again about a fortnight after, and his answer was, That indeed he was informed he might do it; but, the law providing that in case the bishop refused, application should be made to the lord chancellor, who thereupon should issue out an order to the bishop to take the customary bond, and release the prisoner: now, said he, you know what a critical time this is, and I have many enemies; I would desire you to move the lord chancellor in this case, and upon his order I will do it. To which it was replied, This method was very chargeable, and the man was poor, and not able to expend so much money, and being satisfied he could do it legally, it was hoped his lordship would remember his promise, there being no straining a point in the case. But he would do it The former upon no other terms; which at last was done, but little thanks to the bishop."
* A letter, signed "B. Hanbury," has just appeared in a contemporary Magazine, in reply to a paper in that work, copied, with additions, from the communication in the Christian Observer. In this letter Mr. Hanbury brings evidence to prove that it is "only by inference that Zoar-street Meeting is said to have been Bunyan's." Wilson, in his voluminous "History of Dissenting Churches," takes no notice of Bunyan's alleged connexion with Zoar-street Meetinghouse; but, treating of "Duke-street Park, Southwark," says, "This Meetinghouse belonged to a very ancient society of General Baptists.
Meeting-house, which was an ancient building, is said to have been the place where the celebrated John Bunyan most usually preached when in London." Mr. Hanbury therefore recommends the admirers of Bunyan to explore "Duke-street Park Meeting house," instead of Zoar-street Meetinghouse, in search of their antiquarian entertainment. Mr. Hanbury further thinks, that in the account which says that Bunyan "preached several times about London, particularly in the parish of Southwark," the word parish is a misprint for park, there being five parishes in Southwark.
Tothe Editor of the Christian Observer. IN allusion to the Jewish custom of releasing a prisoner at the Passover, it was for many ages the practice in some parts of Christendom to liberate one or more persons from bonds at the annual commemoration of our Saviour's resurrection. This custom is said to have been preserved among the Vene
tians as late as towards the close of the last century and I should be much obliged to any of your readers who, in this age of travelling, may have had occasion to pass an Easter in Venice, to inform me whether the practice has been
abolished;-or, if abolished during
REVIEW OF NEW PUBLICATIONS.
Travels in South Africa, undertaken at the Request of the London Missionary Society; being a Narrative of a Second Journey in the Interior of that Country. By the Rev. JOHN CAMPBELL, 2 vols. London. 1822. pp. 706.
IT is dismal to look at a map of Africa, and there observe the blank which stretches through the centre of that vast continent. An area, measured from the 10th degree north of the equator, to the 25th degree of south latitude, and comprehending a width, in some parts, of 20 degrees of longitude, presents nothing but a mighty void, concerning which, except that we guess it to be land, we know almost as little as we do about the regions in the moon. The Portuguese have possessed settlements on the eastern and western coasts for more than two centuries. The distance between the extreme inland boundaries of Congo and Angola, on the one side, and those of Mozambique on the other, probably does not exceed one thousand miles. Yet, during their long period of possession, they have made no attempts towards discovery in the interior, or towards promoting an intercourse between the opposite coasts. Such a state of contented ignorance, and such a total absence of enlightened curiosity, so opposite to the early habits of the Portuguese, surely never before disgraced the annals of a country, calling itself civilized. The cause CHRIST. OBSERV. No, 245.
may be traced to the Slave Trade; the effect of which is to brutalize not only its victims, but the perpetrators and agents of its atrocities. The latter are indifferent to all objects but that of their lawless and cruel gain; and among the former, the trade necessarily produces that state of universal 'distrust and suspicion, and that insecurity of person and property, which, while they prevail, must continue to cover a large part of Africa with its present obscurity. Fortunately for the traveller whose advance into the interior of that continent we have now to notice, the horrors of the Slave Trade have not yet penetrated to the line of his march; and, although the people whom he visited appear to stand at a very low point in the scale of civilized existence, and although many of the worst evils of savage life are to be found among them, yet they are not cursed with this tenfold aggravation of them all. Hence, in part, the comparative security which our traveller enjoyed, during his adventurous progress.
We are certainly disposed to think, that if discovery is at length
to extend itself in the interior of Southern Africa, it must be by the labours of such enterprizing travellers as Mr. Campbell, aided by the zealous countenance and cooperation of the local authorities at the Cape, whose best encouragement, we are persuaded, will never be wanting, either to the curious 2 Q
traveller, or to the disinterested and benevolent missionary.
