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and while, as the philosopher; he could' application of the word " instru: discern, and discern truly, between the ment" equally to the book and to sterling and the counterfeit in Christi-' the preacher. But they are not inanity, still it was as the humble and de.
struments in the same sense. If the voted pastor that Christianity was made,
man is considered as an instrument, or Christianity was multiplied, in his
it is only in a secondary sense : hands." pp. 318, 319.
he is the channel through which We are not altogether satisfied the “ water of life" is poured- the with the wording of this state. arm by which the mighty engine is · ment. Admitting fully to the author set in motion-the voice by which the inefficacy, as to conversion, of utterance is given to the “ word of mere learning, we would guard truth.” And the Spirit, though He against any language which has even coutine himself to the same pri. the appearance of assuming the mary instrument, the word of God, necessary efficacy of real piety, in the work of man's conversion, According to his own illustration, yet sometimes does employ, as sethe power to “stamp" is not in the condary instruments in this work, land of the minister, be be who or those whom perhaps we should what he may. It is the exclusive least expect Him to employ-peroffice of the Holy Spirit. But, if so, sons who, though they know the He may work by what instrument he truth, have not themselves really will. Nor can we doubt, with some experienced its renovating power. examples before us which readily Let us not, however, be inispresent themselves to our memories, taken. It is not our intention, in that it often does please Him to what we have said, to convey the work by the instrumentality of men idea that Dr. Chalmers would not who are themselves very defective agree with us in this point; or that in personal piety; 10 use them as he is disposed to attach 10 mere the “ rod of his power," in smit. human instrumentality any undue ing ihe conscience; or as the "staff" influence ; or ihat he would either of his power in guiding, sustaining, question the impossibility of the and controlling the beart. And a mere speculative believer bringing statement, therefore, which would converts to God, or assert ihat seem to imply that only the real every true believer would necessariconvert can be the instruinent of ly become a successful preacher of conversion, would be, in our judge the Gospel. We are only desirous ment, pot merely to mistale the of guarding against the impression fact, but to undervalue the efficacy to which the larguage employed in of scriptural truth, when enforced the above passage, if unexplained, on the heart by the Holy Spirit. might undesignedly lead, As to the facts of the case, nothing. As to the question, whether a can be more evident than that bad greater, infinitely greater, efficacy is men, who themselves held the truth not to be anticipated from the lain unrighteousness, have sometimes bours of converted thau of uncon. been the media by which that truth, verted individuals, it can scarcely so inoperative in their own case, become a maller of discussion. In has been efficaciously conveyed 10 the first place, few unconverted inthe mind of others. And as to dividuals will be found to preach the Scriptures, it is to be remem- the truth at all. In the next place, bered, ihat they are instruments where doctrinally correct, a want of whose value and efficacy is far from earnestness and feeling will ordina: depending on the buman band by rily characterize their labours, and wbich they are wielded.-A part diffuse itself, as by sympathy, over of the confusion which is apt to their hearers. cling to this subject, arises, we Nor is Ibis all. The lives of such conceive, from the indiscriminate preachers will, generally speaking,
tend to neutralize or vitiate their of certain other of its ministers. In reasonings. And still further, it is other words, it may appland the talent certainly only to the honest, simple, by which Christianity is estimated, hat believing minister of the word, to disconrage the talent by which Chris. the preacher, devoutly seeking the tianity is made. And thus while it conassistance of the Holy Spirit, that tinues to be graced by the literature and
accomplishment of its members, may it any promise of sech assistance is
come to be reduced into a kind of bar. made; and it is therefore on his ren and useless inefficiency as to the ministry alone it can be expected great practical purposes for which it ordinarily to fail. The success of was ordained.” pp. 320, 321. a bypocritical ministry is an exception, not a rule. The success of the which Dr. Chalmers meets the ob,
The following passages also, in true prophet is the rule, not the exception. If, therefore, the query
jections against “ quackery" and be proposed, whether more is to be
empiricism” in religion, cannot hoped from learned indifference or fail to be gratifying to our readers. unlettered piety in a minister, we “Now, this parallel between physic can have no more hesitation in de and theology does not hold; nor is the ciding for the latter than we should power of working a given effect on the in preferring the fisherinen of Ga, corporeal system arrived at by the same lilee to the council of Trent. In steps, with the power of working a given
effect on the moral or spiritual system. tbis view, we give our hearty con
