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“ So spake the cherub,"
have been thus recommended. But that is, to Satan, who had been in regard to a mind on which the caught in the form of a toad tempt- sacred volume could operate in its ing Eve in her sleep,
full force, it would appear as con.
tributing not only to the means of “ and his grave rebuke, Severe in youthful beanty, added grace holiness, but
to the inspirations of Severe in youthful beanty, added grace genius. In Paradise Lost, poetry Invincible : abash'd the devil stood, And felt how awful goodness is, and saw
and eloquence are under eternal Virtue in her shape how lovely; saw. obligations to the Scriptures. To and pin'd
one of the greatest productions of His loss.
any age, they have given birth; and The eulogy, in the sixth book, on
some of the first beauties of the the fidelity of Abdiel, beautifully poem are drawn from their stores. delineates the character of that The natural sublimity of Milton's virtue, and is conceived in the very diligent perusal of the Bible ; and
genius was much improved by bis spirit of religion.
his manner, style, turn of thought, u Servant of God, well done! well hast allusions, and tigures bear an agreethou fought
ble analogy to those of the Sacred The better fight, who single hast maiu- Volume, and, to a considerable ex
tain'd Against revolted multitudes, the cause
tent, are suggested by its contents. of truth, in word mightier than they in Compared with another valuable
poem, in the light now considered, And for the testimony of truth hast Paradise Lost is a kind of reflection borue
of the historical and didactic maUniversal reproach, far worse to bear: jesty of the religion of the Bible ; Than violence: for this was all thy care while the Task of Cowper is an To stand approv'd in sight of God, image of its practical and experithough worlds
In the one, Judg'd thee perverse."
this religion appears in its overParadise Lost contains too many powering grandeur and doctrinal admirable representations of the solemnity ; in the other, in its enqualities of moral action to be all chanting beauty and every-day use. here noticed. The few that have In Paradise Lost, you find it, as been presented may serve as speci- Plato says of music, an imitation of mens of the rest.
the most beautiful nature possible, 4. The religious character of and arrayed in the attributes of an Paradise Lost is further recom- unbending divinity: in the Task, you mended by the consideration, that find it in a form of the most beall. tbe poemn forms a noble commentary tiful nature actual, and shining on ihe Bible, viewed as a store- with the tempered brightness of the house of elevated ideas. Above example of Him who was embodied all other poems, it may be consi- perfection. . . Milton associates redered as representing the grand and ligion with all the loftiness of the sublime of Christianity, not indeed understanding; Cowper with all without expressing at times some the sensibilities of the heart. Where of its more soft and beautiful fea-. These respective qualities are occa. tures. It may serve to prove, with sionally interchanged, they serve what advantage the Bible may be only to heighten, by contrast, the employed in matters of taste and value of the peculiar aud prevailfine writing. This, however, is ing characteristics of each. rather a collateral circumstance, Examples, confirming the truth thau a direct consideration evinc- of the above remarks in regard to ing the value of the poem in a moral Paradise Lost, cannot be adequate. point of view. In the hands of an ly given, unless by rehearsing a inferior genius, the Bible would not considerable part of the book : but CHRIST. OBSERV. No. 244.
whence could the moral grandeur of inordinate action, their tone would such a sentiment, for instance, as be destroyed by over excitement ; the following, be derived except and if the supply from the stomach from the religion of the Bible? were not equal to the consumption, Antiquity has produced nothing the body must rapidly waste away. that can be compared to it. Belial, In other proportions, ihese very inthough racked with the anguish of gredients form one of the inost cora reprobate spirit is made to say, rosive of acids, a very small quan
6. that must be our core, tity of which taken internally would To be no more : sad core! for who
cause certain death. would lose, Thuugh full of pain, this intellectual by some writers into the respirable
The gasses bave been divided being : Those thoughts that wander through
and non-respirable; or those which eternity;
support, and those which extinguish To perish rather, swallow'd up and lost combustion; and it is remarkable, In the wide womb of uncreated night, that if we attempt to breathe any of Devoid of sense and motion ?"
the latter, they stimulate the mus(To be continued.)
cles of the epiglottis in such a man
ner as to keep it perfectly close, To the Editor of the Christian Observer. utmost exertions, the smallest quan
and prevent, in opposition to our I HAVB thought that it might be tity of gas from entering into the useful to select a few of the most windpipe or lungs. Oxygen gas is prominent features in Chemistry, absorbed by the blood through the which are proofs of the existence lungs; but, as if with an express and providence of the Deity, and view to preserve the caloric that is which have been omitted to be men. necessary for the animal temperationed, or are only slightly touched ture, carbonic acid gas and nitrogen upon, by Dr. Paley and other writers gas, which are thrown off by ihe on Natural Theology. The facts act of respiration, have been endued I have selected are purposely taken with less capacity for caloric than from popular sources, and, though any other gaseous substances: the familiar to persons of science, may first of them bas even less capacity be perused with pleasure and im- for it than many liquids, and the seprovement, by your younger read. cond less than ice itself. The iners especially, for whose benefit I terval between every inspiration, chiefly wish their insertion in your by a most providential adjustment, pages.
