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The Recorder stated, that he was de cidedly of opinion that the existing mar. riage was valid to all purposes whatever; but in order to satisfy the anxiety of the parties, his lordship directed the license to issue, specially reciting the facts of the case, and requiring a specification that the marriage is contracted solely in order to remove any doubts as to the validity of that formerly contracted.
Sir T. S. Raffles some time since sent to England several skeletons of animals from Sumatra; among which is one of the Dugong. This creature grazes, as it were, at the bottom of the sea: it is, however, without legs, and is very
much of the figure of a whale. The position and structure of its mouth enable it to browse upon the fuci and submarine alge, and the whole structure of the masticating and digestive organs shews it to be truly herbivorous. It never visits land or fresh water, but lives in shallow inlets, where the sea is two or three fathoms deep. Its usual length is eight or nine feet. The whole adjustment of its parts is singularly adapted to its peculiar habits; and furnishes a new instance to the many on record of the wisdom of God in the works of creation.
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Sketches of 100 Sermons, preached to congregations in various parts of the United Kingdom, and on the European Continent; furnished by their respective Authors. vol. II. 12mo. 4s.
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CHURCH MISSIONARY SOCIETY.
(Concluded from p. 123.)
THE Madras and South India Mission next claims our attention.
At the opening of the new church, at Madras, there were present upwards of one hundred and fifty native child. ren, belonging to the different schools in Madras and its vicinity, under the Society's care: with the schoolmasters, catechists, and readers; and about one hundred and fifty other male and female adults, many of them avowed heathen, also attended. This church was erected by the liberality of Government, for the accommodation of the Native Protestant Christians of the Mission. A piece of ground for a burial place, was also granted. Mr. Barenbruck has begun to preach in Tamul. Mrs. Barenbruck has opened a girls' school. A Bible Society and School-book Society had been formed at Madras. The tracts printed at this station, have found a rapid circulation, in Madras and at the different provincial Missions.
The Committee, in entering on the account of the schools connected with this station, announce the death of the valued Superintendant, the Rev. Mr. Schnarre; who was removed, in the midst of his career of usefulness, by a sudden and violent disorder.-In the Seminary for preparing Schoolmasters, there were, at the time of Mr. Schnarrè's last report, eleven youths; besides five Christian and ten heathen boys, The number of children in the schools was 1627. Mr. Schnarrè had composed, during his residence at Tranquebar, a number of sermons in the Tamul language, of which a very high character is given; and it is thought they will prove a valuable help to his fellow-missionaries.
In the last Report it was stated, that, at Midsummer 1819, there were eight schools, containing four hundred and seventy-one scholars. The number of schools has been increased to eleven, but without a corresponding increase of children; the cholera having carried off some, and deterre l others from attend. ing.
The circulation of books and traets
has been considerable, and has been attended with beneficial effects. In nine. months, 1670 had been distributed, at the expense of the Society; the greater part of them were Tamul tracts, with Testaments and separate books of Scripture in that language. Tamul Testa, ments are much in demand. The supply having been exhausted, several heathens and others were anxiously waiting a fresh arrival.
At the three stations, which at present form the Society's Mission in Travancore-Cotym, Cochin, and Allepie~ the Corresponding Committee report, that there is a steady progress, through the Divine blessing, toward the accomplishment of its designs.
For the more methodical cultivation of the wide field of labour opening before the missionaries resident at Cotym, they have agreed to make a three-fold division of their work: Mr. Bailey devotes his time chiefly to the, clergy; Mr. Fenn to the college; and Mr. Baker to the schools. The work of trauslations proceeds with spirit and effect.
In the college the number of students is forty-two; of whom, twenty one have passed through the five initiatory ordinations. Their improvement has been tolerably good. The establishment of parochial schools to be attached to every church under the jurisdiction of the Syrian Metran, has long beeu ardently desired by the Metian and by the Missionaries; and was early contemplated by Colonel Munro, in his plans for the improvement of the moral and religious condition of the people. It was in every point of view desirable, that the expense of these schools should be borne by the churches themselves, wherever sufficient local resources existed and several schools have been recently established ou that footing.
In the course of the year, the Missionaries have visited Cochin, with as much regularity as they were able, for the purpose of performing Divine Service to the European inhabitants of that place.
The opening of the church at Allepie, was mentioned in the last Report. It is a substantial building, and will accommodate from 700 to 800 persons. The service was, at first, performed both in English and Malayalim at the date of
the last advices, Mr. Norton was about to add a service in Portuguese. The English congregation consisted of about forty persons; and the Native of about one hundred, of all ages, Syrians, converts from the Romish Church, and catechumens. Many persons might have been baptized; but Mr. Norton looks for sincere and duly informed candidates for that sacred ordinance. Mr. Norton has prepared several tracts, and wishes much for a printing-press. The New Testament and tracts have been extensively circulated. Tamul tracts are in great demand.