As men, we take a lively interest in all attempts to enlarge our knowledge of the earth and its inhabitants; and as Christian Observers, we take a more than common interest in such attempts, when we find them connected with the growth and diffusion of true religion. But, even that interest is heightened, whenever, as in the present instance, the information relates to a part of the globe which excites so many painful reco!lections, and to which we owe so deep a debt of reparation. It is on this ground chiefly that we bring a second journey of Mr. Campbell's in Southern Africa before the notice of our readers. We cannot, indeed, bestow great praise upon his work as a composition. It is thrown too much into the form of a tedious and minute diary. There is a frequent recurrence of the same little circumstances, related in nearly the same words. The reader is seldom enlivened by interesting observations, proceeding from comprehensive views of human nature; and the style is as tame and flat as any desert in the continent of Africa. Whatever oases the author might find in his travels, he has treated us with none in his language and composition. Yet his work is well worth reading, because it abounds in matter of fact, upon which we may rely with confidence. Every now and then too, some curious circumstance rises up to relieve the general heaviness of the perusal. In short, we much admire Mr. Campbell's courage, enterprise, and activity; we most highly venerate his Christian and benevolent motives; and we cannot form a more suitable wish, either for him, or for ourselves, or for Africa, than that, encouraged by his past success, and by the rapid progress of the missions he has founded, he may again renew his journey, and bearing with him, as before, the pre
cious gift of the Gospel, may penetrate as far as the mouth of the Niger, or the mountains of the Moon, and return in safety to end his pilgrimage in his native land.
We gave some account of Mr. Campbell's first journey, in our work for 1815; and we now intend to present our readers with a brief review of his recent volumes. They are published, as the former was, at the expense, and under the superintendence, of the London Missionary Society. Amidst such a mass of information as the present work exhibits, it is evident that we can make only a scanty selection; and all we can promise our readers is, to follow the traveller throughout that part of his progress which extends beyond the limit of his former journey, and to insert a few of the most interesting passages relating to the interior of Southern Africa. We shall reserve, for the close of this article, some reflections on the subject of Christian Missions.
The traveller, Barrow, as well as our author, had before penetrated as far as Lattakoo, a town situated in about 27 degrees south latitude, and more than 100 miles to the north of the Orange River*. In their present journey they took a different route from the former, passing by the site of a projected new town, to be called Beaufort, at the northern extremity of the colony. Between this and the Orange River, they had a tedious and somewhat hazardous journey across the country of the wild Bushmen. These are a race of poor, wandering savages, half-famished, and so inured to dirt, that, when advised to wash themselves, "they were much diverted with the idea, and seemed unable to comprehend what end could be answered by such an operation." This country abounds
* Our author left Cape Town, Janufriends, and the necessary Hottentot ary 18, 1820, in company with two attendants. Their conveyance consisted of waggons, drawn by oxen.
with lions. The waggons forded the Orange River, where it was a quarter of a mile broad, and soon brought them to Griqua Town. Here are a small missionary settlement, and a school, conducted ac cording to the British system, of more than one hundred children, who appear to make good progress in their education. On arriving at New Lattakoo, our author was received in a friendly manner by the King Mateebe, and by the Chief of Mashow, an adjoining territory. A missionary station had been formed at Lattakoo, since the former visit of Mr. Campbell, and a commodious place of worship erected, capable of containing four hundred persons. Mr. Campbell was encouraged to proceed farther north, notwithstanding the fate of Dr. Cowan and his party, who were murdered by the natives, some years ago. The reply of Mateebe to Mr. Campbell when he proposed to visit the King of Ma. show is remarkable: "I will never hinder the progress of the word of God." Old Lattakoo is a place fifty miles to the north of the New Town, and each contains a population of about four thousand. The people of this country are most persevering dancers. The dance which was given in honour of Mr. Campbell's arrival, continued six hours, without interruption, and without weariness. They
also wonderfully fond of snuff, and emptied his boxes without mercy. The following passage presents a not unpleasing picture of this uncultivated race of beings.
"On entering Old Lattakoo," says Mr. Campbell," the inhabitants of all descriptions, old and young, rushed out from every quarter towards the waggons. We found Mahoomoo Peloo (or Richheart) the chief, in the square, in the middle of the town,sitting with some of his principal captains on each side of him, ready to receive us. He was employed in sewing a leather cap. Two women who stood near him, were ccupied in making rush bonnets of a
circular shape, shallow in the crown and very neat. A great concourse of people soon collected; and when the captains arrived they immediately came forward, and saluted us by shaking hands, some of them instantly asking for snuff. The children, though they had seen White people before, were shy, and some shewed much timidity, but a little attention soon made them familiar. The chief presented us with two pots full of thick milk, which, from its cool. ing effects, was very agreeable, the weather being sultry. He tasted both that they contained nothing poisonous." before he presented them, to shew Vol. I. pp. 122, 123.