allows time for Ibe nitrogen, which I shall begin with describing some is lighter than the atmospheric air, regulations in regard to air and to ascend, and for the carbonic acid water, which are attended with be- gas, which is heavier, to descend, neficial consequences. The air by which means a space is left for which we breathe is composed of a fresh current of uncontaminated two gasses, oxygen and nitrogen, air. and contains likewise a portion of Atmospheric air has the procarbonic acid gas, which is a union perty of preserving its equilibrium of carbon and oxygen. These at all times; and its elasticity is such gasses occur exactly in the right that, however it may be consumed proportion for the support of ani. by respiration or combustion, its mal life. If the parts of oxygen place is immediately supplied by a and nitrogen were reversed, the new portion, and it is found to be air taken in by respiration would of a homogeneous nature at whatbe more stimulant, ibe circulation ever altitude, or in whatever cli. would become accelerated, and all mate it may be examined. Amongst the secretions would be increased: its several uses, it is well known to the vessels being thus stimulated to refract the sun's rays when below the horizon, which is the cause of air by its union with the nitrogen twilight; and it has been ascertain- rejected by animal respiration. ed by aeronauts, that birds cannot They also absorb hydrogen from fly beyond a certain height, wbich water, and disengage the oxygen, shews that its density near the sur- which is attended with the benefiface of the earth is exactly what cial effect just mentioned. The was requisite for the residence of whole of the oxygen, however, is the feathered race. The principle not given out by vegetables, but of fluidity, which is owing to calo- part is retained, which, together ric, (or the matter of beat, as dis. with carbon and hydrogen, forms linguished from the effect,) being sugar, oil, wax, gum, &c. The interposed between the particles of upper side of the leaf is the organ a fluid, would dissipate all fluids of respiration : hence some plants, into the air, were it not for the which close the upper surfaces of pressure of the atmosphere, and their leaves during the night, give the mutual attraction that subsists out oxygen only in the day. In between these particles; and were addition to the usefulness of vegetait not for the same pressure, the bles for the renovation of the atnjoselastic fluids contained in the finer phere, many insects assist in the vessels of animals and vegetables, accomplishment of the same pur. would burst them, and life become pose, and convert to their own sup. extinct.
port such substances as, by the exTo evaporation we are indebted halation of their putrid miasmata, for many important services. The would in time destroy the whole temperature of the human body is animal ceation. So wonderfully is much greater than that of the sur- the balance kept up, that the air of rounding air ; and were it not for the most crowded cities has been the excess of heat being carried off found to contain as much oxygen by perspiration, we should be ex- gas as that of other places. hausted under any great fatigue: In general, bodies contract, and but cold blooded animals, whose become of greater specific gravity, temperature is regulated by the me- in cooling : but water affords a redium iu wbieh they live, never per- markable exception; for it actually spire. The ocean supplies many becomes increased in bulk, and its millions of gallons of water by eva specific gravity continues to lessen, poration, which is conveyed by the as it cools. Ice is lighter than water, winds to every part of the Conti. partly owing to air-bubbles pronent; and the Mediterranean alone duced in it while freezing ; but it is said to lose more by this cause, has been supposed, that the inthan it receives from the Nile, the crease of bulk is owing to a diffeTiber, the Rhone, the Po, and all rent arrangement of its particles, other rivers that fall into it. ice being a crystallization com
Water is composed of two gasses, posed of filaments, which are found hydrogen and oxygen; and had not to be uniformly joined at a partithese ingredients been so propor- cular angle, and by this disposition tioned as to neutralize each other, occupy a greater volume tban if it would have been converted into they were parallel. Were water a highly corrosive poisoo. Hydro- subjected to the usual law of nagen, oxygen, and carbon, are the ture, it would have sunk as it froze, lood of plants, which have the and the beds of rivers would have power of decomposing air and water. been congealed; but by swimming The vegetative organs seize the car. upon the surface, the ice preserves bonic acid gas of the atmosphere; a vast body of caloric in the suband while they appropriate the car- jacent fluid from the effects of the bon to themselves, the oxygen is cold. It is equally worthy of nothrown off, in order to renovate the tice, that the upper stratum of
water in rivers and lakes, by giving Phosphate of lime, which is a out caloric to the currents of cold salt composed of phosphoric acid air passing over them, becomes, in and lime, and is one of the chief inconsequence of the arrangement gredients in bones, is found also in just mentioned, of greater specific milk, and assists in the formation gravity than the substratum, and of bones in the young ani mal; therefore sinks ; and this occasions but after its bones are sufficiently the rise of a portion of warmer wa- strengthened, the milk of the moter, which gives out its caloric in ther loses this property: .so that, in like manner, and this constant cir- this instance, there not only appears culation very much contributes to to be a provision, but that provision moderate the rigour of winter is withdrawn when there is no throughout the temperate zones. longer any use for it. This salt In the ocean,' and other deep is also found in the eggs of birds, bodies of water, this circulation though not in all other shells, evigoes on for a considerable time, dently for a similar reason; and likeand an immense quantity of ca- wise in the farina of wheat, while the loric is thus thrown into the at- straw which was not intended for mosphere: but, apparently in order food contains carbonate of lime only. to preserve the creatures which Animal bile contaios soda, which inbabit this element, its specific is an alkali, and therefore combines gravity no longer increases by the with the only substances taken into further diminution of its tempera- the stomach and renders them ture when the whole mass arrives soluble. at about 42 degrees of Fahren. To the principle of caloric, heit, and the circulation of which metals owe iheir 'malleability and we have been speaking entirely ductility, for in very intense artificeases. Though fresh water freezes cial colds the most ductile metals, when reduced to the temperature such as gold, silver, and lead, of 32 degrees, sea water does not lose their malleability and become freeze till cooled down to about 28 brittle. To shew likewise with degrees, which may have been what inconvenience a small deviadesigned in order to keep the tion from the order of nature would ocean open at all seasons. If snow be attended, it may be remarked, be placed before a fire, it will re- that caloric is one of the weakest ceive no increase of temperature of all known affinities; and it is till the whole of it is melted, though owing to this circumstance that it bas an accession of caloric, which organized bodies liave no difficulty is necessary to give it fluidity: if in separating a sufficient portion - this were not the case, whenever the from ihe substances around them, atmosphere becomes warmer than and securing to themselves the 32 degrees, the ice and snow would quantity necessary for their wants.' be melted in an instant, and all I cannot conclude this paper cold countries would be subject to without observing, that the simple dreadful inundations.
or elementary bodies of which the A confined body of air being a world is formed, and which give non-conductor of caloric, the ad- rise to such an infinite variety of vantage of snow, as a covering for objects around us, are very few the earth in winter, is owing to its in number; and if we reflect on being so lightly spread as 10 hold the indestructibility of matter, and an abundance of air within its in- ils perpetual changes into new and terstices, and to preserve the warmth endless combinations, we canoot of the vegetable world.
but admire the beauty and economy There are many striking facts re- of nature, and adore the wisdom lating to the earth, alkalies, and me- as well as the power of the Creator. tals, a few of which I shall mention.
which the strictest sincerity cannot To the Editor of the Christian Observer. fully approve. That such'artifices THERE are few documents more have been sometimes employedinteresting to a pious and benevo- not indeed, that ever I heard, in the lent mind than the Reports of the leading religious charities, but in numerous religious and charitable some other eleemosynary institusocieties which add lustre to this age tions—the disclosures which have and country. The inode of draw- been made to Parliament on the subing up these Reports, in the case of ject of charitable funds, especially the principal societies is in general those for education, too lamentably well adapted to the object in view; prove. Carefully avoiding these but instances sometimes occur, moral blemishes, a Report should be especially in provincial institutions, drawn up with Christian frankness ; in which these useful records lose it should lay no traps for false inmuch of their interest and value ferences : il may indeed, like a wise by an unbappy method of commu- and prudent man in the exercise of nicating the information they con
a sound discretion, pass lightly over tain. As this class of compositions or wholly omit some circuinstances is at present very numerous, scarce. which a fool or madman . would ly any town or village in the heedlessly and injuriously publish, country being destitute of one or but it must not garble statements more societies whose proceedings or misrepresent facts. I have been are annually reported to the mein- more than once pained at this sort bers, and in many instances printed of duplicity in the statements of for their accommodation, and with Charity Schools; when, after dia view to extend the interests of viding the expenditure by the numthe institution, it may not be a ber of the children mentioned in superfluous task to submit a few theReport as being "on the books," hints respecting the qualities which or which the school is “intended ought to characterize a Report of to contain," and congratulating the a religious and charitable society. conductors on the very moderate It is not to be expected, nor is it amount of the disbursements for by any means necessary, that every each child, I have unexpectedly agent of a benevolent institution discovered that only two-thirds should be able to detail its proceed- perbaps, or not so many, of the ings in a scholar-like and classical number of children insinuated, manner; but there are defects not if not expressed, have actually of a literary kind, which it is in the received the benefits of the institupower of every person to avoid, tion during the year, and that conand excellencies which it requires sequently the actual expense per no great degree of facility in com- head had been considerably more position to attain.
than the conductors intimated to In the first place, then, the Report their constituents and the public. of a charitable institution shoplu
“ Shall a
man lie for God ?" is a be characterized by a strict ad- question which forcibly applies to herence to truth ; and this not all cases of this sort, and wbich in the mere letter of its narration deserves the diligent consideration only, but in its general spirit and of every person who wishes to be tendency. There · should be no an Israelite indeed, in whom there trick ; no subterfuge ; no half- is no guile." However lightly some statements conveying an impression casuists think of such artifices in which the whole history of the electioneering or parliamentary taccase does not warrant; no attempt tics, they are wholly incompatible to conceal any unpopular but ne- with the ingenuousness of the cessary article of expenditure under Christain character. plausible items; in short, nothing The next property which should