The extent of the Society's exertions in the south of India, and the compa rative expense of the different parts of the mission, may be ascertained from an estimate of the expenditure of the cur rent year. The calculation is made in Madras rupees, (nine of which are equal to a pound sterling and a few pence over,) and is as follows:-Madras, 7115; Tranquebar, $567; Tinnevelly, 4937; Travancore, 14,787; Tellicherry, 420; Printing Department, 840; Secretary's Office, 420: making a total of 32,086 Madras rupees (somewhat more than 36001.) for the ordinary expenditure, The extraordinary expenditure of the year is calculated at 5250 rupees for the erection of the seminary at Madras, and the same sum for the payment of the premises purchased for the Tinnevelly Mission; making an entire total of 42,586 Madras rupees, or about 48007.
The Bombay and Western India Mission is too much in its infancy to furnish any details of extensive importance.
On quitting the government of Ceylon, Sir Robert Brownrigg bore strong testimony to the prudence with which the Society's concerns had been conducted at that difficult station. His excellency remarked:
"The whole island is now in a state of tranquillity, most favourable to the cultivation and improvement of the human mind. I cannot doubt that, under the guidance of Providence, the progress of Christianity will be general, if the zeal for propagating the knowledge of our redemption, among those who are ignorant of a Redeemer, be, tempered with such a sound discretion as has been exhibited already by one of your mission in the centre of a heathen people. It is my sincere wish that you may all follow that example; and that your success may justify my partial feel
ings of regard for the Missionaries of the Established Church."-The Archdeacon of Colombo, to whom the Society is under great obligations for his uniform kindness to its missionaries, having stated his want of means to publish the Liturgy and suitable Tracts in the native languages, the Committee placed the sum of 2001. at his disposal, in furtherance of this object. An extract from the Archdeacon's letter will shew the seasonableness of this aid:-" Some of the Homilies," he remarks," printed in Cingalese, would be very useful to those who could read with facility. I am now printing 1000 copies of Sellon's Abridgment of the Scriptures in Cingalese; but what are they among so many? Why should not the Tract Society assign some money to our disposal and discretion, in printing Tracts in Cingalese and Malabar? I have no funds for accomplishing a hundredth part of what is requisite. We have just finished printing 1000 copies in quarto, of the Book of Common Prayer in Cingalese, at the expense of the Society for promoting Christian Knowledge: but it is a work by no means adequate to the demand; and I hope that the Society will give us a large edition in octavo."-An application from the Missionaries, of a somewhat similar nature, has met with a ready compli ance on the part of the Committee.
Many particulars are given by the Missionaries of the state of the Natives, which forcibly urge the duty of persevering exertions to liberate them from the bondage of their superstitions. Oue of them writes:
"You will meet, every day, with numbers who bear about them the badges of their slavery and superstition. A piece of thread tied round the arm is their preservative from disease; or a ring of iron their protection from evil spirits, who, they suppose, have a peculiar dread of this metal: others have á small brass tube, containing some sort of medicine, fastened in a band round the waist; which they expect will act as a spell, and remove the most obstinate malady. Their whole religion embraces only two objects deliverance from temporal evils, and security of temporal prosperity. To ensure deliverance, they have recourse to the means already mentioned: to obtain security, they make vows and oblations. Thus, previous to the time of harvest, while the paddy (or rice-crop) is in blossom, they form long bands with the leaves of the cocoa
nut tree, and with these they surround a portion of the field. In the centre of this circle, a lamp is set up, filled with the expressed oil of a single cocoa-nut. At night, this is lighted; and an assurance given to persons called Cappoowah, that, when the crop is gathered in, a portion shall be given away, in the name of the god of Kattnagamme; trusting that, in consequence of this vow, they shall be effectually preserved from blight or mildew. Should this, however, not be the case, the priest has always a ready excuse, and pretends that there was some mistake in the performance of the ceremony: so the delusion still succeeds. Nor is this custom by any means partial. it is adopted by every landholder around us, from the highest to the lowest."
Of some favourable circumstances with respect to the Natives, the Missionaries thus speak :
"The most hopeful of all the natives are the children and labourers-persons who have no expectation of rising either by interest or merit. Kindness shewn to them seems to encourage confidence and engage affection, without exciting pride and inflaming worldly ambition. It is an advantage to us, at Baddagamme, that the natives are not composed of persons professing different religions. We have no Mohammedans, norHindoos, nor Roman Catholics. In general, though they are nominal Christians, having been left without instruction for so long a period, they might more properly be called Budhists. They have no particular prejudice, however, in favour of the religion of their forefathers, but are well inclined to listen to the instruction of missionaries. Some regard is now paid to the Sabbath; and their idolatrous ceremonies are less frequently performed."
On the subject of the Australasia Mission, the Committee congratulate the Society, that there is a prospect of obtaining further assistance to its concerns, in the colony of New South Wales. His excellency Major - General Sir Thomas Brisbane, before proceeding as Governor to New South Wales, assured the Society of his hearty support of its plans in those seas, having made himself well acquainted with Mr. Marsden's proceedings, which he highly ap proved.