From Old Lattakoo Mr. Campbell proceeded to Meribohwhey, in the Tammaha country. It may here be observed, once for all, that the natives of this part of Africa, as in most other districts of savage life, are divided into an infinite number of small tribes, passing under different names, but appearing to have no regular acknowledged boundaries, and being much confounded together by a similarity of features, language, manners, and customs. Excepting that all of them own independent chieftains, and make predatory incursions upon their neighbours, they have perhaps little more right to be considered separate races of men, than the different inhabitants of our English counties. Mr. Campbell's work abounds with hard, unpronounceable names of countries which no European probably ever heard of before. But many of these crabbed appellations are in reality the distinctions of a people amongst whom little real difference of national character is to be found. must be admitted, at the same time, that these tribes exhibit some considerable varieties. Perhaps, the most palpable feature of improvement which can be mentioned, as distinguishing civilized from savage life, consists in the possession of a written language. The tribes of Southern Africa are totally destitute of this. But the degrees of barbarism are as numerous as the
degrees of civilization; and the progress of the natives, in some of the most common and useful arts, seems to advance, as we proceed farther northward into the interior. The following description of African scenery is not uninteresting. Mr. Campbell is chiefly describing the country between Old Lattakoo and Meribohwhey.
"During the whole of my journey, from the Cape to Lattakoo, the surface of the ground was bare, except on the banks of rivers; but here, as far as could be seen in every direction, it was covered with wood. The trees were not close to each other, but scattered, and sometimes in clumps, having the appearance of a nobleman's park. The only part of Africa I had observed in the former journey at all resembling it was in the neighbourhood of the Malalareen River, about a hundred miles to the eastward of New Lattakoo. Long grass grew every where among the trees; and, though on the verge of winter, the heat and the scenery around had the feeling and appearance of an English summer. Therm. 80. It differs from Zureveld (or Albany), that part of the colony bordering on Caffraria to which the emigrants have gone. There, the woods are very extensive; but they are almost impenetrable, except to Caffres. In this part of Africa, the traveller thinks himself surrounded by a wood which he never reaches, the trees seeming to separate as he advances." Vol. I. pp. 133, 134.
His account of a sermon, preached to the natives of these parts, who now heard a Christian missionary for the first time, is a piece of moral scenery which is still more interesting.
"24th. At nine A. M. the tent was filled with the principal men, aud a numerous congregation opposite the tent-door ;-when I addressed them on the manifestations of God's power, wisdom, &c. in his works, by which they were surrounded; of his intimate knowledge of their thoughts, words, and actions; the need which they and all nations have of a Saviour; and that God had provided the very Saviour they needed. I concluded by stating that our chief business at Meribohwhey was to declare the good news unto
them. The interpreter sat at the tentdoor, and repeated in their language what was said, with an audible voice. It was very gratifying to observe the silence and attention that prevailed during the whole time." Vol. I. pp. 167, 168.
Mr. Campbell proceeded to Mashow. "Walking on the outside of the town," he says, we counted rather divisions of the place. Asseven or eight villages around, or cending two eminences to see the extent of their cultivated land, we had a view of several hundred acres of Caffre corn: many of the stalks were eight and nine feet high, and had a fine appearance."-The agriculture of these tribes is confined of their towns; all the rest of the to patches in the immediate vicinity country being either forest, wilderness, or pasture-land. Their riches consist chiefly in cattle, particularly oxen, which seem to thrive greatly in these parts. Inoculation for the small-pox prevails among the natives of Mashow, and is said to have been derived from White men to the north-east, doubtless the Portuguese of Mozambique, who might have been the means of propagating the distemper itself among the natives of the interior, as well as its alleviation. The population, in and about Mashow, amounts to ten or twelve thousand; and the circuit of the cornfields, belonging to this population, is not less than twenty miles. The buffalo and rhinoceros, as well as lions, abound here, and are very large and ferocious. In these countries, it appears that the king is executioner, as well as judge.
"A message came from the king to the people in the square near the waggons, requiring some men to come and assist him in punishing a criminal. Several instantly ran to assist, and we followed them to a neighbouring inclosure. The young man was laid flat on the ground, and four men held his arms and legs: the king stood at his head and a servant at his feet, both having large whips of the rhinoceros skin, resembling a lady's whip in Eng