To be a healing operator upon the body, çurrence to the following important
one must be acquainted with the mani. passage in the pamphlet before us,
fold variety of effects which the agents “ It is here that churches, under the and applications innumerable of matter domination of a worldly and unsanctified have upon the maladies, equally innume. priesthood, are apt to go astray. They rable, to which the body is exposed. To confide the cause wherewith they are be a healing operator upon the soul entrusted to the merely intellectual class there is one great application revealed of labonrers; and they have overlooked, to us in Scripture, whicu, in every in. or rather bave violently and impetnously stance where it does take effect, acts as Tesisted, the operative class of labour. an unfailing specific for all its moral dis. ers. They conceive that all is to be orders. In the former profession, every done by regulation, and that notbivg, addition of knowledge is an addition of but what is mischievous, is to be done power; and the best guarantees for an by impulse. Their measures are gene. effectual exercise of the art medical are rally all of a sedative, and few or none of the science, and study, and experience, them of a stimulating tendency. Their of a finished education. In the latter chief concern is to repress the prurien profession, these are useful too, for esti. cies of religious zeal, and not to excite mating the effect that has been made or foster the zeal itself. By this process upon the character, but not indispensathey may deliver their establishment of ble for working that effect. That mighty all extravagancies, so as that we shall no truth, the belief of which is the power longer bebold, within its limits, any of God, and the wisdom of God, unto laugbable or offensive caricature of salvation may be deposited by one Christianity. But who does not see that, man in the heart of another, without the by this process, they may also deliver aid of any scholastic art or scholastic the establishment of Christianity altoge- preparation. It is too simple to be illusther; and that all our exhibitions of ge. trated hy human talent ; and the mode of boine goodness maybe inade to disappear its conveyance from one bosom to aoo. under the same withering influence ther depends on certain influences which which deadens the excrescencies that are as much beyond the reach of a phioccasionally spring from it? It is quite losopher as of a peasant, and as much a possible thing for the same church to within the reach of a peasant as of a phihave a proud complacency in the lore, losopher. Grant that the one has just as and argument, and professional science, much of personal Christianity, and as of certain of its miuisiers; and, along much of devotedness in the cause of hu, with this, to have a proud contempt for man souls, and as much of the spirit of The pious earnestness, and pious activity, believing intercession with God, in be.
balf of those among whom he is labdar- labours to his skill in logic, acquired ing;-and then is hie in possession of just in the schools of Oxford ; and ihe #powerful instruments as the other, for most successful missionaries have bringing them ender tlie dominion of the generally been men of respect trath, as it is in Jesus," pp. 326, 327. " And it is the same with a Christian however, be admitted, that where
able literary attainments. It must, effect. He who can best work it on ano. tber's mind is a Christian himself. It is
men of letters have thus trithe sympathy of his kindred feelings umphed over the vices and preit is the observation of his actual faith, judices of their hearers, it has and of its bright and beautiful influen: been when their love of souls ha's ces upon his own character-it is the induced ihem to descend from thai winning representation of a doctrine higher level in society to which theit that may be read a thousand times over, circumstances or education liad withont effect, in the written Epistles of raised ther, to the lower level of the New Testament, but which is armed those whom they were desirous to with a new power to engage and soften the heart of an inquirer, when he sees it instruct. And till this is tlie case exemplified in the person of that believer till the minister is able so får to di who is a living epistle of Christ Jesne vest himself of the fastidiousness of it is the melting tenderness by which he a refined education and taste as to presses home the overtures of the Gospel converse much with the poor, to on his fellow.sinners, and, above all, mingle with them in the ordinary the efficacy of his prayers for grace to scenes of life, to enter into their thin and grace to enlighten them; these cabins, to see them as it were in are what may accoinplisla a man who is their every-day artire, and to let unlettered in all but his Bible, to be a them witness his religion, not in disfar more efficient Christianiser than the most profound or elaborate theologian; course only, but in action; notwith. these are what essentially constitute standing all bis talents and acquirethat leaven by which either with or with- ments, he will stand lower in the out philosophy, a fermenting process scale of efficient instructors than for the growth and the diffusion is made the pious, though comparatively un, to spread far and wide among our popu• lettered, man, who is thus assoJation." Pp. 328, 329.