Of the influence of the Seminary at Parramatta on the Chiefs of New Zealand, Mr. Marsden writes:
"Much has been done already to. ward the civilization of the natives, in those parts of New Zealand with which we have had any communication; and nothing has tended more to this object, than the chiefs and their sons visiting New South Wales. It is very pleasing to see the sons of the rival chiefs living with me, and forming mutual attachments. I have some very fine youths with me now, who are acquiring the English language very fast. By the sons of chiefs living together in civi lized life, and all receiving equal attention, they will form attachments which will destroy that jealousy whichr has kept their tribes in continual war.” There were, at this time, twenty-five New Zealanders in the seminary. Mayree, a young New Zealander, who was returning to his own country from England, died on the passage, and, as the Com
ittee have reason to believe, in the faith of Christ. During the passage, he was very attentive to the instructions given him, and particularly to the reading of the Scriptures. About half an hour before his death, he requested a person present to pray with him. After the prayer be said, "Now, Mrs. Cowell, you make a write"-prepare a letter. "Tell Mr. Pratt, Mr. and Mrs. Bickersteth, Miss Hart, Mrs. Simpson, and all my England friends, Jesus Christ Mayree's friend! Mayree die and go to heaven!" "In a few minutes," adds the narrator," he expired-leaving the world, I hope, to dwell with Christ
Bay of Islands, New Zealand.
It was stated in the last Report, that Mr. Marsden was about to sail with Mr. Butler and his associates, for New Zealand. A gratifying journal of Mr.
Marsden's intercourse with the natives has been sent home by him-" written," as he says," where I happened to be at the moment, often surrounded by the natives, and in the midst of noise and confusion; for they let me have little rest, night or day, as they would be continually talking on various subjects.” His intercourse with them, in various quarters, and particularly in a journey from the Bay of Islands across the island to its western coast, was highly encouraging.
Mr. Kendall was admitted, while in this country, into holy orders; and furnished materials to Professor Lee for the compilation of a Grammar and Vocabulary of the New Zealand language,
which cannot fail greatly to facilitate the objects of the Society in reference to these extensive islands. Part of the impression has been taken off on very strong paper, for the use of the New Zealand scholars; and the more elementary portions have been printed off on a separate card, for the use of the younger children.
It was noticed in the last Report, that an increase of food had led to a more full development of the native spirit, than when the settlers first arrived; and more turbulence was, in consequence, anticipated. This apprehen. sion appears not to have been ill-founded. It was known that they had been in the savage practice of eating human flesh; but the practice was considered very rare, and rather as connected with the subtle superstition which enthrals their minds, than as a sensual indulgence. Instances, however, of this horrible custom have latterly been more open and frequent. Several are mentioned in the journals of the settlers. The warlike spirit of the natives occasions great difficulties to the missionaries.
It has been wisely made a fundamental regulation of the Society, that no Implements of war shall be on any account employed as articles of barter in carrying on traffic for necessaries with the natives.
Mr. Marsden, a few days before he left New Zealand, drew up a number of queries addressed to the settlers who had then lived about five years among the natives, with the view of ascertaining the degree of influence on the people which had attended their residence among them. The answers to these queries satisfactorily shew, that under the peculiar circumstances and character of the natives, important prepara. tory progress has been made; and, taken in connexion with the advances which have been made in fixing the language and in compiling of elementary books, they hold out very considerable encouragement to look for the blessing of God on that plain and af. fectionate declaration of the Gospel among these islanders for which they seem now to be prepared.
It was intimated in the last Report, that the Committee were taking measures to extend the benefit of education among the West India Islands. With this view, they have agreed with Mr. Dawes, of
Antigua, that he shall devote himself to the establishment and superintendence of schools, on the National plan, in connexion with this Society, in those islands where it may be found practicable and expedient. The Society's publications have been circulated, as opportunities have offered, in various islands; and the Committee are encouraged to look forward to an increase of their means of usefulness in the West Indies, from a voluntary co-operation offered to the Society from the islauds of St. Christopher and Nevis. Mr. Thwaites's journal shews that the schools in Antigua are gradually working a beneficial change among the slaves and their children
A commodious school-room has been erected in Barbadoes: there were 160 scholars ou the list, and many applications were made for admission. The rector of the parish, and other clergymen and gentlemen, state, that there is "considerable improvement in the discipline, readiness, and answers of the children."
Mr. Hodgson thus continues his narrative: We proceeded through the woods, along an Indian path, till evening, when we reached the dwelling of a half-breed. Choctaw, whose wife was a Chickasaw, and whose hut was on the frontier of the two nations. We found him sitting before the door, watching the gambols of fifty or sixty of his horses, which were frolicking before him; and of more than 200 very fine cattle, which at sunset were coming up as usual, of their own accord, from different parts of the surrounding forest, where they have a. boundless and luxuriant range. The whole scene reminded me strongly of pastoral and patriarchal times. He had chosen this situation, he said, for its retirement (in some directions he had no neighbours for fifty or a hundred miles), and because it afforded him excellent pasturae and water for his cattle: he added, that occupation would give him and his family a title to it as long as they
He told me, that great changes had taken place among the Indians, even in his time; that in many tribes, when he was young, the children, as soon as they rose, were made to plunge in the water, and swim, in the coldest weather; and