ciated with the poor, who does When it is affirmed, in the latter tread the same path of duty with part of the first of these quotations them, who is exercised by the same ihat the unlettered inan is " in pos trials, and who displays to their daily session of just as powerful instru- observation his superiority to the ments" as the lettered individual for very temptations by which they the instruction of others, supposing theinselves are overcome. their moral state to be the same, Without, however, dwelling lonthe affirmation must be taken, we ger upon these minuter parts of ibe think, with considerable limitation, subject, we may now, we think, We cannot consent so to depreciate confidently call upon our readers letters as to imagine that, cæteris to put their seal to the testimony of paribus, the habits of investigation Dr. Chalmers respecting the imand reasoning and public speak- policy of ministers refusing to dvait ing, the taste which seizes on the themselves of the agency of those finest images and expressions of lay members of their dock upon Scripture, the power of clearly whose piety, good sense, and scripe conveying what is strongly felt, tural intelligence, they are able to
tbrown away upon an au: rely. We have heard considerable dience however coarse or uredu- clamour against the plans of the cated, Religion is, we imagine, al author, founded upon this very ways a gainer by such auxiliaries, circumstance. * What it is asked), wildess Dr. Chalmers bimself. are we to cast upon the unlettered John Wesley auttibuted much of part of our congregation the imthe success of his own wriinisterial portapt office of moulding the
minds of the young ?"- We answer, ployment of laymen only in this without hesitation, Yes; you must particular direction, where their employ the best instruments you can industry may be most usefully and find; and if, with discretion and a efficiently exercised, and where knowledge of Scripture, they com. their zeal and piety may produce bine, the essential quality of real the most advantageous results 'on piety, be thankful that you are fa-' the increase of the church, and the voured with such fellow-labourers. peace and prosperity of the nation. And we would moreover remind The reformation which we could some of these objectors, thal they wish to see accomplished in the views themselves, with all their cavils of large numbers of persons.of influagainst the system of Dr. Chalmers, ence as to this point, is, that they are pursuing the same system under should, on the one hand, feel less far more disadvantageous circumn- hesitation as to the employment of stances; for, we would ask, who such agents; and that, on the other, are ibe individuals set over the mass they should take infinitely more care of the National Schools, and other respecting their moral and religious large public establishments for the character. The larger employpoor in this country? And to whom ment of such inferior agency is, is an unlimited right conceded, in in fact, in our minds, one of the these institutions, of moulding the grand desiderata of the day. We minds of the young! Are not the in- are deeply concerned to see many dividuals entrusted, generallyspeak- individuals of talents and piety iny, laymen? are they not unleitered sinking under burdens which, if laymen? and are they not laymen, they were properly enlightened on in many instances, taken almost at this point, ihey would feel it iheir random from the niass of society; duty to cast upon others. Their and, in some cases, chosen with lit- error is partly ihe result of prejutle other recommendation, perhaps, dice; but it is, io some instances for the trade of tuition than that they we apprebend, the result, in part bave been bankrupts in some other at least, of personal sanity. There Are they not sometimes retain. is a prodigious disposition in all of ed as masters, on account of their us to think that no man can do any techtical skill in teaching and or. thing so well as ourselves. With ganization, when their moral habits this delusive persuasion in his heart, are of more than a doubiful com- a young minister. enters upon his plexion? We ourselves have had field of action. It is bis governing the opportunity of observing the priviciple, that no society is to prevalence of immoral babits, even exist of which he is not to be trea. among those who are themselves surer, secretary, or patron; no candidates for the office of teach- school to which he does not dictate ers. And we could point to an in- every rule and lesson; that none dividual removed from one school on shall meet unless he preside over the a charge of drunkenness, who was meeting; that his parish, in fact, shall inmediately, and with a full con- be tethered by a set of ropes which sciousness of his habits, employed be holds in his bauds. "Now all in the superintendance of a neigh this would be very well if only, by bouring school. We advert to some new constitution of his pature, these facts, not from any disposition he could, like " Michael Scott," be to plunge into controversy, but every wbere at one moment, and because we wish to convince the do the work of a regiment with one most sceptical of our readers, that pair of hands, and look as many if the young are to be taught, they ways as Argus with one pair of must be instructed by lay teachers ; eyes ; and had he only, like "Sweand that it is absurd and unjust to dish Charles," "a frame of adamaut become squeamish as to the eme and heart of fire.” But we correot
CHRIST. ORSERV, No. 242. Q
ourselves : even if he were thus usefulness, pereeives at once his marvellously gifted, his congrega- own incompetence to occupy every tion-ınight contain individuals filler part of it; and, without shrinking ihan-hinself for many of the offices from personal exertion, and with a be thinks proper io undertake. hearty disposition to turn every But the fact is, that, though his moment to the best account, feels youth and zeal sustain him for a it his duty to be labouring rather lille moment under his Atlantean in the gross than in tbe detailduties, his nerves and frame soou rather in creating agents around give way. The afflictions of life, bim, than in discharging the duties perhaps, press upon him. Its of agency-raiber in directing and cures are sure to follow him. The controlling the energies of bis failure of some favourite scheme, prople, than in slipping into their perhaps, discourages bim. His harness. In the first instance, invery piety languishes from the want deed, his zeal may inake less show, of reasonable repose, and solitary and attract fewer admirers: be prayer, and quiet communing will may seem to be stalionary when his heari, and with his God. And, others are advancing. No grand alier a few tumuliuous years, he is institutions may arise at once, like fouod sinking into premature de- an exhalation, under the touch of his erepilude, old in middle age, and wand; but, after a țime, his enginery exhibiting all the indications of a will begin to wosk; and, should be man who bas lived too fast for the fall, much as he will be mourned powers of his own nalure. Nor is it over by ibe children of his hand, the only mischief, or the worst in they will not mourn as men without such a case, that the individual hope. Being dead, be will yet live himself thus deeply suffers. All and speak, in the energies of those around him feeline ill effects of his formed under his fostering care. feverisli industry and officiousness. And as the influence of the moon His people have leaned so much on the titles is greatest after the upon him, hase been accustomed full, it may be, perhaps, when his so exclusively to trust to his super countenance no longer beams upon intendance and vigilance, ihat there his people that his influence is ibe are no working bees to be found in strongest, and the converts 10 bis the bive: so that, when he falls, ministry the most numerous. It is all falls with him. His people are not possible for us 10 give more children when they should be men. space or time to this topic. But And when the sulitary lamp at the ne consider it as one of high imparsonage is extinguished, the portance; and we shall be amply whole place is left in perfect dark. repaid for our labours if we learn ness. This, we are persuaded, is that any of those admirable men one of the grand causes to which whom we have the pain to see tossa we are to attribute the sudden ex- ing in the whirlpools of perpetual tinction of institutions, and the occupation is their foreheads disappearance of all moral improve. ridged and furrowed" with peedless ments in particular churches or perplexities - should be led by neighbourhoods, when a leading in. These bumble observations to set dividual pays the debt of nature. theinselves 10 consider whether The interests of humanity have they bave not bitherto mistaken been bouod up in his single bosom, their proper sphere and occupatiou, and the blow which struck that and whether, instead of in future was fatal to the community. How acting the distinct parts of general, widely different from this case is soldier, and trumpeter, of the same that of an individual who, looking, ecclesiastical regiment, they may with modesty and enlargement of not be better employed in drilling miud, over the vast field of moral the awkward soldiery around them,